토마스 콜의 작품세계 [1840~1848]- Thomas Cole


 American Painter. Hudson River School. Romanticism

  Bolton, Lancashire, United Kingdom ~1848.Catskill, New York,



토마스 콜  1845


콜은 1829~32, 1841~42년을 외국(주로 이탈리아)에서 보냈으며 피렌체에서는

미국의 조각가인 호레이쇼 그리노와 함께 지냈다. 미국으로 돌아온 그는

〈제국의 행로 The Course of Empire〉(1836)라는 제목으로 5점의 거대한 연작

 그림을 그렸다. 이 그림들은 볼네의 〈몰락, 또는 제국의 혁명에 관한 명상

 Ruines, ou méditations sur les révolutions des empires〉(1791)을 바탕으로

 인류의 진보를 우의적으로 그린 것이다.

〈인생 여정 The Voyage of Life〉(1839 시작)이라는 제목의 2번째 연작은 어린시절부터

노년에 이르는 인생의 여로를 4개의 상징적 장면으로 묘사하고 있다.

 콜은 죽기 직전에 종교적 성격의 〈세계의 십자가 The Cross of the World〉라는

 또 다른 연작을 그리기 시작했다


 Cross at Sunset 1848 , oil on canvas, 48 × 32 cm,

Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum Madrid, Spain


Gothic Ruins at Sunset. 1844-1848 .

oil on canvas. 81.28 X  121.96 cm. Private Collection


Cabin in the Woods, North Conway, New Hampshire.  1848. oil on canvas. 99.06 X 76.2 cm.

Hunter Museum of American Art  (United States - Chattanooga, Tennessee)


Brock`s-Monument. Date unknown. oil on canvas. 113.03 X 75.57 cm.

Private Collection


Catskill Mountain House.  Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 38.1 X 58.42 cm. Private Collection


Catskill Mountains (sketch).  Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 13.81 X 17.78 cm. Private Collection 


Italian Landscape​. Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 14.29 X 22.86 cm. Private Collection


Landscape  (also known as American Lake in Summer). Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 19.37 X 26.67 cm. Private Collection


Landscape Sketch. Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 15.24 X 22.86 cm. Private Collection


On the Mountaintop. Date unknown .

oil on board. 18.89 X 24.13 cm. Private Collection


Summer Twilight​. Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 58.42 X 48.9 cm. Private Collection


View of Boston. Date unknown . oil on canvas. Private Collection


Indians Viewing Landscape. Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 18.42 X 15.24 cm. Private Collection


Peace at Sunset (Evening in the White Mountains). Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 81.85 x 68.9 cm


Study for The Pilgrim of the Cross at the End of His Journey. Date unknown .

oil on canvas. sketch and study. National Museum of American Art


The Vesper Hymn. Date unknown . oil on canvas. 45.4 x 53.7 cm


View of Boston. Date unknown .

oil on canvas. 86.4 X  119.7 cm. Private Collection


The Cascatelli, Tivoli, Looking Towards Rome (View of Rome from Tivoli),

Date unknown . oil on canvas.


Landscape Composition Italian Scenery. 1831~1832.

​oil on canvas. 156.2 X 103.4 cm.


Ruined Castle and River. 1832. ​oil on canvas. 53.3 X 64.8 cm.

Brooklyn Museum, New York City, NY, US


Aqueduct near Rome. 1832. oil on canvas. sketch and study


Catskill Scenery. 1833. oil on canvas. Saint Louis Art Museum,

 St. Louis, MO, US


Scene from -Manfred.  1833,  oil on canvas.

Yale University Art Gallery (Yale University), New Haven, CT, US 


Italian Scene Composition,  1833. oil on canvas.

New York Historical Society  (United States - New York, New York)


The Titan's Goblet 1833 , Oil on canvas, 49 x 41 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y. United States Of America


Autumn Twilight View of Copway Peak (Mount Chocorua,

New Hampshire). 1834. oil on panel. 35 x 49.5 cm



Moonlight.  1833-34. oil on canvas.



Summer Twilight. A Recollection of a Scene in New England, 1834. oil on wood.

49.7 x 34.6 cm . New York Historical Society  (United States - New York, New York)



The Angel Appearing to the Shepherds. 1833~1834. oil on canvas. 257.81 x  471.17 cm

Chrysler Museum of Art - Norfolk (Va)  (United States - Norfolk, Virginia)



Autumn Twilight: View of Copway Peak  (also known as Mount

 Chocorua, New Hampshire). 1834. oil on woos. 35 X 49.5 cm.

New York Historical Society  (United States - New York)



The Course of  The Empire - The Pastoral or Arcadian State, 1834. oil on canvas.

New York Historical Society  (United States - New York, New York)



The Course of  The Empire - The Pastoral or Arcadian State, 1834. oil on canvas.

New York Historical Society  (United States - New York, New York)


Self-Portrait. 1836. oil on canvas. 55.9 X 45.7 cm.



Sketch for The Oxbow. 1836. sketch and study. 24.46 X 14.94 cm.

 Private Collection


The Oxbow (the Connecticut River near Northampton). 1836. oil on

 canvas. 130.8 X 193 cm.


Sketch for 'The Oxbow'​. 1836. 

Oil and pencil on composition board.  14.94 X 24.46 cm. Private collection



The Arcadian (The Course of Empire 2 -Pastoral State). 1836.

​oil on canvas. 160.4 x 99.5 cm

New York Historical Society  (United States - New York, New York)



The Arcadian (The Course of Empire 2 -Pastoral State).

1836. ​oil on canvas. 160.4 x 99.5 cm

New York Historical Society  (United States - New York, New York)




The Course of Empire: Desolation 1836 , Oil on canvas . 160.7 X 100 cm.
The New York Historical Society, New York, N.Y, United States Of America
 


The Consummation of the Empire 3.  1836 , Series: The Course
 of EmpireOil on canvas, 130 x 193 cm .
New York Historical Society, New York, N.Y., United States Of America



The Course of the Empire- Destruction, 1836. oil on canvas. Series:
  The Course of Empire. 100.33 X 161.29 cm.  New York Historical Society
 (United States - New York, New York)



View from Mount Holyoke, Northamptom, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm
 (The Oxbow) 1836 , Painting, Oil on canvas, 131 x 193 cm ,
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., United States Of America 



View from Mount Holyoke, Northamptom, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm
 (detail) 1836 , Painting, Oil on canvas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, N.Y., United States Of America 



On Catskill Creek (unfinished?)​. 1836. oil on canvas.  52.39 X 39.85 cm.

Private collection



Romantic Landscape with Ruined Tower.  1832-36 , oil on board.

Albany Institute of History and Art, Albany, NY, US



Sunset of the Arno. 1837. oil on canvas. 130.18 X 81.28 cm.

Private Collection



View of Florence from San Miniato. 1837. oil on canvas.

Cleveland Museum of Art  (United States - Cleveland, Ohio)


View of Mount Etna from Taormina. 1837. oil on canvas.

121.92 x 82.55 cm



View on the Catskill - Early Autumn .1837. oil on canvas. 63 X 30 cm.

Metropolitan Museum of Art - New York, NY  (United States - New York)


The Clove, Catskills
 


View on the Catskill - Early Autumn



Schroon Mountain, Adirondacks . Essex County, New York, after a Storm. 1838 ,
Oil on canvas . 160 X 99 cm. Cleveland Museum of Art
  (United States - Cleveland, Ohio)



Genevieve​. 1838. oil on board 18.4 x 24.1 cm.
Davis Museum and Cultural Center - Wellesley, Massachusetts
  (United States ssachusetts)
 


Italian Coast Scene with Ruined Tower . 1838 .



Sketch for "Dream of Arcadia". 1838. oil on canvas.

Private Collection



Study for Dream of Arcadia. 1838. oil on panel. 22.2 X 36.8 cm.

New York Historical Society  (United States - New York, New York)


Dream of Arcadia.1838. oil on canvas. Denver Art Museum  
(USA - Denver, Colorado)



The Departure.  1838.oil on canvas. 

Corcoran Gallery of Art  (USA - Washington D.C)



The Past. 1838.  oil on canvas.

Mead Art Museum - Amherst, MA  (United States - Amherst, Massachusetts)


The Present. 1838. oil on canvas.

Mead Art Museum - Amherst, MA  (United States - Amherst, Massachusetts)


The Return . 1838. oil on canvas.

Corcoran Gallery of Art  (United States - Washington D.C)


View of the Arno. 1838. oil on canvas. 130.8 X 81.3 cm.

Thyssen-Bornemisza Museum, Madrid, Spain


A View of the Mountain Pass Called the Notch of the White Mountains

 (Crawford Notch). 1839.  Oil on canvas
National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., United States Of America


New England Scenery. 1839. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, US



New England Scenery. 1839. Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, US


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