력사를 찾아서

환기9218해,신시배달5919해 단기 4354해,서기 2021해, 대한민국 102해(나뉨 73해),

신석기시대 - 위키백과/Neolithic - Wikipedia/Neolithic Revolution - Wikipedia

댓글 0

환국시대/고고학

2019. 10. 22.

신석기 시대

위키백과, 우리 모두의 백과사전.

 

인류 역사의 구분



역사 시대

철기 시대

청동기 시대

    동기 시대

 

 

  신석기 시대

중석기 시대






    후기 구석기

 

    중기 구석기

    전기 구석기

  구석기 시대

석기 시대

 

신석기 시대(新石器時代, The Neolithic Age)는 석기 시대 후기로, 돌을 갈아 만든 간석기와 질그릇(토기)을 도구로 사용하여 식량 생산 단계에 이른 시대를 말한다. 인류사회는 구석기시대의 채집 경제로부터 신석기 시대의 생산경제로 발전하는데 이러한 생산 경제로의 전환은 인류 문화사상 하나의 전기를 가져온 사건이다. 때문에 이러한 전환을 신석기 혁명이라고도 한다. 이러한 비약을 가져온 이유의 하나로서 기후의 변화를 들 수가 있는데, 그것은 플라이스토세 빙하기(氷河期)가 끝나고 홀로세에 들어오면서 오늘날과 같은 기후로 변해 농업 생산에 적합한 시기에 돌입했기 때문에 형성된 것이다. 지금까지 알려진 가장 이른 신석기문화는 팔레스티나의 예리코(Jericho)와 이라크의 자르모(Jarmo)이다. 이들 중동의 문화는 석기 시대의 말기인 기원전 9600~9500년 전에 시작되었으며, 홀로세의 아구석기의 시대가 끝나고 따라오는 시대이다.[1]

 

목차

 

토기별 시대구분[편집]

중동과 같은 서남아시아에서 문화는 신석기 시대가 기원전 10000년 전에 시작되었고, 아프리카에서는 기원전 15000년 전에 시작된 것으로 밝혀졌다. 레반트에서는 초기 발전이 있어났고, 그곳에서 동쪽과 서쪽으로 확산되었다.(도기 이전의 신석기 A 그리고 도기 이전의 신석기 B) 신석기 문화는 또한 기원전 8000년 경에 남동 아나톨리아와 북메소포타미아에서도 증명되었다. 중화인민공화국 허베이성 이 현 근처의 《베이푸디 선사유적지》(北福地)에는 약 7000년 전에서 8000년 전 경의 타이항 산맥의 동쪽에 있는 신석기 문화 유적지이며, “츠산 문화”와 “싱롱와 문화”와 동시대의 문화유적이 발견되었다. 이것은 북중국에 있는 문화 사이와의 고고학적인 차이를 메꿔주는 유적이다. 발굴 지역은 전체 1200m2이며, 두 시기로 구성된 유적이 있다.

 

신석기 1기-토기없는 신석기 시대 A (PPNA)[편집]

지금의 팔레스타인 예리코의 레반트 지역에서 신석기 1기(PPNA, Pre-Pottery Neolithic A, 토기없는 신석기 A)이 기원전 9500년에서 9000년경에 시작되었다. 실제 연도는 과학자마다 탄소연대측정 결과가 다르게 나오기 때문에 정확하지는 않다.

 

기원전 1만년을 거슬러 올라가는 터키 동남쪽 괴베클리 테페(Göbekli Tepe)의 초기 사원은 신석기 시대 1 초기의 것으로 추정된다. 이곳은 수렵과 채집을 하는 유목민 부족에 의해 만들어졌으며, 근처의 영구 주거지의 부족으로 입증되었다. 이 사원 유적은 인류가 만든 가장 오래된 사원이다. 적어도 7개의 반석과 110만 평방미터에 이르는 면적에, 동물, 곤충, 새가 조각된 대리석 기둥을 포함하고 있다. 지붕을 떠받치는 기둥을 만들기 위해 수백명의 사람들이 석기를 사용하였다. 신석기 시대 1의 주요한 발전은 실질 농경이었다. 나투프 원신석기 문화에서는 야생 곡물이 수확되었고, 초기의 종자 선택과 파종이 일어났다. 곡물은 갈아서 가루로 만들었다. 소맥, 밀이 재배되었고, 동물들을 가축으로 길렀다.

 

21세기 제리코의 한 주거 유적에서 기원전 9400년을 거슬러 올라가는 무화과가 발견되었다. 그 무화과는 돌연변이에 의한 변종으로 벌레에 의해 수정을 할 수 없으며, 그 나무는 단지 접붙이기에 의해서 번식될 수 있는 것이었다. 이러한 증거는 무화과가 최초로 경작된 작물이며, 농경 기술의 발명품으로 기록할 수 있음을 의미한다. 이러한 것은 최초의 곡물 생산이 시작되기 전 수백년 동안 지속되었다.[2]

 

나투프와 같이 방을 갖춘 집단 주거지에 의한 정착생활이 보다 더 영구적이 되었다. 그러나 이러한 집들은 최초의 진흙 벽돌에 의한 주거였다. 일부일처제되고, 여자들은 가정 내에 아이들을 키웠다. 그 주거지에는 에워싼 석벽이 있었고, 예리코와 같이 돌톱이 있었다. 이 석벽은 주변 부족에 대한 방어와 홍수, 또는 동물들을 가두는 용도로 사용되었다. 또한 곡식과 고기를 저장한 것으로 추측되는 저장고도 있었다.

 

신석기 2기-토기없는 신석기 시대 B (PPNB)[편집]

신석기 2기(PPNB, Pre-Pottery Neolithic B, 토기없는 신석기 B)는 팔레스타인 지역의 예리코에 있었던 레반트에서 기원전 8500년경에 시작되었다. 신석기 1기와 같이 동일한 근거를 가진 시대이다. 그러나 이 용어 구조는 남동 아나톨리아와 중부 아나톨리아의 정착지에는 편리하지 못하다.

 

방 하나 또는 여러 개가 있고, 가족이 함께 살았던 사각형의 진흙 벽돌로 만든 주거지를 가지고 있었다. 무덤 유적은 얼굴 형상을 만들기 위해 진흙으로 반죽을 하고, 망자의 두개골을 보존했던 조상에 대한 제사를 암시하고 있다.

 

신석기 3기-토기 신석기 시대 (PN)[편집]

신석기 3기는 기원전 6500년 경 비옥한 초승달 지대에서 시작되었다. 그 당시에는 토기를 가진 특징적인 《할라프 문화》(Halafian culture)(터키, 시리아, 북메소포타미아)와 《우바이드 문화》(Ubaid culture)(남메소포타미아)가 등장했다. 동기 시대는 기원전 4500년 전에 시작되었고, 청동기 시대는 기원전 3500년 경에 등장하여 신석기 문화를 대체하였다.

 

지역별 시대구분[편집]

비옥한 초승달 지대[편집]

토기없는 신석기 시대 A(PPNA)에 속하는 완전히 발달된 신석기 문화가 기원전 9500년 경에 비옥한 초승달 지대에 등장하였다. “토기없는 신석기 시대 A”(PPNA)인 기원전 9000년 경에는 세계 최초의 도시인 예리코에 있는 레반트에서 등장하였다. 석벽과 대리석벽으로 둘러쌓여있고, 2000명에서 3000명을 수용했으며, 거대한 석탑이 존재하고 있었다. 기원전 6000년 경에는 《할라프 문화》(Halaf culture)가 레바논과 이스라엘팔레스타인시리아아나톨리아 그리고 북메소포타미아 지역에서 등장하였고, 건조한 대지에서 농경생활을 영위하였다.

 

남메소포타미아[편집]

수메르, 엘람과 같은 충적세의 평원, 적은 강수로 인해 관개수로 체계가 필요하게 되었다. 그리하여 기원전 5500년경 우바이드 문화(Ubaid culture)가 등장하였다.

 

아프리카[편집]

아프리카에서 경작을 하거나 소와 같은 가축을 기른 것은 약 15000년 전이다. 아프리카 사람들은 밀과 보리, 콩을 기를 방법을 발견하였으며, 다른 야채나 곡물은 기원 전 1000년경에 발견하였다. 아프리카에서는 수수와 사탕수수는 적어도 5000년 전에 경작되었다. 먹을 것을 생산해 내는 경제는 적도의 북쪽에 사는 아프리카 사람들에 의해서 기원전 6000년에서 기원전 1000년 사이에 확립되었다.

 

유럽[편집]

남동유럽에서 농경 사회가 기원전 7000년 경에 최초로 등장하였다. 그리고 중앙 유럽에는 기원전 5500년에 등장하였다. 이 지역의 가장 초기의 문화 유적지 중에는 테살리아에 있었던 세스클로 문화(Sesklo culture )가 있었고, 이후 발칸 반도로 나아가 크리스(Starčevo-Körös), 리니어밴드케라믹(Linearbandkeramic), 빈카 문화(Vinča)로 확장된다. 문화의 융화과 사람들의 이주를 통해, 신석기 전통은 서쪽과 북쪽으로 확대되어 기원전 4500년 경 북서유럽에 도달한다. 빈카 문화는 가장 초기 단계의 문자 체계인 빈카 부호를 만들어 냈다. 고고학자들이 통상적으로 수메르인의 쐐기문자가 최초의 진짜 문자형태라고 받아들이고 있으며, 빈카 부호는 문자라기 보다는 픽토그램이나 표의문자에 가깝다고 생각한다. 지중해의 고조 섬(Gozo, 몰타 군도 위의 섬)의 거석 시대의 사원 유물단지와 몰타의 나즈드라(Mnajdra) 사원은 거대한 신석기 구조물로 주목할만 한다. 이것들 중 가장 오래된 것은 기원전 3600년 전까지 거슬러 올라간다.

 

아메리카[편집]

메소포타미아에서 경작이나 정착생활과 같은 유사한 행위들이 기원전 4500년 경에 등장하였다. 비록 “고전 이전”(또는 형성기)라는 용어가 중기-후기 신석기 대신에 사용되고, 전기 신석기 대신 “고대 시대”(Archaic Era)를, 그 이전의 시기를 “고대-인디언 시대”라고 사용하기는 하지만, 이러한 문화들은 보통 신석기에 속했다고 하지는 않는다.

 

남아시아/동아시아[편집]

남아시아에서 가장 오래된 신석기 유적은 기원전 7000년경의 《메르가르》(Mehrgarh)이다. 이 유적은 파키스탄 발루키스탄의 카치 평원에 있으며, 농경(과 보리)과 축산(염소)의 증거를 가진 남아시아의 가장 초기 유적 중의 하나이다.

 

한국[편집]

이 부분의 본문은 빗살무늬토기 시대입니다.

이 부분의 본문은 한국의 신석기 시대입니다.

 

사회 구조[편집]

신석기 시대 대부분 사람들은 부족과 씨족으로 구성된 150명에서 2000명 정도 되는 작은 공동체를 이루며 살았다. 대부분의 신석기 사회에서는 계층화가 진행된 과학적은 근거는 거의 찾아볼 수 없다. 사회 계층화는 청동기 시대와 더 밀접하게 연관되어 있다. 후기 신석기의 어떤 사회에서는 고대 하와인들과 같이 폴리네시아 사회와 유사한 복합적으로 계층화된 지도계층을 형성하지만, 대부분의 신석기 사회는 상대적으로 단순하면서 평등하였다. 그러나 신석기 사회는 보통 수렵과 채집 생활을 선생하기 때문에, 구석기보다는 더 계층적인 사회였다. 기원전 8000년경의 동물의 가축화는 급격한 사회적인 불평등을 초래하였다. 가축을 소유한다는 것은 경쟁력을 의미하였고, 부의 불평등을 전승하는 결과를 나타내었다. 대규모의 가축을 소유하게 된 신석기의 목자들은 점차 보다 많은 가축을 소유하게 되었고, 이것이 경제적인 불평등을 더욱 더 심화시켰다.

 

함께 보기[편집]

각주[편집]

  1. 이동 글로벌 세계 대백과사전》〈신석기 문화〔槪說〕

  2. 이동 "Ancient Figs May Be First Cultivated Crops" by Christopher Joyce, NPR.org, last accessed 28 January 2009.

외부 링크[편집]

 

위키미디어 공용에 관련된

미디어 분류가 있습니다.

신석기 시대

출처; https://ko.wikipedia.org/wiki/%EC%8B%A0%EC%84%9D%EA%B8%B0_%EC%8B%9C%EB%8C%80

 

 

Neolithic

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

출처; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic

구글번역을 바탕으로 번역하였음.

 

 

The Stone Age

 before Homo (Pliocene)

Paleolithic

Lower Paleolithic

Early Stone AgeHomoControl of fireStone toolsMiddle Paleolithic

Middle Stone AgeHomo neanderthalensisHomo sapiensRecent African origin of modern humansUpper Paleolithic

Later Stone AgeBehavioral modernity, Atlatl, 

Origin of the domestic dog

Epipalaeolithic
Mesolithic

Microliths, Bow and arrows, CanoeNatufianKhiamianTahunianHeavy NeolithicShepherd NeolithicTrihedral NeolithicPre-Pottery Neolithic

Neolithic

Neolithic Revolution, 

DomesticationPottery NeolithicPottery

 Chalcolithic

 

 

The Neolithic (/ˌnəˈlɪθɪk/ [1] also known as the "New Stone Age"), the final division of the Stone Age, began about 12,000 years ago when the first developments of farming appeared in the Epipalaeolithic Near East, and later in other parts of the world. The division lasted until the transitional period of the Chalcolithic from about 6,500 years ago (4500 BC), marked by the development of metallurgy, leading up to the Bronze Age and Iron Age. In Northern Europe, the Neolithic lasted until about 1700 BC, while in China it extended until 1200 BC. Other parts of the world (including the New World) remained broadly in the Neolithic stage of development until European contact.[2]

The Neolithic comprises a progression of behavioral and cultural characteristics and changes, including the use of wild and domestic crops and of domesticated animals.[a]

The term Neolithic derives from the Greek νέος néos, "new" and λίθος líthos, "stone", literally meaning "New Stone Age". The term was coined by Sir John Lubbock in 1865 as a refinement of the three-age system.[3]

 

신석기시대는 약 12,000년 전 근동에서 중석기시대에 농사의 첫 발전이 나타나면서 시작되었고, 이후 세계 다른 지역에서도 농사의 첫 발전이 시작되었다. 6,500년 전(BC 4500년)부터 과도기인 금석병용시대까지 지속되었고 야금술의 발달로 두드러져 청동기시대와 철기시대로 이어졌다. 북유럽에서는 신석기시대가 약 BC 1,700년까지 지속되었고 중국에서는 BC1,200년까지 연장되었다. 세계의 다른 지역(신대륙포함)은 유럽 접촉전까지 광범위하게 신석기시대 단계에 남아있었다.

신석기시대는 야생과 재배 농작물과 가축의 사용을 포함한 행동과 문화의 특성과 변화의 진전으로 구성된다.

Neolithic이라는 용어는 그리스어 νέος néos "새로운"과 λίθος líthos "돌"에서 유래했는데 문자그대로 "새로운 석기 시대"를 의미한다. 이 용어는 1865년에 존 러벅경이 세 시대  체제의 개량을 위해 만든 말이다.

 

Contents

Origin[edit]

Further information: Center of origin

 

Approximate centers of origin of agriculture in the Neolithic revolutionand its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).[4]

 

 

Following the ASPRO chronology, the Neolithic started in around 10,200 BC in the Levant, arising from the Natufian culture, when pioneering use of wild cereals evolved into early farming. The Natufian period or "proto-Neolithic" lasted from 12,500 to 9,500 BC, and is taken to overlap with the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPNA) of 10,200–8800 BC. As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas (about 10,000 BC) are thought to have forced people to develop farming.

By 10,200–8800 BC farming communities had arisen in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC.

 

ASPRO연대기에 따르면 신석기시대는 선구적인 야생 곡류 사용이 초기 농경으로 발전하는 나투프문화에서 발생한 레반트에서 약 BC 10,200년에 시작되었다.  나투프 시기 또는 원 신석기시대는 BC 12,500년부터 BC 9,500년까지 지속되는데 선- 도자기 신석기시대인 BC 10,200-8800년과  겹친다. 나투프사람들이 음식으로 야생 곡물에 의존하게 되고 정주 형태가 시작되고 영거드라이아스기(약BC 10,000) 기후 변화로 그들이 농경을 발전시키게 된 것으로 생각된다. BC 10,200-8800년에 레반트에 농경 공동체가 생겨나고 소아시아, 북아프리카와 북메소포타미아로 퍼졌다. 메소포타미아는 약 BC 10,000년경 신석기혁명의 가장 초기의 발달 지역이다.

 

Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep and goats. By about 6900–6400 BC, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, and the use of pottery.[b]

 

초기 신석기시대 농경은 야생종이나 재배종 둘다 외알밀, 기장, 스펠트밀을 포함한 좁은 범위의 식물과 개, 양, 염소의 보유로 제한되어 있었다. 약 BC 6900-6400년경에는 소와 돼지를 기르고 영구적이고 또는 계절적인 정착촌이 세워지고 도자기를 사용하였다.

 

Not all of these cultural elements characteristic of the Neolithic appeared everywhere in the same order: the earliest farming societies in the Near East did not use pottery. In other parts of the world, such as Africa, South Asia and Southeast Asia, independent domestication events led to their own regionally distinctive Neolithic cultures, which arose completely independently of those in Europe and Southwest Asia. Early Japanese societies and other East Asian cultures used pottery before developing agriculture.[5][6]

 

신석기시대의 이러한 모든 문화적 요소가 같은 순서로 어디나 나타나지는 않았다. 근동의 초기 농경사회는

도자기를 사용하지 않았다. 아프리카, 남아시아와 동남아시아와 같은 세계의 다른 지역에서는 독립적인 

길들이는 행적이 유럽과 서남아시아와는 완전히 독립적으로 그들만의 지역 특유의 신석기문화로 이어졌다.

초기 일본 사회와 다른 동아시아 문화는 농업을 발전시키기 전에 도자기를 사용하였다.

 

Periods by pottery phase[edit]

 

An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. Neolithic stone artifacts are by definition polished and, except for specialty items, not chipped.

 

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "Neolithic" – news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
 (August 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

In the Middle East, cultures identified as Neolithic began appearing in the 10th millennium BC.[7] Early development occurred in the Levant (e.g., Pre-Pottery Neolithic A and Pre-Pottery Neolithic B) and from there spread eastwards and westwards. Neolithic cultures are also attested in southeastern Anatolia and northern Mesopotamia by around 8000 BC.[citation needed]

 

중동에서 신석기시대로 분류된 문화가 BC 10,000년에 나타나기 시작했다. 초기 발전은 레반트(예, 선-도자기 신석기시대 A와 선-도자기 신석기시대B)에서 일어났고 거기에서 동쪽과 서쪽으로 퍼졌다. 신석기문화는 또한 약 BC 8000년에 아나톨리아 남동부와 메소포타미아 북부에서 증명되었다. 

 

The prehistoric Beifudi site near Yixian in Hebei Province, China, contains relics of a culture contemporaneous with the Cishan and Xinglongwa cultures of about 6000–5000 BC, neolithic cultures east of the Taihang Mountains, filling in an archaeological gap between the two Northern Chinese cultures. The total excavated area is more than 1,200 square yards (1,000 m2; 0.10 ha), and the collection of neolithic findings at the site encompasses two phases.[8]

 

중국 허베이성 이씨안 근처 선사시대 베이푸디 유적은 타이항산 동쪽의 신석기시대 문화인 BC 6000-5000년대 문화인 지샨문화와 씽룽와문화와 동시대문화 유물을 갖고 있는데 중국 북부 두 문화의 고고학적인 틈을 채운다. 총 발굴면적은 1천2백평방야드이상인데 신석기시대 유적의 수집품은 두 단계를 포함한다.

 

Neolithic 1 – Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA)[edit]

Main article: Pre-Pottery Neolithic A

The Neolithic 1 (PPNA) period began roughly around 10,000 BC in the Levant.[7] A temple area in southeastern Turkey at Göbekli Tepe, dated to around 9500 BC, may be regarded as the beginning of the period. This site was developed by nomadic hunter-gatherer tribes, as evidenced by the lack of permanent housing in the vicinity, and may be the oldest known human-made place of worship.[9] At least seven stone circles, covering 25 acres (10 ha), contain limestone pillars carved with animals, insects, and birds. Stone tools were used by perhaps as many as hundreds of people to create the pillars, which might have supported roofs.

 

신석기시대1(PPNA) 기간은 약 BC 10,000년에 레반트에서 시작되었다. 약 BC 9500년의 터키 남동부 괴베클

리테페 사원지역이 이 기간의 처음으로 간주된다. 유목민 사냥꾼-채집자 부족이 이 장소를 개발했으며 주변

에 영구 주택이 없기때문에 인간이 만든 가장 오래된 예배 장소일 것이다. 25에이커(10헥타르)에 적어도 7개의 환상열석(둥글게 줄선 돌)이 있고  동물, 곤충, 새를 새긴 석회암 기둥이 포함되어 있다. 아마도 수백 명의 사람들이 지붕을 받쳤을 기둥을 만드는데 석재 도구를 썼다.

 

Other early PPNA sites dating to around 9500–9000 BC have been found in Tell es-Sultan (ancient Jericho), West Bank (notably Ain Mallaha, Nahal Oren, and Kfar HaHoresh), Gilgal in the Jordan Valley, and Byblos, Lebanon. The start of Neolithic 1 overlaps the Tahunian and Heavy Neolithic periods to some degree.[citation needed]

 

BC 9500-9000에 이르는 다른 초기 PPNA유적은 텔 에스-술탄(고대 여리고), 웨스트뱅크(특히 아인 말라하,

나할 오렌, 크파르 하호레쉬), 요르단 계곡의 길갈, 레바논 비를로스에서 발견되었다. 신석기시대 1의 시작은

타후니안 기간, Heavy Neolithic 기간과 어느 정도 겹친다.

 

The major advance of Neolithic 1 was true farming. In the proto-Neolithic Natufian cultures, wild cereals were harvested, and perhaps early seed selection and re-seeding occurred. The grain was ground into flour. Emmer wheat was domesticated, and animals were herded and domesticated (animal husbandry and selective breeding).[citation needed]

 

신석기시대 1의 주요한 진보는 진정한 농업이었다. 원-신석기시대의 나투프문화에서는 야생 곡류가 수확되

었으며 아마도 초기 종자 선택과 재배가 일어났을 것이다. 곡물은 가루로 갈아졌다. 에머밀은 길들여졌으며

동물들은 양육되고 길들여졌다.(동물사육과 선별번식)

 

In 2006, remains of figs were discovered in a house in Jericho dated to 9400 BC. The figs are of a mutant variety that cannot be pollinated by insects, and therefore the trees can only reproduce from cuttings. This evidence suggests that figs were the first cultivated crop and mark the invention of the technology of farming. This occurred centuries before the first cultivation of grains.[10]

 

2006년에 BC 9400년의 여리고 집유적에서 무화과가 발견되었다. 무화과는 곤충에 의해 수분될 수 없는 돌연변이형이기 때문에 나무는 자르기로만 번식할 수 있다. 이 증거는 무화과가 최초로 경작된 작물이며 농업 기술의 발명임을 나타낸다. 이것은 곡물을 처음 재배하기 전 수 세기에 걸쳐 발생했다.

 

Settlements became more permanent, with circular houses, much like those of the Natufians, with single rooms. However, these houses were for the first time made of mudbrick. The settlement had a surrounding stone wall and perhaps a stone tower (as in Jericho). The wall served as protection from nearby groups, as protection from floods, or to keep animals penned. Some of the enclosures also suggest grain and meat storage.[11]

 

정착촌은 나투프처럼 원형집에 방이 여러개 있는 집으로 더욱 영구적으로 되었다. 이 집들은 처음으로 진흙

벽돌로 만들어졌다. 정착촌에는 주위 돌담과 돌탑이 있었다.(여리고처럼) 돌담은 이웃 집단과 홍수로부터 보호해주고 동물들을 지켜주었다. 어떤 담은 곡물과 고기 저장소로 쓰였다.

 

Neolithic 2 – Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB)[edit]

Main article: Pre-Pottery Neolithic B

 

Female and male figurines; 9000-7000 BC; gypsum with bitumen and stone inlays; from Tell Fekheriye (Al-Hasakah Governorate of Syria); University of Chicago Oriental Institute (USA)

The Neolithic 2 (PPNB) began around 8800 BC according to the ASPRO chronology in the Levant (Jericho, West Bank).[7] As with the PPNA dates, there are two versions from the same laboratories noted above. This system of terminology, however, is not convenient for southeast Anatolia and settlements of the middle Anatolia basin.[citation needed] A settlement of 3,000 inhabitants was found in the outskirts of Amman, Jordan. Considered to be one of the largest prehistoric settlements in the Near East, called 'Ain Ghazal, it was continuously inhabited from approximately 7250 BC to approximately 5000 BC.[12]

 

신석기시대 2(PPNB)는 ASPRO연대기에 따르면 레반트(여리고, 웨스트뱅크)에서 약 BC 8800년에 시작되었다. PPNA연대와 마찬가지로 위에 언급한 같은 연구소의 두 가지 버전이 있다. 그러나 이 용어체계는 아나톨리아 남동부와 아나톨리아 중부 분지의 정착에는 편리하지 않다. 요르단 암만의 변두리에서 3000명 주민의 정착지가 발견되었다. 근동에서 가장 큰 선사시대 정착지중 하나로 생각되고 아인 가잘이라고 불렸는데 BC7250년부터 BC 5000년까지 지속적으로 거주하였다.

 

Settlements have rectangular mud-brick houses where the family lived together in single or multiple rooms. Burial findings suggest an ancestor cult where people preserved skulls of the dead, which were plastered with mud to make facial features. The rest of the corpse could have been left outside the settlement to decay until only the bones were left, then the bones were buried inside the settlement underneath the floor or between houses.[citation needed]

 

정착촌에는 직사각형의 진흙 벽돌집이 있으며 가족이 한 곳 또는 여러 곳에서 함께 살았다. 무덤 조사로 사람들이 얼굴의 특징을 만들기 위해 진흙으로 칠한 죽은 사람의 두개골을 보존하는 조상숭배가 있었다고 보여진다. 유해 나머지는 뼈만 남을 때까지 썩도록 정착촌 밖에 두었다가 그리고나서 뼈만 정착촌안에 바닥 밑이나 집 사이에 묻혀 있었다.

 

Neolithic 3 – Pottery Neolithic (PN)[edit]

The Neolithic 3 (PN) began around 6,400 BC in the Fertile Crescent.[7] By then distinctive cultures emerged, with pottery like the Halafian (Turkey, Syria, Northern Mesopotamia) and Ubaid (Southern Mesopotamia). This period has been further divided into PNA (Pottery Neolithic A) and PNB (Pottery Neolithic B) at some sites.[13]

 

신석기시대 3(PN)은 비옥한 초승달에서 약 BC 6400년에 시작되었다. 그때 할라프(터키,시리아,메소포타미아 북부)와 우바이드(메소포타미아 남부)처럼 도자기가 있는 독특한 문화들이 나타났다. 이 기간은 어떤 유적에서는 PNA(도자기 신석기시대 A)와 PNB(도자기 신석기시대 B)로 더 나뉘어진다. 

 

The Chalcolithic (Stone-Bronze) period began about 4500 BC, then the Bronze Age began about 3500 BC, replacing the Neolithic cultures.[citation needed]

 

금석병용시대(석기-청동기)는 약 BC 4500년에 시작되었으며 청동기시대는 약 BC 3500년에 시작되었고 신석기문화를 대체하였다.

 

Periods by region[edit]

Western Asia[edit]

Fertile Crescent[edit]

 

'Ain Ghazal Statues found at 'Ain Ghazal in Jordan, are considered to be one of the earliest large-scale representations of the human form dating back to around 7250 BC.

Around 10,000 BC the first fully developed Neolithic cultures belonging to the phase Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) appeared in the Fertile Crescent.[7] Around 10,700–9400 BC a settlement was established in Tell Qaramel, 10 miles (16 km) north of Aleppo. The settlement included two temples dating to 9650 BC.[14] Around 9000 BC during the PPNA, one of the world's first towns, Jericho, appeared in the Levant. It was surrounded by a stone wall and contained a population of 2,000–3,000 people and a massive stone tower.[15] Around 6400 BC the Halaf culture appeared in Syria and Northern Mesopotamia.

 

서아시아

비옥한 초승달

BC 10000년에 선-도자기 신석기시대 A(PPNA) 단계에 속한 첫 완전히 개발된 신석기시대 문화가 비옥한 초승달에서 나타났다. BC 10700-BC 9400년경 알레포 북쪽 10마일(16km)에 있는 텔카라멜에 정착촌이 세워졌다. 정착촌에는 BC 9650년으로 연대측정된 두 개의 사원도 있었다. PPNA동안 약 BC 9000년경에 세계 첫번째 도시중에 하나인 여리고가 레반트에 나타났다. 그곳은 돌담으로 둘러싸여 있었고 2000-3000명의 인구와 거대한 석탑이 있었다. BC 6400년경에 할라프문화는 시리아와 북부 메소포타미아에 나타났다.

 

In 1981 a team of researchers from the Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée, including Jacques Cauvin and Oliver Aurenche divided Near East neolithic chronology into ten periods (0 to 9) based on social, economic and cultural characteristics.[16] In 2002 Danielle Stordeur and Frédéric Abbès advanced this system with a division into five periods.

 

1981년 Jacques cauvin과 Oliver Aurenche를 포함한 Maison de l'Orient et de la Méditerranée의 연구자 팀은 근동 신석기시대를 사회, 경제 및 문화적 특성에 따라 10개의 기간(0-9)으로 나눴다. 2002년에  Danielle Stordeur 와 Frédéric Abbès는 5개의 구간으로 나누어 이 시스템을 발전시켰다.

 

  1. Natufian between 12,000 and 10,200 BC,

  2. Khiamian between 10,200 and 8800 BC, PPNA: Sultanian (Jericho), Mureybetian,

  3. Early PPNB (PPNB ancien) between 8800 and 7600 BC, middle PPNB (PPNB moyen) between 7600 and 6900 BC,

  4. Late PPNB (PPNB récent) between 7500 and 7000 BC,

  5. A PPNB (sometimes called PPNC) transitional stage (PPNB final) in which Halaf and dark faced burnished ware begin to emerge between 6900 and 6400 BC.[17]

They also advanced the idea of a transitional stage between the PPNA and PPNB between 8800 and 8600 BC at sites like Jerf el Ahmar and Tell Aswad.[18]

 

그들은 또한 Jerf el Ahmar 와 Tell Asward와 같은 유적에서 PPNA와 PPNB사이의 전환기가 BC 8800년과

BC8600년 사이에 있는 것으로 발전시켰다.

 

Southern Mesopotamia[edit]

Alluvial plains (Sumer/Elam). Low rainfall makes irrigation systems necessary. Ubaid culture from 6,900 BC.[citation needed]

 

충적평야(Sumer/Elam). 낮은 강수량으로 관개 시스템이 필요하다. BC 6900년 우바이드문화.

 

North Africa[edit]

 

Algerian cave paintings depicting hunting scenes

Domestication of sheep and goats reached Egypt from the Near East possibly as early as 6000 BC.[19][20][21] Graeme Barker states "The first indisputable evidence for domestic plants and animals in the Nile valley is not until the early fifth millennium BC in northern Egypt and a thousand years later further south, in both cases as part of strategies that still relied heavily on fishing, hunting, and the gathering of wild plants" and suggests that these subsistence changes were not due to farmers migrating from the Near East but was an indigenous development, with cereals either indigenous or obtained through exchange.[22] Other scholars argue that the primary stimulus for agriculture and domesticated animals (as well as mud-brick architecture and other Neolithic cultural features) in Egypt was from the Middle East.[23][24][25]

 

근동에서 이집트에 양과 염소의 가축화는 아마도 BC 6000에 일찍이 도달했다. Graeme Barker는

 "나일계곡에서 식물과 동물을 길들인 첫번째 확실한 증거는 이집트 북부는 BC 5000년 초까지 더 남쪽은 

천년 후까지 없다. 두 경우 모두 여전히 어업, 사냥 및 야생 식물 채집에 크게 의존하는 전략의 일부였다."고

주장한다. 그리고 이러한 생존변화는 근동에서 이주한 농민들에 의한 것이 아니라 토종 곡물 또는 교환을 통해 얻은 곡물로 원주민이 발전시킨 것이다. 다른 학자들은 이집트의 농업 및 동물의 가축화(진흙 벽돌 건축 및 다른 신석기시대 문화적 특징만큼)에 대한 주요 자극은 중동에서 왔다고 주장한다.

 

Sub-Saharan Africa[edit]

Further information: Pastoral Neolithic and Savanna Pastoral Neolithic

Europe[edit]

Main article: Neolithic Europe

 

Female figure from Tumba Madžari, North Macedonia

 

Map showing distribution of some of the main culture complexes in Neolithic Europe, c. 3500 BC

 

Skara Brae, Scotland. Evidence of home furnishings (shelves)

In southeast Europe agrarian societies first appeared in the 7th millennium BC, attested by one of the earliest farming sites of Europe, discovered in Vashtëmi, southeastern Albania and dating back to 6500 BC.[26][27] In Northwest Europe it is much later, typically lasting just under 3,000 years from c. 4500 BC–1700 BC.

 

남동유럽 농경 사회는 BC 7천 년에 처음 나타났는데 BC 6500년으로 연대측정된 남동부 알바니아 바쉬테미에서 발견된 유럽 최초 농경 유적지로 증명되었다. 북서유럽은 훨씬 늦었고 일반적으로 BC 4500- BC 1700년까지 3000년 동안 지속되었다.

 

Anthropomorphic figurines have been found in the Balkans from 6000 BC,[28] and in Central Europe by around 5800 BC (La Hoguette). Among the earliest cultural complexes of this area are the Sesklo culture in Thessaly, which later expanded in the Balkans giving rise to Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramik, and Vinča

 

의인화한 작은 조각상은 BC 6000년부터 발칸지역에서 발견되었고, 중부 유럽에서는 BC 5800년경에 발견되었(La Hoguette). 이 지역의 초기 문화 복합체는 테살리의 세스클로문화가 있는데 나중에 발칸지역으로 확장하였고 Starčevo-Körös (Cris), Linearbandkeramik, 와 Vinča문화를 일으켰다.

 

Through a combination of cultural diffusion and migration of peoples, the Neolithic traditions spread west and northwards to reach northwestern Europe by around 4500 BC. The Vinča culture may have created the earliest system of writing, the Vinča signs, though archaeologist Shan Winn believes they most likely represented pictograms and ideograms rather than a truly developed form of writing.[29]

 

문화가 확산되고 사람들이 이주하면서 신석기시대 전통은 서쪽과 북쪽으로 퍼져 약 BC 4500년경 북서부 

유럽에 이르렀다. 빈카문화는 빈카기호라는 초기 쓰기 체제를 만들었을수도 있는데 고고학자 샨 윈은 제대로 된 쓰기의 발전된 유형이라기 보다는 그림문자와 표의문자를 대표하는 것 같다고 믿는다.

 

The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture built enormous settlements in Romania, Moldova and Ukraine from 5300 to 2300 BC. The megalithic temple complexes of Ġgantija on the Mediterranean island of Gozo (in the Maltese archipelago) and of Mnajdra (Malta) are notable for their gigantic Neolithic structures, the oldest of which date back to around 3600 BC. The Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni, Paola, Malta, is a subterranean structure excavated around 2500 BC; originally a sanctuary, it became a necropolis, the only prehistoric underground temple in the world, and shows a degree of artistry in stone sculpture unique in prehistory to the Maltese islands.

 

Cucuteni-Trypillian 문화는 BC 5300 년부터 BC 2300년까지 루마니아, 몰도바, 우크라이나에 거대한 정착촌

을 건설했다. 지중해에 있는섬인 Gozo(몰타 군도)와 Mnajdra(몰타)에 있는 Ġgantija 거석 사원 단지는 신석기시대 거대한 건축물로 유명한데 가장 오래된 것은 약 BC 3600년으로 거슬러 올라간다. 몰타 파올라에 있는 할-사플리에니 지하신전은 BC 2500년의 지하구조이고 원래 성소였는데 공동묘지가 되었고 세계에서 유일한 선사시대 지하 사원이며 몰타섬의 선사시대 석조 조각의 독특한 예술성의 정도를 보여준다.

 

After 2500 BC, these islands were depopulated for several decades until the arrival of a new influx of Bronze Age immigrants, a culture that cremated its dead and introduced smaller megalithic structures called dolmens to Malta.[30] In most cases there are small chambers here, with the cover made of a large slab placed on upright stones. They are claimed to belong to a population different from that which built the previous megalithic temples. It is presumed the population arrived from Sicily because of the similarity of Maltese dolmens to some small constructions found there.[31]

 

BC2500년경에 이 섬들은 새로운 청동기 이주자가 유입될 때까지 수십 년 동안 인구감소를 겪었다. 청동기

시대 이주자들의 문화는 죽은 사람을 화장하고 돌멘이라고 불리우는 작은 거석 구조의 문화였다. 대부분 작은방이 있는데 똑바로 선 돌들 위에 크고 평평한 덮개가 있다. 그들은 이전의 거석 사원을 지은 사람들과 다른 집단에 속한다고 여겨진다. 몰타 고인돌과 시칠리아 작은 구조물이 비슷하기 때문에 그 집단은 시칠리아에서 온 것으로 추정된다.

 

South and East Asia[edit]

Settled life, encompassing the transition from foraging to farming and pastoralism, began in South Asia in the region of Balochistan, Pakistan, around 7,000 BCE.[32][33][34] At the site of Mehrgarh, Balochistan, presence can be documented of the domestication of wheat and barley, rapidly followed by that of goats, sheep, and cattle.[35] In April 2006, it was announced in the scientific journal Nature that the oldest (and first early Neolithic) evidence for the drilling of teeth in vivo (using bow drills and flint tips) was found in Mehrgarh.[36]

 

남아시아와 동아시아

사냥 채집에서 농사와 목축으로의 이행을 포함한 정착된 삶은 남아시아에서 BCE 7000년경에 파키스탄 발로치스탄에서 시작되었다. 발로치스탄 베르가르 유적에는 밀과 보리의 길들여짐을 기록할 수 있고 곧바로 염소, 양, 소의 가축화가 뒤따릅니다. 2006년 4월에 보우 드릴과 부싯돌 끝을 이용하여 생체내에서 치아 구멍뚫기를 한 가장 오래된(초기 신석기시대 처음) 증거를 과학저널 네이처에 발표하였다.

 

In South India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ash mounds[clarification needed] from 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later to Tamil Nadu.[37]

 

남 인도에서 신석기시대는 BC 6500년에 시작되어 거석문화시대 이행기간이 시작된 BC 1400년까지 지속되

었다. 남인도 신석기시대는 BC 2500년경 카르나타카 지역의 Ash mounds가 특징인데 나중에 타밀 나두까지 확장되었다.

 

In East Asia, the earliest sites include the Nanzhuangtou culture around 9500–9000 BC,[38] Pengtoushan culture around 7500–6100 BC, and Peiligang culture around 7000–5000 BC.

 

동아시아에서 가장 오래된 유적지는BC 9500-9000년의 난좡터우문화, BC 7500-6100년의 펑터우산문화, BC

7000-5000년의 페이리강문화가 있다.

 

The 'Neolithic' (defined in this paragraph as using polished stone implements) remains a living tradition in small and extremely remote and inaccessible pockets of West Papua (Indonesian New Guinea). Polished stoneadze and axes are used in the present day (as of 2008) in areas where the availability of metal implements is limited. This is likely to cease altogether in the next few years as the older generation die off and steel blades and chainsaws prevail.

 

작고 극단적으로 멀리 떨어져있고 접근하기 어려운 서 파푸아(인도네시아 뉴기니)에서 신석기시대(이 단락에서 광택이 있는 돌 도구를 사용하는 것으로 정의됨)는 살아 있는 전통으로 남아 있다. 광택있는 석재 자귀와 도끼는 금속 도구의 사용 가능성이 제한적인 분야에서 현재(2008년) 사용된다. 이것은 구세대가 없어지고 쇠날과 체인톱이 널리 보급되면 앞으로 몇 년 안에 완전히 중단될 것 같다.

 

In 2012, news was released about a new farming site discovered in Munam-ri, Goseong, Gangwon Province, South Korea, which may be the earliest farmland known to date in east Asia.[39] "No remains of an agricultural field from the Neolithic period have been found in any East Asian country before, the institute said, adding that the discovery reveals that the history of agricultural cultivation at least began during the period on the Korean Peninsula".[40] 

 

2012년 뉴스에 나온 한국 강원도 고성군 문암리에서 발견된 새로운 농경 유적은 동아시아에서 지금까지 알려진 가장 최초의 농지일 것이다. "신석기시대 농사짓던 밭 유적은 이전에 동아시아국가에서 발견된 적이 없다. 그 발견으로 한반도에서 농업 재배의 역사는 적어도 그 기간에 시작되었다는 것을 알수 있다고 연구소는 덧붙였다."

 

The farm was dated between 3600 and 3000 BC. Pottery, stone projectile points, and possible houses were also found. "In 2002, researchers discovered prehistoric earthenware, jade earrings, among other items in the area". The research team will perform accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating to retrieve a more precise date for the site.

 

농장은 BC 3600년에서 BC 3000년으로 연대측정이 되었다. 도자기, 포인트형 석기, 가능한 집도 발견되었다.

"2002년 연구자들은 유적지에서 다른 유물중에서도 선사시대 질그릇, 옥귀걸이를 발견하였다." 연구팀은 유

적지의 보다 정확한 연대를 검색하기 위해 가속기질량분석을 수행할 것이다. 

 

The Americas[edit]

In Mesoamerica, a similar set of events (i.e., crop domestication and sedentary lifestyles) occurred by around 4500 BC, but possibly as early as 11,000–10,000 BC. These cultures are usually not referred to as belonging to the Neolithic; in America different terms are used such as Formative stage instead of mid-late Neolithic, Archaic Era instead of Early Neolithic and Paleo-Indian for the preceding period.[41] The Formative stage is equivalent to the Neolithic Revolution period in Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

 

메소아메리카에서 작물 기르기와 정주 생활양식 등 비슷한 일들이 약 BC 4500년 경에 일어났는데 아마도

더 일찍 BC 11000-BC 10000년에 일어났을수도 있다. 이 문화들은 대개 신석기시대에 속하는 것으로 언급

되지 않는다. 아메리카에서는 중-후기 신석기시대 대신 조형단계, 전기 신석기시대 대신 고전단계, 그 이전

시대를 고-인디언과 같은 용어를 쓴다. 조형단계는 유럽, 아시아, 아프리카의 신석기시대 혁명과 동등하다.

 

In the southwestern United States it occurred from 500 to 1200 AD when there was a dramatic increase in population and development of large villages supported by agriculture based on dryland farming of maize, and later, beans, squash, and domesticated turkeys. During this period the bow and arrow and ceramic pottery were also introduced.[42] In later periods cities of considerable size developed, and some metallurgy by 700 BCE.[43]

 

연합국가 남서부지역에서는 500년부터 1200년까지 옥수수,  나중에 콩류와 호박의 마른땅 경작 농업과 

칠면조 가축화로 뒷받침되어 대규모 마을의 개발과 인구가 급격히 증가했다. 이 기간동안 활과 화살 도자기

그릇도 도입되었다. 나중 기간에는 상당 규모의 도시가 개발되었고 약간의 야금술도 BCE 700년까지 발전했다.

 

Australia[edit]

Australia, in contrast to New Guinea, has generally been held not to have had a Neolithic period, with a hunter-gatherer lifestyle continuing until the arrival of Europeans. This view can be challenged in terms of the definition of agriculture, but "Neolithic" remains a rarely-used and not very useful concept in discussing Australian prehistory.[44]

 

오스트레일리아는 뉴기니와 대조적으로 유럽인들이 도착할 때까지 사냥꾼-채집자의 생활방식을 계속 유지하여 일반적으로 신석기시대가 없었던 것으로 여겨졌다. 이 견해는 농업의 정의라는 관점에서 도전받을 수 있지만 오스트레일리아 선사시대를 논의함에 "신석기시대"는 거의 사용되지 않으며 그리 유용하지 않은 개념으로 남아 있다.

 

Cultural characteristics[edit]

Social organization[edit]

 

Anthropomorphic Neolithic figurine

 

Anthropomorphic Female Neolithic ceramic figurine

During most of the Neolithic age of Eurasia, people lived in small tribes composed of multiple bands or lineages.[45] There is little scientific evidence of developed social stratification in most Neolithic societies; social stratification is more associated with the later Bronze Age.[46] Although some late Eurasian Neolithic societies formed complex stratified chiefdoms or even states, generally states evolved in Eurasia only with the rise of metallurgy, and most Neolithic societies on the whole were relatively simple and egalitarian.[45] 

 

유라시아 신석기시대 대부분 기간동안 사람들은 다수의 무리 또는 혈통으로 구성된 작은 부족으로 살았다. 신석기시대 사회에서 발전된 사회적 계층화의 과학적 증거는 없다. 사회적 계층화는 이후 청동기시대와 더 관련이 있다. 유라시아 신석기시대  일부 후기 사회는 복잡한 계층화된 족장지배 또는 심지어 국가를 형성했지만 일반적으로  유라시아에서 국가는 야금술의 부상으로 발달하였고 신석기시대 사회는 대부분 전반적으로 비교적 단순하고 평등하였다.

 

Beyond Eurasia, however, states were formed during the local Neolithic in three areas, namely in the Preceramic Andes with the Norte Chico Civilization,[47][48] Formative Mesoamerica and Ancient Hawaiʻi.[49] However, most Neolithic societies were noticeably more hierarchical than the Upper Paleolithic cultures that preceded them and hunter-gatherer cultures in general.[50][51]

 

유라시아 외에 국가는 신석기시대 동안 세 지역 곧 노르테치코문명의 선-도자기 안데스, 조형단계 메소아메리카, 고대 하와이에서 형성되었다. 그러나 신석기시대 사회는 대부분 앞선 후기 구석기시대 문화와 사냥꾼-채집자 문화보다 두드러지게 더 계층적이었다.

 

 

Clay human figurine (Fertility goddess) Tappeh Sarab, Kermanshah ca. 7000-6100 BC, Neolithic period, National Museum of Iran

The domestication of large animals (c. 8000 BC) resulted in a dramatic increase in social inequality in most of the areas where it occurred; New Guinea being a notable exception.[52] Possession of livestock allowed competition between households and resulted in inherited inequalities of wealth. Neolithic pastoralists who controlled large herds gradually acquired more livestock, and this made economic inequalities more pronounced.[53] 

 

큰 동물의 가축화로(c. 8000BC) 사회적 불평등이 크게 증가하였다. 뉴기니는 주목할만한 예외이다. 가축의 소유로 가계간에 경쟁이 생기고 재산의 불평등한 상속이 초래되었다. 큰 무리를 통제했던 신석기시대 유목민들은 점점 더 많은 가축을 얻었고 경제적 불평등은 더욱 두드러졌다.

 

However, evidence of social inequality is still disputed, as settlements such as Catal Huyuk reveal a striking lack of difference in the size of homes and burial sites, suggesting a more egalitarian society with no evidence of the concept of capital, although some homes do appear slightly larger or more elaborately decorated than others.

 

그러나 사회적 불평등의 증거는 여전히 논란이다. 차탈 후윅의 정착촌의 어떤 집들은 약간 더 크고 정교하게 장식되어 있지만 자본개념의 증거가 없는 좀 더 평등한 사회임을 보여주고 집과 무덤의 크기가 현저한 차이가 없음을 보여준다.

 

Families and households were still largely independent economically, and the household was probably the center of life.[54][55] However, excavations in Central Europe have revealed that early Neolithic Linear Ceramic cultures ("Linearbandkeramik") were building large arrangements of circular ditches between 4800 and 4600 BC. These structures (and their later counterparts such as causewayed enclosures, burial mounds, and henge) required considerable time and labour to construct, which suggests that some influential individuals were able to organise and direct human labour — though non-hierarchical and voluntary work remain possibilities.

 

가족과 가계는 여전히 경제적으로 거의 독립적이었으며 가정이 아마도 삶의 중심이었다. 그러나 중부 유럽의 발굴조사에 따르면 초기 신석기시대 선형 도자기문화는 BC 4800년과 BC 4600년 사이에 원형 도랑을 많이 배치하고 있었다. 이러한 구조(이후 둑길 담, 고분, 헨지와 같은 대응물)는 상당한 시간과 노동력을 필요로 했는데 이는 영향력있는 일부 개인이 인간 노동을 조직하고 지도할 수 있음을 시사한다. 비-계급족이고 자발적인 일은 여전히 가증하지만.

 

There is a large body of evidence for fortified settlements at Linearbandkeramik sites along the Rhine, as at least some villages were fortified for some time with a palisade and an outer ditch.[56][57] Settlements with palisades and weapon-traumatized bones, such as those found at the Talheim Death Pit, have been discovered and demonstrate that "...systematic violence between groups" and warfare was probably much more common during the Neolithic than in the preceding Paleolithic period.[51] This supplanted an earlier view of the Linear Pottery Culture as living a "peaceful, unfortified lifestyle".[58]

 

라인강을 따라 있는 선형 도자기문화에 요새화된 정착지의 많은 증거가 있다.  적어도 일부 마을은 말뚝울타리와 바깥 도랑으로 한동안 요새화되었다. 탈하임 죽음구덩이에서 발견된 것처럼 말뚝울타리와 무기로 손상된 뼈가 있는 정착촌에서 "... 집단간에 구조적인 폭력" 과 전쟁이 아마도 앞선 구석기시대보다 신석기시대 동안에 훨씬 더 흔했다는 것이 발견되고 증명되었다. 이것이 선형 도자기 문화가 "평화롭고 요새화하지 않은 생활방식"으로 산 문화라는 초기 견해를 대체하였다. 

 

Control of labour and inter-group conflict is characteristic of tribal groups with social rank that are headed by a charismatic individual — either a 'big man' or a proto-chief — functioning as a lineage-group head. Whether a non-hierarchical system of organization existed is debatable, and there is no evidence that explicitly suggests that Neolithic societies functioned under any dominating class or individual, as was the case in the chiefdoms of the European Early Bronze Age.[59] Theories to explain the apparent implied egalitarianism of Neolithic (and Paleolithic) societies have arisen, notably the Marxist concept of primitive communism.

 

노동과 집단 간 갈등의 통제는 혈통 집단의 수장역할을 하는 카리스마있는 개인-'큰 사람 또는 원-족장-이 이끄는 사회적 계급을 지닌 종족 집단의 특징이다. 조직의 비계층 체제의 존재 여부는 논란의 여지가 있는데 유럽 초기 청동기시대의 족장지배의 경우와 같이 신석기시대 사회가 어떤 지배 계급 또는 개인의 지배아래 작용했다는 증거가 없다. 신석기시대(그리고 구석기시대) 사회에 분명한 묵시적 평등을 설명하는 이론 특히 마르크스주의자의 원시 공산주의 개념이 생겨났다.

 

Shelter and sedentism[edit]

 

Reconstruction of Neolithic house in Tuzla, Bosnia and Herzegovina

The shelter of the early people changed dramatically from the Upper Paleolithic to the Neolithic era. In the Paleolithic, people did not normally live in permanent constructions. In the Neolithic, mud brick houses started appearing that were coated with plaster.[60] The growth of agriculture made permanent houses possible. 

 

초기 사람들의 피난처는 후기 구석기시대부터 신석기시대까지 극적으로 바뀌었다. 구석기시대에 사람들은 보통 영구적인 건축물에서 살지 않았다. 신석기시대에 석고로 덮인 진흙 벽돌집이 나타났다. 농업의 성장으로 가능한 영구적인 집을 만들었다. 

 

Doorways were made on the roof, with ladders positioned both on the inside and outside of the houses.[60] The roof was supported by beams from the inside. The rough ground was covered by platforms, mats, and skins on which residents slept.[61] Stilt-houses settlements were common in the Alpine and Pianura Padana (Terramare) region.[62] Remains have been found at the Ljubljana Marshes in Slovenia and at the Mondsee and Attersee lakes in Upper Austria, for example.

 

출입구는 옥상에 만들었고 사다리는 집 안과 밖 양쪽에 두었다. 지붕은 안쪽에서 받칟대로 지탱했다. 고르지 않은 땅은 거주자가 잤던 플랫폼, 매트, 스킨으로 덮여 있었다. 수상가옥 정착촌은 알프스와 피아누라 판다나(테라마레) 지역에서 흔했다. 예로 유적이 슬로베니아 류블랴나 습지와 오스트리아 몬드제와 아테르제 호수에서 발견되었다.

 

Agriculture[edit]

Main article: Neolithic Revolution

 

A Cucuteni-Trypillian culture deer antler plough

 

Food and cooking items retrieved at a European Neolithic site: millstones, charred bread, grains and small apples, a clay cooking pot, and containers made of antlers and wood

A significant and far-reaching shift in human subsistence and lifestyle was to be brought about in areas where crop farming and cultivation were first developed: the previous reliance on an essentially nomadic hunter-gatherer subsistence technique or pastoral transhumance was at first supplemented, and then increasingly replaced by, a reliance upon the foods produced from cultivated lands. 

 

인간의 생존과 생활양식의 중요하고 광범위한 변화가 농작물 경작과 재배가 처음으로 개발된 분야에서 야기되었다. 근본적으로 유목민인 사냥꾼-채집자의 생존 기술이나 목축 이동방목의 이전 의존도는 처음 보충되었고 점점 더 재배된 땅에서 생산된 식품에 의존하는 것으로 대체되었다.

 

These developments are also believed to have greatly encouraged the growth of settlements, since it may be supposed that the increased need to spend more time and labor in tending crop fields required more localized dwellings. This trend would continue into the Bronze Age, eventually giving rise to permanently settled farming towns, and later cities and states whose larger populations could be sustained by the increased productivity from cultivated lands.

 

이러한 개발은 농작물 재배지에 더 많은 시간과 노동을 투입해야 할 필요성이 커짐에 따라 지역화된 주거가 더 필요하다고 여겨지므로 주거지의 성장을 크게 고무했다고 믿어진다. 이러한 추세는 청동기시대로 계속 이어져 결국에는 영구적으로 정착된 농촌과 농촌에서 생산성 증가로 더 큰 인구가 유지될 수 있는 도시와 주를 일으켰다.

 

The profound differences in human interactions and subsistence methods associated with the onset of early agricultural practices in the Neolithic have been called the Neolithic Revolution, a term coined in the 1920s by the Australian archaeologist Vere Gordon Childe.

 

신석시시대 초기 농업 관행의 시작과 관련된 인간상호 작용과 생존 방법의 중대한 차이는 오스트레일리아

고고학자 베레 고든 칠데가 1920년대에 신석기시대 혁명이라고 명명한 용어이다.

 

One potential benefit of the development and increasing sophistication of farming technology was the possibility of producing surplus crop yields, in other words, food supplies in excess of the immediate needs of the community. Surpluses could be stored for later use, or possibly traded for other necessities or luxuries. Agricultural life afforded securities that nomadic life could not, and sedentary farming populations grew faster than nomadic.

 

농사기술의 발전과 복잡화 증가의 하나의 잠재적 이점은 잉여 농작물 수확량 즉 공동체의 즉각적인 필요를 

초월한 식량 공급을 생산할 수 있다는 것이다. 잉여물은 나중에 사용하기 위해 보관하거나 다른 필수품이나 사치품으로 교환할 수 있다. 농업 생활은 유목생활이 할 수 없는 담보를 제공하고 정주 농업 인구는 유목보다 더 빨리 자랐다.

 

However, early farmers were also adversely affected in times of famine, such as may be caused by drought or pests. In instances where agriculture had become the predominant way of life, the sensitivity to these shortages could be particularly acute, affecting agrarian populations to an extent that otherwise may not have been routinely experienced by prior hunter-gatherer communities.[53] Nevertheless, agrarian communities generally proved successful, and their growth and the expansion of territory under cultivation continued.

 

그러나 초기 농부들은 가뭄이나 해충에 기인한 경우와 같이 기근이 발생했을 때도 불리한 영향을 받았다. 농업이 주된 생활 방식이 된 경우 이러한 부족에 대한 민감성은 특히 심각할 수 있으며 그렇지 않으면 이전의 사냥-채집 공동체가 일상적으로 경험하지 못했을 정도로 농민 인구에 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 그럼에도 농촌 지역 사회는 일반적으로 성공적으로 입증하고 자신의 성장과 재배 지역의 확대는 계속되었다.

 

Another significant change undergone by many of these newly agrarian communities was one of diet. Pre-agrarian diets varied by region, season, available local plant and animal resources and degree of pastoralism and hunting. Post-agrarian diet was restricted to a limited package of successfully cultivated cereal grains, plants and to a variable extent domesticated animals and animal products. 

 

이 새로운 농촌 공동체의 많은 부분에서 겪었던 또 다른 중요한 변화는 식단이었다. 전-농경 식단은 지역, 

계절, 가용 식물 및 동물 자원, 목축 및 사냥의 정도에 따라 다양하다. 후-농경 식단은 성공적으로 경작된 곡물, 식물 및 다양한 범위의 가축화된 동물과 동물 부산물로 제한되었다.

 

Supplementation of diet by hunting and gathering was to variable degrees precluded by the increase in population above the carrying capacity of the land and a high sedentary local population concentration. In some cultures, there would have been a significant shift toward increased starch and plant protein. The relative nutritional benefits and drawbacks of these dietary changes and their overall impact on early societal development are still debated.

 

사냥과 채집에 의한 식단의 보충은 토지 수용 능력을 초과하는 인구의 증가와 높은 정주 지역 인구 집중으로 인해 가변적으로 배제되었다. 일부 문화에서 전분과 식물 단백질이 증가하는 경향이 있었다. 이러한 식단변화의 상대적 영양적 이득및  단점 그리고 그들의 초기 사회 개발에 대한 전반적인 영향은 여전히 논쟁중이다.

 

In addition, increased population density, decreased population mobility, increased continuous proximity to domesticated animals, and continuous occupation of comparatively population-dense sites would have altered sanitation needs and patterns of disease.

 

또한 인구 밀도 증가. 인구 이동성 감소, 가축과의 지속적인 근접성 및 상대적으로 인구 밀도가 높은 지역의

지속적인 점령은 위생 요구와 질병 패턴을 변경했을 것이다.

 

Lithic technology[edit]

Main article: Stone tool § Neolithic industries

The identifying characteristic of Neolithic technology is the use of polished or ground stone tools, in contrast to the flaked stone tools used during the Paleolithic era.

 

신석기시대의 기술을 확이하는 특징은 구석기시대에 사용된 얇은 석판 도구와 달리 광택 도는 연마 도구를 사용하는 것이다.

 

Neolithic people were skilled farmers, manufacturing a range of tools necessary for the tending, harvesting and processing of crops (such as sickle blades and grinding stones) and food production (e.g. pottery, bone implements). They were also skilled manufacturers of a range of other types of stone tools and ornaments, including projectile points, beads, and statuettes. But what allowed forest clearance on a large scale was the polished stone axe above all other tools. Together with the adze, fashioning wood for shelter, structures and canoes for example, this enabled them to exploit their newly won farmland.

 

신석기시대 사람들은 관리, 작물 수확 및 가공(낫날과 연삭돌) 그리고 식품 생산(도자기,골각기)에 필요한 다

양한 도구를 제조하는 숙련된 농부였다. 그들은 또한 Projectile Points, 목걸이, 작은 조각상을 포함한 다양한 종류의 석제 도구와 장신구를 만드는 숙련된 제조업자였다. 그러나 산림 벌채를 대규모로 허용한 것은 다른 모든 도구보다 세련된 돌도끼였다. 피난처, 구조물과 예를 들면 카누를  가꾸는 자귀로 새로 획득한 농지를 이용할 수 있게 되었다.

 

Neolithic peoples in the Levant, Anatolia, Syria, northern Mesopotamia and Central Asia were also accomplished builders, utilizing mud-brick to construct houses and villages. At Çatalhöyük, houses were plastered and painted with elaborate scenes of humans and animals. In Europe, long houses built from wattle and daub were constructed. Elaborate tombs were built for the dead. 

 

레반트, 아나톨리아, 시리아, 메소포타미아 북부와 중앙아시아의 신석기시대 사람들은 집과 마을을 건설하기 위해 진흙 벽돌을 사용하는 성취된 건축가였다. 차탈휘이크에서 집에 회반죽을 하고  인간과 동물의 정교한 장면으로 그림을 그렸다. 유럽에서 엮은 외가지 위에 흙을 바른 초벽으로 지은 긴집들이 건설되었다. 죽은 자를 위해 정교한 무덤을 지었다.

 

These tombs are particularly numerous in Ireland, where there are many thousand still in existence. Neolithic people in the British Isles built long barrows and chamber tombs for their dead and causewayed camps, henges, flint mines and cursus monuments. It was also important to figure out ways of preserving food for future months, such as fashioning relatively airtight containers, and using substances like salt as preservatives.

 

이 무덤은 특히 아일랜드에 많은데 거기에는 아직도 수천 개가 존재한다. 브리튼 제도의 신석기시대 사람들은 긴 수로, 죽은자를 위한 챔버 무덤, 둑길 야영장, 헨지,부싯돌 광산과 커서스 기념물을 세웠다. 상대적으로 밀폐된 용기를 만들고  소금과 같은 물질을 방부제로 사용하는 것과 같이 여러 달동안 음식을 보존하는 방법을 찾는 것도 중요했다.

 

The peoples of the Americas and the Pacific mostly retained the Neolithic level of tool technology until the time of European contact. Exceptions include copper hatchets and spearheads in the Great Lakes region.

 

아메리카와 태평양의 사람들은 대부분 유럽 접촉 전까지 신석기시대 수준의 도구 기술을 유지했다. 대호수

지역의 구리 해치와 선봉은 예외이다.

 

Clothing[edit]

Most clothing appears to have been made of animal skins, as indicated by finds of large numbers of bone and antler pins that are ideal for fastening leather. Wool cloth and linen might have become available during the later Neolithic,[63][64] as suggested by finds of perforated stones that (depending on size) may have served as spindle whorls or loom weights.[65][66][67] The clothing worn in the Neolithic Age might be similar to that worn by Ötzi the Iceman, although he was not Neolithic (since he belonged to the later Copper age).

 

의류는 대부분 가죽을 고정하는데 알맞은 다수의 뼈와 사슴뿔로 알 수 있듯이 동물 가죽으로 만든 것으로 보인다. 모직 옷감과 린넨은 나선형 굴대나 베틀로 쓰였을 구멍이 뚫린 돌들이 발견된 것에서 알 수 있듯이

신석기시대에 사용 가능해졌을 수도 있다. 신석기시대에 입는 옷은 외치 아이스맨이 입은 옷과 비슷할 수 

있다. 그가 신석기시대 사람이 아니고 청동기시대 에 속하지만.

 

List of early settlements[edit]

 

Reconstruction of a Cucuteni-Trypillian hut, in the Tripillian Museum, Ukraine

 

archaeological site of Çatalhöyük in the Konya Plain in Turkey

Neolithic human settlements include:

namelocationearly date (BC)late date (BC)comments

Göbekli Tepe

Turkey

10,000[68]

8000

 

Guilá Naquitz Cave

Oaxaca, Mexico

11,000

   

Tell Qaramel

Syria

10,700[69]

9400

 

Franchthi Cave

Greece

10,000

 

reoccupied between 7500 and 6000 BC

Nanzhuangtou

Hebei, China

9500

9000

 

Byblos

Lebanon

8800

7000[70]

Jericho (Tell es-Sultan)

West Bank

9500

 

arising from the earlier Epipaleolithic Natufian culture

Aşıklı Höyük

Central Anatolia, Turkey, an Aceramic Neolithic period settlement

8200

7400

correlating with the E/MPPNB in the Levant

Nevali Cori

Turkey

8000

   

Pengtoushan culture

China

7500

6100

rice residues were carbon-14 dated to 8200–7800 BC

Çatalhöyük

Turkey

7500

   

Mentesh Tepe and Kamiltepe

Azerbaijan

7000

3000[71]

 

'Ain Ghazal

Jordan

7250

5000

 

Chogha Bonut

Iran

7200

   

Jhusi

India

7100

   

Ganj Dareh

Iran

7000

   

Lahuradewa

India

7000 [72]

   

Jiahu

China

7000

5800

 

Knossos

Crete

7000

   

Khirokitia

Cyprus

7000

4000

 

Sesklo

Greece

6850

 

with a 660-year margin of error

Mehrgarh

Pakistan

6500

5500

 

Porodin

North Macedonia

6500[73]

   

Padah-Lin Caves

Burma

6000

   

Petnica

Serbia

6000

   

Stara Zagora

Bulgaria

5500

   

Cucuteni-Trypillian culture

Ukraine, Moldova and Romania

5500

2750

 

Tell Zeidan

northern Syria

5500

4000

 

Tabon Cave Complex

Quezon, Palawan, Philippines

5000

2000[74][75]

 

Hemudu culture, large-scale rice plantation

China

5000

4500

 

The Megalithic Temples of Malta

Malta

3600

   

Knap of Howar and Skara Brae

Orkney, Scotland

3500

3100

 

Brú na Bóinne

Ireland

3500

   

Lough Gur

Ireland

3000

   

Norte Chico civilization, 30 aceramic Neolithic period settlements

northern coastal Peru

3000

1700

 

Tichit Neolithic village on the Tagant Plateau

central southern Mauritania

2000

500

 

Oaxaca, state

Southwestern Mexico

2000

 

by 2000 BC Neolithic sedentary villages had been established in the Central Valleys region of this state.

Lajia

China

2000

   

Mumun pottery period

Korean Peninsula

1800

1500

 

Neolithic revolution

Japan

500

300

The world's oldest known engineered roadway, the Sweet Track in England, dates from 3800 BC and the world's oldest freestanding structure is the neolithic temple of Ġgantija in Gozo, Malta.

 

List of cultures and sites[edit]

The Neolithic This box:  

 Mesolithic

Fertile CrescentHeavy NeolithicShepherd NeolithicTrihedral NeolithicPre-Pottery (A, B)Qaraoun cultureTahunian cultureYarmukian CultureHalaf cultureHalaf-Ubaid Transitional periodUbaid cultureNile valleyFaiyum A cultureTasian cultureMerimde cultureEl Omari cultureMaadi cultureBadari cultureAmratian cultureEuropeArzachena cultureBoian cultureButmir cultureCardium pottery cultureCernavodă cultureCoțofeni cultureCucuteni-Trypillian cultureDudeşti cultureGorneşti cultureGumelniţa–Karanovo cultureHamangia cultureKhirokitiaLinear Pottery cultureMalta TemplesOzieri culturePetreşti cultureSan Ciriaco cultureShulaveri-Shomu cultureSesklo cultureTisza cultureTiszapolgár cultureUsatovo cultureVarna cultureVinča cultureVučedol cultureNeolithic TransylvaniaNeolithic Southeastern EuropeChinaPeiligang culturePengtoushan cultureBeixin cultureCishan cultureDadiwan cultureHouli cultureXinglongwa cultureXinle cultureZhaobaogou cultureHemudu cultureDaxi cultureMajiabang cultureYangshao cultureHongshan cultureDawenkou cultureSongze cultureLiangzhu cultureMajiayao cultureQujialing cultureLongshan cultureBaodun cultureShijiahe cultureYueshi cultureTibetSouth AsiaLahuradewaMehrgarhRakhigarhiKalibanganChopani MandoJhukarDaimabadChirandKoldihwaBurzahomMundigakBrahmagiriPhilippine Jade cultureCapsian cultureSavanna Pastoral Neolithic

farming, animal husbandry
pottery, metallurgy, wheel
circular ditches, henges, megaliths
Neolithic religion

 Chalcolithic

Note: Dates are very approximate, and are only given for a rough estimate; consult each culture for specific time periods.

Early Neolithic 
Periodization: The Levant: 9500–8000 BC; Europe: 5000–4000 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region.

 


Middle Neolithic
Periodization: The Levant: 8000–6000 BC; Europe: 4000–3500 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region.

Later Neolithic 
Periodization: 6500–4500 BC; Europe: 3500–3000 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region.

Eneolithic

Main article: Eneolithic

Periodization: Near East: 4500–3300 BC; Europe: 3000–1700 BC; Elsewhere: varies greatly, depending on region. In the Americas, the Eneolithic ended as late as the 19th century AD for some peoples.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Some archaeologists have long advocated replacing "Neolithic" with a more descriptive term, such as "Early Village Communities", but this has not gained wide acceptance.

  2. ^ The potter's wheel was a later refinement that revolutionized pottery-making.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ "Neolithic: definition of Neolithic in Oxford dictionary (British & World English)".

  2. ^ Morelle, Rebecca (21 June 2019). "old stone tools pre-date earliest human". South African History online.

  3. ^ "Neolithic". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)

  4. ^ Diamond, J.; Bellwood, P. (2003). "Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions". Science. 300 (5619): 597–603. Bibcode:2003Sci...300..597D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1013.4523. doi:10.1126/science.1078208. PMID 12714734.

  5. ^ Habu, Junko (2004). Ancient Jomon of Japan. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-521-77670-7.

  6. ^ Xiaohong Wu. "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Sciencemag.org. Retrieved15 January 2015.

  7. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e Bellwood 2004, p. 384.

  8. ^ "New Archaeological Discoveries and Researches in 2004 — The Fourth Archaeology Forum of CASS". Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences. April 28, 2005. Retrieved September 18, 2007.

  9. ^ Scham, Sandra (November 2008). "The World's First Temple". Archaeology. Archaeological Institute of America. 61(6): 23.

  10. ^ Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (June 2, 2006). "Early Domesticated Fig in the Jordan Valley". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 312(5778): 1372–1374. doi:10.1126/science.1125910. PMID 16741119.

  11. ^ "Neolithic Age".

  12. ^ Feldman, Keffie. "Ain-Ghazal (Jordan) Pre-pottery Neolithic B Period pit of lime plaster human figures". Joukowsky Institute for Archaeology and the Ancient World. Brown University. Retrieved March 9, 2018.

  13. ^ Killebrew, Ann E.; Steiner, Margreet; Goring-Morris, A. Nigel; Belfer-Cohen, Anna (2013-11-01). "The Southern Levant (Cisjordan) During the Neolithic Period". The Oxford Handbook of the Archaeology of the Levant. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199212972.013.011. ISBN 9780199212972.

  14. ^ Yet another sensational discovery by polish archaeologists in Syria. eduskrypt.pl. 21 June 2006

  15. ^ "Jericho", Encyclopædia Britannica

  16. ^ Haïdar Boustani, M., The Neolithic of Lebanon in the context of the Near East: State of knowledge (in French), Annales d'Histoire et d'Archaeologie, Universite Saint-Joseph, Beyrouth, Vol. 12–13, 2001–2002. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.

  17. ^ Stordeur, Danielle., Abbès Frédéric., Du PPNA au PPNB : mise en lumière d'une phase de transition à Jerf el Ahmar (Syrie), Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française, Volume 99, Issue 3, pp. 563–595, 2002

  18. ^ PPND – the Platform for Neolithic Radiocarbon Dates – Summary. exoriente. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.

  19. ^ Linseele, V.; et al. (July 2010). "Sites with Holocene dung deposits in the Eastern Desert of Egypt: Visited by herders?"(PDF). Journal of Arid Environments. 74 (7): 818–828. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2009.04.014.

  20. ^ Hays, Jeffrey (March 2011). "EARLY DOMESTICATED ANIMALS". Facts and Details. Archived from the original on 21 October 2013. Retrieved 5 September 2013.

  21. ^ Blench, Roger; MacDonald, Kevin C (1999). The Origins and Development of African Livestock. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-84142-018-9.

  22. ^ Barker, Graeme (25 March 2009). The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers Become Farmers?. Oxford University Press. pp. 292–293. ISBN 978-0-19-955995-4. Retrieved 3 December 2011.

  23. ^ Alexandra Y. Aĭkhenvalʹd; Robert Malcolm Ward Dixon (2006). Areal Diffussion and Genetic Inheritance: Problems in Comparative Linguistics. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-19-928308-8.

  24. ^ Fekri A. Hassan (2002). Droughts, food and culture: ecological change and food security in Africa's later prehistory. Springer. pp. 164–. ISBN 978-0-306-46755-4. Retrieved 3 December 2011.

  25. ^ Shillington, Kevin (2005). Encyclopedia of African history: A-G. CRC Press. pp. 521–. ISBN 978-1-57958-245-6. Retrieved 3 December 2011.

  26. ^ Dawn Fuller (April 16, 2012). "UC research reveals one of the earliest farming sites in Europe". Phys.org. Retrieved April 18,2012.

  27. ^ one of Earliest Farming Sites in Europe Discovered". ScienceDaily. April 16, 2012. Retrieved April 18, 2012.

  28. ^ Female figurine, c. 6000 BC, Nea Nikomidia, Macedonia, Veroia, (Archaeological Museum), Greece. Macedonian-heritage.gr. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.

  29. ^ Winn, Shan (1981). Pre-writing in Southeastern Europe: The Sign System of the Vinča Culture ca. 4000 BC. Calgary: Western Publishers.

  30. ^ Daniel Cilia, "Malta Before Common Era", in The Megalithic Temples of Malta. Retrieved 28 January 2007.

  31. ^ Piccolo, Salvatore (2013) Ancient Stones: The Prehistoric Dolmens of Sicily, Abingdon-on-Thames, England: Brazen Head Publishing, pp. 33-34 ISBN 978-0-9565106-2-4

  32. ^ Coningham, Robin; Young, Ruth (2015), The Archaeology of South Asia: From the Indus to Asoka, c. 6500 BCE – 200 CE, Cambridge University Press Quote: ""Mehrgarh remains one of the key sites in South Asia because it has provided the earliest known undisputed evidence for farming and pastoral communities in the region, and its plant and animal material provide clear evidence for the ongoing manipulation, and domestication, of certain species. Perhaps most importantly in a South Asian context, the role played by zebu makes this a distinctive, localised development, with a character completely different to other parts of the world. Finally, the longevity of the site, and its articulation with the neighbouring site of Nausharo (c. 2800—2000 BCE), provides a very clear continuity from South Asia's first farming villages to the emergence of its first cities (Jarrige, 1984)."

  33. ^ Fisher, Michael H. (2018), An Environmental History of India: From Earliest Times to the Twenty-First Century, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-1-107-11162-2 Quote: "page 33: "The earliest discovered instance in India of well-established, settled agricultural society is at Mehrgarh in the hills between the Bolan Pass and the Indus plain (today in Pakistan) (see Map 3.1). From as early as 7000 BCE, communities there started investing increased labor in preparing the land and selecting, planting, tending, and harvesting particular grain-producing plants. They also domesticated animals, including sheep, goats, pigs, and oxen (both humped zebu [Bos indicus] and unhumped [Bos taurus]). Castrating oxen, for instance, turned them from mainly meat sources into domesticated draft-animals as well."

  34. ^ Dyson, Tim (2018), A Population History of India: From the First Modern People to the Present Day, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-882905-8, Quote: "(p 29) "The subcontinent's people were hunter-gatherers for many millennia. There were very few of them. Indeed, 10,000 years ago there may only have been a couple of hundred thousand people, living in small, often isolated groups, the descendants of various 'modern' human incomers. Then, perhaps linked to events in Mesopotamia, about 8,500 years ago agriculture emerged in Baluchistan."

  35. ^ Wright, Rita P. (2009), The Ancient Indus: Urbanism, Economy, and Society, Cambridge University Press, pp. 44, 51, ISBN 978-0-521-57652-9

  36. ^ Coppa, A.; Bondioli, L.; Cucina, A.; Frayer, D. W.; Jarrige, C.; Jarrige, J. -F.; Quivron, G.; Rossi, M.; Vidale, M.; Macchiarelli, R. (2006). "Early Neolithic tradition of dentistry". Nature. 440(7085): 755–756. doi:10.1038/440755a. ISSN 0028-0836.

  37. ^ Eleni Asouti and Dorian Q Fuller (2007). TREES AND WOODLANDS OF SOUTH INDIA: ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES.

  38. ^ Xiaoyan Yang (2012). "Early millet use in northern China". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (10): 3726–3730. doi:10.1073/pnas.1115430109. PMC 3309722. PMID 22355109. Retrieved 15 January 2015.

  39. ^ The Archaeology News Network. 2012. "Neolithic farm field found in South Korea".

  40. ^ The Korea Times (2012). "East Asia's oldest remains of agricultural field found in Korea".

  41. ^ Willey, Gordon R.; Phillips, Philip (1957). Method and Theory in American Archaeology. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-89888-9.

  42. ^ Kohler TA, M Glaude, JP Bocquet-Appel and Brian M Kemp (2008). "The Neolithic Demographic Transition in the North American Southwest". American Antiquity. 73 (4): 645–669. doi:10.1017/s000273160004734x.

  43. ^ A. Eichler, G. Gramlich, T. Kellerhals, L. Tobler, Th. Rehren & M. Schwikowski (2017). "Ice-core evidence of earliest extensive copper metallurgy in the Andes 2700 years ago"

  44. ^ White, Peter, "Revisiting the ‘Neolithic Problem’ in Australia" PDF, 2006

  45. ^ Jump up to:a b Leonard D. Katz Rigby; S. Stephen Henry Rigby (2000). Evolutionary Origins of Morality: Cross-disciplinary Perspectives. United kingdom: Imprint Academic. p. 158. ISBN 0-7190-5612- 8.

  46. ^ Langer, Jonas; Killen, Melanie (1998). Piaget, evolution, and development. Psychology Press. pp. 258–. ISBN 978-0-8058-2210-6. Retrieved 3 December 2011.

  47. ^ "The Oldest Civilization in the Americas Revealed" (PDF). CharlesMann. Science. Retrieved 9 October 2015.

  48. ^ "First Andes Civilization Explored". BBC News. 22 December 2004. Retrieved 9 October 2015.

  49. ^ Hommon, Robert J. (2013). The ancient Hawaiian state: origins of a political society (First ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-991612-2.

  50. ^ "Stone Age," Microsoft Encarta online Encyclopedia 2007© 1997–2007 Microsoft Corporation. All Rights Reserved. Contributed by Kathy Schick, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. and Nicholas Toth, B.A., M.A., Ph.D. Archived 2009-11-01.

  51. ^ Jump up to:a b Russell Dale Guthrie (2005). The nature of Paleolithic art. University of Chicago Press. pp. 420–. ISBN 978-0-226-31126-5. Retrieved 3 December 2011.

  52. ^ "Farming Pioneered in Ancient New Guinea". New Scientist. New Scientist. Retrieved 9 October 2015.

  53. ^ Jump up to:a b Bahn, Paul (1996) "The atlas of world archeology" Copyright 2000 The brown Reference Group plc

  54. ^ "Prehistoric Cultures". Museum of Ancient and Modern Art. 2010. Retrieved 5 September 2013.

  55. ^ Hirst, K. Kris. "Çatalhöyük: Urban Life in Neolithic Anatolia". About.com Archaeology. About.com. Retrieved 5 September2013.

  56. ^ Idyllic Theory of Goddess Creates Storm Archived 2008-02-19 at the Wayback Machine. Holysmoke.org. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.

  57. ^ Krause (1998) under External links, places.

  58. ^ Gimbutas (1991) page 143.

  59. ^ Kuijt, Ian (30 June 2000). Life in Neolithic farming communities: social organization, identity, and differentiation. Springer. pp. 317–. ISBN 978-0-306-46122-4. Retrieved 3 December 2011.

  60. ^ Jump up to:a b Shane, Orrin C. III, and Mine Küçuk. "The World's First City." Archived 2008-03-15 at the Wayback MachineArchaeology 51.2 (1998): 43–47.

  61. ^ Barber, E. J. W. (1991). Prehistoric Textiles:The Development of Cloth in the Neolithic and Bronze Ages with Special Reference to the Aegean. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-00224-8.

  62. ^ Alan W. Ertl (15 August 2008). Toward an Understanding of Europe: A Political Economic Précis of Continental Integration. Universal-Publishers. p. 308. ISBN 978-1-59942-983-0. Retrieved 28 March 2011.

  63. ^ Harris, Susanna (2009). "Smooth and Cool, or Warm and Soft: Investigating the Properties of Cloth in Prehistory". North European Symposium for Archaeological Textiles X. Academia.edu. Retrieved 5 September 2013.

  64. ^ "Aspects of Life During the Neolithic Period" (PDF). Teachers' Curriculum Institute. Archived from the original(PDF) on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2013.

  65. ^ Gibbs, Kevin T. (2006). "Pierced clay disks and Late Neolithic textile production". Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East. Academia.org. Retrieved 5 September 2013.

  66. ^ Green, Jean M (1993). "Unraveling the Enigma of the Bi: The Spindle Whorl as the Model of the Ritual Disk". Asian Perspectives. University of Hawai'i Press. 32 (1): 105–24. hdl:10125/17022.

  67. ^ Cook, M (2007). "The clay loom weight, in: Early Neolithic ritual activity, Bronze Age occupation and medieval activity at Pitlethie Road, Leuchars, Fife". Tayside and Fife Archaeological Journal. 13: 1–23.

  68. ^ Oliver Dietrich; Çiğdem Köksal-Schmidt; Jens Notroff; Klaus Schmidt (2016). "Establishing a Radiocarbon Sequence for Göbekli Tepe. State of Research and New Data". NEO-LITHICS 1/13 the Newsletter of Southwest Asian Neolithic Research.

  69. ^ Mazurowski, Ryszard F.; Kanjou, Youssef, eds. (2012). Tell Qaramel 1999-2007. Protoneolithic and early Pre-Pottery Neolithic settlement in Northern Syria. PCMA Excavation Series 2. Warsaw, Poland: Polish Center of Mediterranean Archaeology, University of Warsaw. ISBN 978-83-903796-3-0.

  70. ^ E. J. Peltenburg; Alexander Wasse; Council for British Research in the Levant (2004). Garfinkel, Yosef., "Néolithique" and "Énéolithique" Byblos in Southern Levantine Context in Neolithic revolution: new perspectives on southwest Asia in light of recent discoveries on Cyprus. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-132-5. Retrieved 18 January 2012.

  71. ^ Jump up to:a b Ostaptchouk, Dr. "Contribution of FTIR to the Characterization of the Raw Material for "Flint" Chipped Stone and for Beads from Mentesh Tepe and Kamiltepe (Azerbaijan). Preliminary Results".

  72. ^ Davis K. Thanjan (12 January 2011). Pebbles. Bookstand Publishing. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-1-58909-817-6. Retrieved 4 July2011.

  73. ^ Developed Neolithic period, 5500 BC. Eliznik.org.uk. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.

  74. ^ "Manunggul Burial Jar". Virtual Collection of Asian Masterpieces. Retrieved 5 September 2013.

  75. ^ "Tabon Cave Complex". National Museum of the Philippines. 2011. Retrieved 5 September 2013.

  76. ^ "NEOLITHIC CULTURE OF TAMIL NADU: AN OVERVIEW"(PDF).

Sources[edit]

External links[edit]

 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Neolithicand Neolithic artefacts.

 

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Neolithic

 

Neolithic Revolution

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

출처;https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic_Revolution

 

 

 

This article is about the introduction of agriculture during the Stone Age. For later historical breakthroughs in agriculture, see Agricultural revolution (disambiguation).

 

Area of the fertile crescent, circa 7500 BC, with main archaeological sites of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period. The area of Mesopotamia proper was not yet settled by humans.

The Neolithic Revolution, Neolithic Demographic Transition, Agricultural Revolution, or First Agricultural Revolution was the wide-scale transition of many human cultures during the Neolithic period from a lifestyle of hunting and gathering to one of agriculture and settlement, making an increasingly larger population possible.[1] These settled communities permitted humans to observe and experiment with plants to learn how they grew and developed.[2] This new knowledge led to the domestication of plants.[2][3]

Archaeological data indicates that the domestication of various types of plants and animals happened in separate locations worldwide, starting in the geological epoch of the Holocene[4] around 12,500 years ago.[5] It was the world's first historically verifiable revolution in agriculture. The Neolithic Revolution greatly narrowed the diversity of foods available, resulting in a downturn in the quality of human nutrition.[6]

The Neolithic Revolution involved far more than the adoption of a limited set of food-producing techniques. During the next millennia it would transform the small and mobile groups of hunter-gatherers that had hitherto dominated human pre-history into sedentary (non-nomadic) societies based in built-up villages and towns. These societies radically modified their natural environment by means of specialized food-crop cultivation, with activities such as irrigation and deforestation which allowed the production of surplus food. Other developments found very widely are the domestication of animals, pottery, polished stone tools, and rectangular houses.

These developments, sometimes called the Neolithic package, provided the basis for centralized administrations and political structures, hierarchical ideologies, depersonalized systems of knowledge (e.g. writing), densely populated settlements, specialization and division of labour, more trade, the development of non-portable art and architecture, and property ownership. The earliest known civilization developed in Sumer in southern Mesopotamia (

c.

  6,500 BP); its emergence also heralded the beginning of the Bronze Age.[7]

The relationship of the above-mentioned Neolithic characteristics to the onset of agriculture, their sequence of emergence, and empirical relation to each other at various Neolithic sites remains the subject of academic debate, and varies from place to place, rather than being the outcome of universal laws of social evolution.[8][9] The Levant saw the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC, followed by sites in the wider Fertile Crescent.

Contents

Agricultural transition[edit]

See also: Ancient grains

 

Evolution of temperatures in the Post-Glacial period after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) according to Greenland ice cores. The birth of agriculture corresponds to the period of quickly rising temperature at the end of the cold spell of the Younger Dryas and the beginning of the long and warm period of the Holocene.[10]

 

Map of the world showing approximate centers of origin of agriculture and its spread in prehistory: the Fertile Crescent (11,000 BP), the Yangtze and Yellow River basins (9,000 BP) and the New Guinea Highlands (9,000–6,000 BP), Central Mexico (5,000–4,000 BP), Northern South America (5,000–4,000 BP), sub-Saharan Africa (5,000–4,000 BP, exact location unknown), eastern North America (4,000–3,000 BP).[11]

The term Neolithic Revolution was coined in 1923 by V. Gordon Childe to describe the first in a series of agricultural revolutions in Middle Eastern history. The period is described as a "revolution" to denote its importance, and the great significance and degree of change affecting the communities in which new agricultural practices were gradually adopted and refined.

The beginning of this process in different regions has been dated from 10,000 to 8,000 BC in the Fertile Crescent[5][12] and perhaps 8000 BC in the Kuk Early Agricultural Site of Melanesia.[13][14] This transition everywhere seems associated with a change from a largely nomadic hunter-gatherer way of life to a more settled, agrarian-based one, with the inception of the domestication of various plant and animal species—depending on the species locally available, and probably also influenced by local culture. Recent archaeological research suggests that in some regions such as the Southeast Asian peninsula, the transition from hunter-gatherer to agriculturalist was not linear, but region-specific.[15]

There are several competing (but not mutually exclusive) theories as to the factors that drove populations to take up agriculture. The most prominent of these are:

  • The Oasis Theory, originally proposed by Raphael Pumpelly in 1908, popularized by V. Gordon Childe in 1928 and summarised in Childe's book Man Makes Himself.[16] This theory maintains that as the climate got drier due to the Atlantic depressions shifting northward, communities contracted to oases where they were forced into close association with animals, which were then domesticated together with planting of seeds. However, today this theory has little support amongst archaeologists because subsequent climate data suggests that the region was getting wetter rather than drier.[17]

  • The Hilly Flanks hypothesis, proposed by Robert Braidwood in 1948, suggests that agriculture began in the hilly flanks of the Taurus and Zagros mountains, where the climate was not drier as Childe had believed, and fertile land supported a variety of plants and animals amenable to domestication.[18]

 

Associations of wild cereals and other wild grasses in northern Israel

  • The Feasting model by Brian Hayden[19] suggests that agriculture was driven by ostentatious displays of power, such as giving feasts, to exert dominance. This required assembling large quantities of food, which drove agricultural technology.

  • The Demographic theories proposed by Carl Sauer[20] and adapted by Lewis Binford[21] and Kent Flannery posit an increasingly sedentary population that expanded up to the carrying capacity of the local environment and required more food than could be gathered. Various social and economic factors helped drive the need for food.

  • The evolutionary/intentionality theory, developed by David Rindos[22] and others, views agriculture as an evolutionary adaptation of plants and humans. Starting with domestication by protection of wild plants, it led to specialization of location and then full-fledged domestication.

  • Peter Richerson, Robert Boyd, and Robert Bettinger[23] make a case for the development of agriculture coinciding with an increasingly stable climate at the beginning of the Holocene. Ronald Wright's book and Massey Lecture Series A Short History of Progress[24] popularized this hypothesis.

  • The postulated Younger Dryas impact event, claimed to be in part responsible for megafauna extinction and ending the last glacial period, could have provided circumstances that required the evolution of agricultural societies for humanity to survive.[25] The agrarian revolution itself is a reflection of typical overpopulation by certain species following initial events during extinction eras; this overpopulation itself ultimately propagates the extinction event.

  • Leonid Grinin argues that whatever plants were cultivated, the independent invention of agriculture always took place in special natural environments (e.g., South-East Asia). It is supposed that the cultivation of cereals started somewhere in the Near East: in the hills of Palestine or Egypt. So Grinin dates the beginning of the agricultural revolution within the interval 12,000 to 9,000 BP, though in some cases the first cultivated plants or domesticated animals' bones are even of a more ancient age of 14–15 thousand years ago.[26]

  • Andrew Moore suggested that the Neolithic Revolution originated over long periods of development in the Levant, possibly beginning during the Epipaleolithic. In "A Reassessment of the Neolithic Revolution", Frank Hole further expanded the relationship between plant and animal domestication. He suggested the events could have occurred independently over different periods of time, in as yet unexplored locations. He noted that no transition site had been found documenting the shift from what he termed immediate and delayed return social systems. He noted that the full range of domesticated animals (goats, sheep, cattle and pigs) were not found until the sixth millennium at Tell Ramad. Hole concluded that "close attention should be paid in future investigations to the western margins of the Euphrates basin, perhaps as far south as the Arabian Peninsula, especially where wadis carrying Pleistocene rainfall runoff flowed."[27]

Early harvesting of cereals (23,000 BP)[edit]

 

Composite sickles for cereal harvesting at 23,000-Years-Old Ohalo II, Israel.

Use-wear analysis of five glossed flint blades found at Ohalo II, a 23,000-years-old fisher-hunter-gatherers’ camp on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, Northern Israel, provides the earliest evidence for the use of composite cereal harvesting tools.[28] The Ohalo site is at the junction of the Upper Paleolithic and the Early Epipaleolithic, and has been attributed to both periods.[29]

The wear traces indicate that tools were used for harvesting near-ripe semi-green wild cereals, shortly before grains are ripe and disperse naturally.[28] The studied tools were not used intensively, and they reflect two harvesting modes: flint knives held by hand and inserts hafted in a handle.[28] The finds shed new light on cereal harvesting techniques some 8,000 years before the Natufian and 12,000 years before the establishment of sedentary farming communities in the Near East.[28] Furthermore, the new finds accord well with evidence for the earliest ever cereal cultivation at the site and the use of stone-made grinding implements.[28]

Domestication of plants[edit]

Further information: History of agriculture

Once agriculture started gaining momentum, around 9000 BC, human activity resulted in the selective breeding of cereal grasses (beginning with emmer, einkorn and barley), and not simply of those that would favour greater caloric returns through larger seeds. Plants with traits such as small seeds or bitter taste would have been seen as undesirable. Plants that rapidly shed their seeds on maturity tended not to be gathered at harvest, therefore not stored and not seeded the following season; successive years of harvesting spontaneously selected for strains that retained their edible seeds longer.

 

An "Orange slice" sickle blade element with inverse, discontinuous retouch on each side, not denticulated. Found in large quantities at Qaraoun II and often with Heavy Neolithic tools in the flint workshops of the Beqaa Valley in Lebanon. Suggested by James Mellaart to be older than the Pottery Neolithic of Byblos (around 8,400 cal. BP).

Daniel Zohary identified several plant species as "pioneer crops" or Neolithic founder crops. He highlighted the importance of wheat, barley and rye, and suggested that domestication of flax, peas, chickpeas, bitter vetch and lentils came a little later. Based on analysis of the genes of domesticated plants, he preferred theories of a single, or at most a very small number of domestication events for each taxon that spread in an arc from the Levantine corridor around the Fertile Crescent and later into Europe.[30][31] Gordon Hillman and Stuart Davies carried out experiments with varieties of wild wheat to show that the process of domestication would have occurred over a relatively short period of between 20 and 200 years.[32] Some of the pioneering attempts failed at first and crops were abandoned, sometimes to be taken up again and successfully domesticated thousands of years later: rye, tried and abandoned in Neolithic Anatolia, made its way to Europe as weed seeds and was successfully domesticated in Europe, thousands of years after the earliest agriculture.[33] Wild lentils presented a different problem: most of the wild seeds do not germinate in the first year; the first evidence of lentil domestication, breaking dormancy in their first year, appears in the early Neolithic at Jerf el Ahmar (in modern Syria), and lentils quickly spread south to the Netiv HaGdud site in the Jordan Valley.[33] The process of domestication allowed the founder crops to adapt and eventually become larger, more easily harvested, more dependable[clarification needed] in storage and more useful to the human population.

 

Neolithic grindstone or quern for processing grain

Selectively propagated figs, wild barley and wild oats were cultivated at the early Neolithic site of Gilgal I, where in 2006[34] archaeologists found caches of seeds of each in quantities too large to be accounted for even by intensive gathering, at strata datable to 

c.

 11,000 years ago. Some of the plants tried and then abandoned during the Neolithic period in the Ancient Near East, at sites like Gilgal, were later successfully domesticated in other parts of the world.

Once early farmers perfected their agricultural techniques like irrigation (traced as far back as the 6th millennium BC in Khuzistan[35][36]), their crops would yield surpluses that needed storage. Most hunter-gatherers could not easily store food for long due to their migratory lifestyle, whereas those with a sedentary dwelling could store their surplus grain. Eventually granaries were developed that allowed villages to store their seeds longer. So with more food, the population expanded and communities developed specialized workers and more advanced tools.

The process was not as linear as was once thought, but a more complicated effort, which was undertaken by different human populations in different regions in many different ways.

 

Genetic analysis on the spread of barley from 9,000 to 2,000 BC[37]

Spread of crops: the case of barley[edit]

Main article: Barley

One of the world’s most important crops, barley, was domesticated in the Near East around 11,000 years ago (c. 9,000 BC).[37] Barley is a highly resilient crop, able to grown in varied and marginal environments, such as in regions of high altitude and latitude.[37] Archaeobotanical evidence shows that barley had spread throughout Eurasia by 2,000 BC.[37] To further elucidate the routes by which barley cultivation was spread through Eurasia, genetic analysis was used to determine genetic diversity and population structure in extant barley taxa.[37] Genetic analysis shows that cultivated barley spread through Eurasia via several different routes, which were most likely separated in both time and space.[37]

Development and diffusion[edit]

Beginnings in the Levant[edit]

Main articles: Pre-Pottery Neolithic and Pottery Neolithic

 

The Neolithic is characterized by fixed human settlements and the invention of agriculture from circa 10,000 BC. Reconstitution of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B housing in Aşıklı Höyük, modern Turkey.

Agriculture appeared first in Southwest Asia about 2,000 years later, around 10,000–9,000 years ago. The region was the centre of domestication for three cereals (einkorn wheat, emmer wheat and barley), four legumes (lentil, pea, bitter vetch and chickpea), and flax. Domestication was a slow process that unfolded across multiple regions, and was preceded by centuries if not millennia of pre-domestication cultivation.[38]

Finds of large quantities of seeds and a grinding stone at the Epipalaeolithic site of Ohalo II, dating to around 19,400 BP, has shown some of the earliest evidence for advanced planning of plants for food consumption and suggests that humans at Ohalo II processed the grain before consumption.[39][40] Tell Aswad is the oldest site of agriculture, with domesticated emmer wheat dated to 10,800 BP.[41][42] Soon after came hulled, two-row barley - found domesticated earliest at Jericho in the Jordan valley and at Iraq ed-Dubb in Jordan.[43] Other sites in the Levantine corridor that show early evidence of agriculture include Wadi Faynan 16 and Netiv Hagdud.[5] Jacques Cauvin noted that the settlers of Aswad did not domesticate on site, but "arrived, perhaps from the neighbouring Anti-Lebanon, already equipped with the seed for planting".[44] In the Eastern Fertile Crescent, evidence of cultivation of wild plants has been found in Choga Gholan in Iran dated to 12,000 BP, suggesting there were multiple regions in the Fertile Crescent where domestication evolved roughly contemporaneously.[45] The Heavy Neolithic Qaraoun culture has been identified at around fifty sites in Lebanon around the source springs of the River Jordan, but never reliably dated.[46][47]

Europe[edit]

Main article: Neolithic Europe

 

Chronology of arrival times of the Neolithic transition in Europe from 9,000 to 3,500 before present

Archeologists trace the emergence of food-producing societies in the Levantine region of southwest Asia at the close of the last glacial period around 12,000 BC, and developed into a number of regionally distinctive cultures by the eighth millennium BC. Remains of food-producing societies in the Aegean have been carbon-dated to around 6500 BC at Knossos, Franchthi Cave, and a number of mainland sites in Thessaly. Neolithic groups appear soon afterwards in the Balkans and south-central Europe. The Neolithic cultures of southeastern Europe (the Balkans and the Aegean) show some continuity with groups in southwest Asia and Anatolia (e.g., Çatalhöyük).

Current evidence suggests that Neolithic material culture was introduced to Europe via western Anatolia. All Neolithic sites in Europe contain ceramics, and contain the plants and animals domesticated in Southwest Asia: einkorn, emmer, barley, lentils, pigs, goats, sheep, and cattle. Genetic data suggest that no independent domestication of animals took place in Neolithic Europe, and that all domesticated animals were originally domesticated in Southwest Asia.[48] The only domesticate not from Southwest Asia was broomcorn millet, domesticated in East Asia.[49]The earliest evidence of cheese-making dates to 5500 BC in Kujawy, Poland.[50]

The diffusion across Europe, from the Aegean to Britain, took about 2,500 years (6500–4000 BC). The Baltic region was penetrated a bit later, around 3500 BC, and there was also a delay in settling the Pannonian plain. In general, colonization shows a "saltatory" pattern, as the Neolithic advanced from one patch of fertile alluvial soil to another, bypassing mountainous areas. Analysis of radiocarbon dates show clearly that Mesolithic and Neolithic populations lived side by side for as much as a millennium in many parts of Europe, especially in the Iberian peninsula and along the Atlantic coast.[51]

Carbon 14 evidence[edit]

 

Ancient European Neolithic farmers were genetically closest to modern Neast-Eastern/ Anatolian populations. Genetic matrilineal distances between European Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture populations (5,500–4,900 calibrated BC) and modern Western Eurasian populations.[52]

The spread of the Neolithic from the Near East Neolithic to Europe was first studied quantitatively in the 1970s, when a sufficient number of Carbon 14 age determinations for early Neolithic sites had become available.[53] Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza discovered a linear relationship between the age of an Early Neolithic site and its distance from the conventional source in the Near East (Jericho), thus demonstrating that, on average, the Neolithic spread at a constant speed of about 1 km/yr.[53] More recent studies confirm these results and yield the speed of 0.6–1.3 km/yr at 95% confidence level.[53]

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA[edit]

Since the original human expansions out of Africa 200,000 years ago, different prehistoric and historic migration events have taken place in Europe.[54] Considering that the movement of the people implies a consequent movement of their genes, it is possible to estimate the impact of these migrations through the genetic analysis of human populations.[54] Agricultural and husbandry practices originated 10,000 years ago in a region of the Near East known as the Fertile Crescent.[54] According to the archaeological record this phenomenon, known as “Neolithic”, rapidly expanded from these territories into Europe.[54] However, whether this diffusion was accompanied or not by human migrations is greatly debated.[54] Mitochondrial DNA –a type of maternally inherited DNA located in the cell cytoplasm- was recovered from the remains of Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB) farmers in the Near East and then compared to available data from other Neolithic populations in Europe and also to modern populations from South Eastern Europe and the Near East.[54] The obtained results show that substantial human migrations were involved in the Neolithic spread and suggest that the first Neolithic farmers entered Europe following a maritime route through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands.[54]

    • Map of the spread of Neolithic farming cultures from the Near-East to Europe, with dates.

 

       

 

    • Modern distribution of the haplotypes of PPNB farmers

 

       

 

  • Genetic distance between PPNB farmers and modern populations

South Asia[edit]

See also: South Asian Stone Age

Expansion to South Asia

Early Neolithic sites in the Near East and South Asia 10,000-3,800 BC

Neolithic dispersal from the Near East to South Asia suggested by the time of establishment of Neolithic sites as a function of distance from Gesher, Israel. The dispersal rate amounts to about 0.6 km per year.[55]

The earliest Neolithic sites in South Asia are Bhirrana in Haryana dated to 7570–6200 BC,[56] and Mehrgarh, dated to between 6500 and 5500 BC, in the Kachi plain of Baluchistan, Pakistan; the site has evidence of farming (wheat and barley) and herding (cattle, sheep and goats).

There is strong evidence for causal connections between the Near-Eastern Neolithic and that further east, up to the Indus Valley.[57] There are several lines of evidence that support the idea of connection between the Neolithic in the Near East and in the Indian subcontinent.[57] The prehistoric site of Mehrgarh in Baluchistan (modern Pakistan) is the earliest Neolithic site in the north-west Indian subcontinent, dated as early as 8500 BC.[57] Neolithic domesticated crops in Mehrgarh include more than barley and a small amount of wheat. There is good evidence for the local domestication of barley and the zebu cattle at Mehrgarh, but the wheat varieties are suggested to be of Near-Eastern origin, as the modern distribution of wild varieties of wheat is limited to Northern Levant and Southern Turkey.[57] A detailed satellite map study of a few archaeological sites in the Baluchistan and Khybar Pakhtunkhwa regions also suggests similarities in early phases of farming with sites in Western Asia.[57] Pottery prepared by sequential slab construction, circular fire pits filled with burnt pebbles, and large granaries are common to both Mehrgarh and many Mesopotamian sites.[57] The postures of the skeletal remains in graves at Mehrgarh bear strong resemblance to those at Ali Kosh in the Zagros Mountains of southern Iran.[57] Despite their scarcity, the 14C and archaeological age determinations for early Neolithic sites in Southern Asia exhibit remarkable continuity across the vast region from the Near East to the Indian Subcontinent, consistent with a systematic eastward spread at a speed of about 0.65 km/yr.[57]

In South India, the Neolithic began by 6500 BC and lasted until around 1400 BC when the Megalithic transition period began. South Indian Neolithic is characterized by Ash mounds[clarification needed] from 2500 BC in Karnataka region, expanded later to Tamil Nadu.[58]

In East Asia[edit]

See also: Rice domestication, Neolithic China, and Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

 

Spatial distribution of rice, millet and mixed farming sites in Neolithic China (He et al., 2017)[59]

Agriculture in Neolithic China can be separated into two broad regions, Northern China and Southern China.[59][60]

The first agricultural center in northern China is believed to be the homelands of the early Sino-Tibetan-speakers, associated with the Houli, Peiligang, Cishan, and Xinglongwa cultures, clustered around the Yellow River basin.[59][60] It was the domestication center for foxtail millet (Setaria italica) and broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum) with evidence of domestication of these species approximately 8,000 years ago.[61] These species were subsequently widely cultivated in the Yellow River basin (7,500 years ago).[61] Soybean was also domesticated in northern China 4,500 years ago.[62] Orange and peach also originated in China. They were cultivated around 2500 BC.[63][64]

 

Likely routes of early rice transfer, and possible language family homelands (ca. 3,500 to 500 BC). The approximate coastlines during the early Holocene are shown in lighter blue. (Bellwood, 2011)[60]

The second agricultural center in southern China are clustered around the Yangtze River basin. Rice was domesticated in this region, together with the development of paddy field cultivation, between 13,500 and 8,200 years ago.[59][65][66]

There are two possible centers of domestication for rice. The first, and most likely, is in the lower Yangtze River, believed to be the homelands of early Austronesian speakers and associated with the Kauhuqiao, Hemudu, Majiabang, and Songze cultures. It is characterized by typical pre-Austronesian features, including stilt houses, jade carving, and boat technologies. Their diet were also supplemented by acorns, water chestnuts, foxnuts, and pig domestication. The second is in the middle Yangtze River, believed to be the homelands of the early Hmong-Mien-speakers and associated with the Pengtoushan and Daxi cultures. Both of these regions were heavily populated and had regular trade contacts with each other, as well as with early Austroasiatic speakers to the west, and early Kra-Dai speakers to the south, facilitating the spread of rice cultivation throughout southern China.[66][59][60]

 

Chronological dispersal of Austronesian peoples across the Indo-Pacific (Bellwood in Chambers, 2008)

The millet and rice-farming cultures also first came into contact with each other at around 9,000 to 7,000 BP, resulting in a corridor between the millet and rice cultivation centers where both rice and millet were cultivated.[59] At around 5,500 to 4,000 BP, there was increasing migration into Taiwan from the early Austronesian Dapenkeng culture, bringing rice and millet cultivation technology with them. During this period, there is evidence of large settlements and intensive rice cultivation in Taiwan and the Penghu Islands, which may have resulted in overexploitation. Bellwood (2011) proposes that this may have been the impetus of the Austronesian expansion which started with the migration of the Austronesian-speakers from Taiwan to the Philippines at around 5,000 BP.[60]

Austronesians carried rice cultivation technology to Island Southeast Asia along with other domesticated species. The new tropical island environments also had new food plants that they exploited. They carried useful plants and animals during each colonization voyage, resulting in the rapid introduction of domesticated and semi-domesticated species throughout Oceania. They also came into contact with the early agricultural centers of Papuan-speaking populations of New Guinea as well as the Dravidian-speaking regions of South India and Sri Lanka by around 3,500 BP. They acquired further cultivated food plants like bananas and pepper from them, and in turn introduced Austronesian technologies like wetland cultivation and outrigger canoes.[60][67][68][69] During the 1st millennium AD, they also colonized Madagascar and the Comoros, bringing Southeast Asian food plants, including rice, to East Africa.[70][71]

In Africa[edit]

 

Nile River Valley, Egypt

On the African continent, three areas have been identified as independently developing agriculture: the Ethiopian highlands, the Sahel and West Africa.[72] By contrast, Agriculture in the Nile River Valley is thought to have developed from the original Neolithic Revolution in the Fertile Crescent. Many grinding stones are found with the early Egyptian Sebilian and Mechian cultures and evidence has been found of a neolithic domesticated crop-based economy dating around 7,000 BP.[73][74] Unlike the Middle East, this evidence appears as a "false dawn" to agriculture, as the sites were later abandoned, and permanent farming then was delayed until 6,500 BP with the Tasian and Badarian cultures and the arrival of crops and animals from the Near East.

Bananas and plantains, which were first domesticated in Southeast Asia, most likely Papua New Guinea, were re-domesticated in Africa possibly as early as 5,000 years ago. Asian yams and taro were also cultivated in Africa.[72]

The most famous crop domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands is coffee. In addition, khat, ensete, noog, teff and finger millet were also domesticated in the Ethiopian highlands. Crops domesticated in the Sahel region include sorghum and pearl millet. The kola nut was first domesticated in West Africa. Other crops domesticated in West Africa include African rice, yams and the oil palm.[72]

Agriculture spread to Central and Southern Africa in the Bantu expansion during the 1st millennium BC to 1st millennium AD.

In the Americas[edit]

Further information: New World crops, Ancestral Puebloans, Oasisamerica, and Proto-Uto-Aztecan

Maize (corn), beans and squash were among the earliest crops domesticated in Mesoamerica, with maize beginning about 4000 BC,[75] squash as early as 6000 BC, and beans by no later than 4000 BC. Potatoes and manioc were domesticated in South America. In what is now the eastern United States, Native Americans domesticated sunflower, sumpweed and goosefoot around 2500 BC. Sedentary village life based on farming did not develop until the second millennium BC, referred to as the formative period.[76]

In New Guinea[edit]

See also: Domesticated plants and animals of Austronesia

Evidence of drainage ditches at Kuk Swamp on the borders of the Western and Southern Highlands of Papua New Guinea shows evidence of the cultivation of taro and a variety of other crops, dating back to 11,000 BP. Two potentially significant economic species, taro (Colocasia esculenta) and yam (Dioscorea sp.), have been identified dating at least to 10,200 calibrated years before present (cal BP). Further evidence of bananas and sugarcane dates to 6,950 to 6,440 BP. This was at the altitudinal limits of these crops, and it has been suggested that cultivation in more favourable ranges in the lowlands may have been even earlier. CSIRO has found evidence that taro was introduced into the Solomon Islands for human use, from 28,000 years ago, making taro cultivation the earliest crop in the world.[77][78] It seems to have resulted in the spread of the Trans–New Guinea languages from New Guinea east into the Solomon Islands and west into Timor and adjacent areas of Indonesia. This seems to confirm the theories of Carl Sauer who, in "Agricultural Origins and Dispersals", suggested as early as 1952 that this region was a centre of early agriculture.

Domestication of animals[edit]

Further information: Domestication of animals

When hunter-gathering began to be replaced by sedentary food production it became more profitable to keep animals close at hand.[citation needed] Therefore, it became necessary to bring animals permanently to their settlements, although in many cases there was a distinction between relatively sedentary farmers and nomadic herders.[79][original research?] The animals' size, temperament, diet, mating patterns, and life span were factors in the desire and success in domesticating animals. Animals that provided milk, such as cows and goats, offered a source of protein that was renewable and therefore quite valuable. The animal’s ability as a worker (for example ploughing or towing), as well as a food source, also had to be taken into account. Besides being a direct source of food, certain animals could provide leather, wool, hides, and fertilizer. Some of the earliest domesticated animals included dogs (East Asia, about 15,000 years ago),[80] sheep, goats, cows, and pigs.

Domestication of animals in the Middle East[edit]

 

Dromedary caravan in Algeria

The Middle East served as the source for many animals that could be domesticated, such as sheep, goats and pigs. This area was also the first region to domesticate the dromedary. Henri Fleisch discovered and termed the Shepherd Neolithic flint industry from the Bekaa Valley in Lebanon and suggested that it could have been used by the earliest nomadic shepherds. He dated this industry to the Epipaleolithic or Pre-Pottery Neolithic as it is evidently not Paleolithic, Mesolithic or even Pottery Neolithic.[47][81] The presence of these animals gave the region a large advantage in cultural and economic development. As the climate in the Middle East changed and became drier, many of the farmers were forced to leave, taking their domesticated animals with them. It was this massive emigration from the Middle East that would later help distribute these animals to the rest of Afroeurasia. This emigration was mainly on an east-west axis of similar climates, as crops usually have a narrow optimal climatic range outside of which they cannot grow for reasons of light or rain changes. For instance, wheat does not normally grow in tropical climates, just like tropical crops such as bananas do not grow in colder climates. Some authors, like Jared Diamond, have postulated that this East-West axis is the main reason why plant and animal domestication spread so quickly from the Fertile Crescent to the rest of Eurasia and North Africa, while it did not reach through the North-South axis of Africa to reach the Mediterranean climates of South Africa, where temperate crops were successfully imported by ships in the last 500 years.[82] Similarly, the African Zebu of central Africa and the domesticated bovines of the fertile-crescent — separated by the dry sahara desert — were not introduced into each other's region.

Consequences[edit]

Social change[edit]

 

World population (estimated) did not rise for a few millennia after the Neolithic revolution.

Despite the significant technological advance, the Neolithic revolution did not lead immediately to a rapid growth of population. Its benefits appear to have been offset by various adverse effects, mostly diseases and warfare.[83]

The introduction of agriculture has not necessarily led to unequivocal progress. The nutritional standards of the growing Neolithic populations were inferior to that of hunter-gatherers. Several ethnological and archaeological studies conclude that the transition to cereal-based diets caused a reduction in life expectancy and stature, an increase in infant mortality and infectious diseases, the development of chronic, inflammatory or degenerative diseases (such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) and multiple nutritional deficiencies, including vitamin deficiencies, iron deficiency anemia and mineral disorders affecting bones (such as osteoporosis and rickets) and teeth.[84][85][86] Average height went down from 5'10" (178 cm) for men and 5'6" (168 cm) for women to 5'5" (165 cm) and 5'1" (155 cm), respectively, and it took until the twentieth century for average human height to come back to the pre-Neolithic Revolution levels.[87]

The traditional view is that agricultural food production supported a denser population, which in turn supported larger sedentary communities, the accumulation of goods and tools, and specialization in diverse forms of new labor. The development of larger societies led to the development of different means of decision making and to governmental organization. Food surpluses made possible the development of a social elite who were not otherwise engaged in agriculture, industry or commerce, but dominated their communities by other means and monopolized decision-making.[88] Jared Diamond (in The World Until Yesterday) identifies the availability of milk and cereal grains as permitting mothers to raise both an older (e.g. 3 or 4 year old) and a younger child concurrently. The result is that a population can increase more rapidly. Diamond, in agreement with feminist scholars such as V. Spike Peterson, points out that agriculture brought about deep social divisions and encouraged gender inequality.[89][90]

Subsequent revolutions[edit]

 

Domesticated cow being milked in Ancient Egypt

Andrew Sherratt has argued that following upon the Neolithic Revolution was a second phase of discovery that he refers to as the secondary products revolution. Animals, it appears, were first domesticated purely as a source of meat.[91] The Secondary Products Revolution occurred when it was recognised that animals also provided a number of other useful products. These included:

Sherratt argued that this phase in agricultural development enabled humans to make use of the energy possibilities of their animals in new ways, and permitted permanent intensive subsistence farming and crop production, and the opening up of heavier soils for farming. It also made possible nomadic pastoralism in semi arid areas, along the margins of deserts, and eventually led to the domestication of both the dromedary and Bactrian camel.[91] Overgrazing of these areas, particularly by herds of goats, greatly extended the areal extent of deserts.

Living in one spot would have more easily permitted the accrual of personal possessions and an attachment to certain areas of land. From such a position, it is argued[by whom?], prehistoric people were able to stockpile food to survive lean times and trade unwanted surpluses with others. once trade and a secure food supply were established, populations could grow, and society would have diversified into food producers and artisans, who could afford to develop their trade by virtue of the free time they enjoyed because of a surplus of food. The artisans, in turn, were able to develop technology such as metal weapons. Such relative complexity would have required some form of social organisation to work efficiently, so it is likely that populations that had such organisation, perhaps such as that provided by religion, were better prepared and more successful. In addition, the denser populations could form and support legions of professional soldiers. Also, during this time property ownership became increasingly important to all people. Ultimately, Childe argued that this growing social complexity, all rooted in the original decision to settle, led to a second Urban Revolution in which the first cities were built.[citation needed]

Disease[edit]

Throughout the development of sedentary societies, disease spread more rapidly than it had during the time in which hunter-gatherer societies existed. Inadequate sanitary practices and the domestication of animals may explain the rise in deaths and sickness following the Neolithic Revolution, as diseases jumped from the animal to the human population. Some examples of infectious diseases spread from animals to humans are influenza, smallpox, and measles.[92] In concordance with a process of natural selection, the humans who first domesticated the big mammals quickly built up immunities to the diseases as within each generation the individuals with better immunities had better chances of survival. In their approximately 10,000 years of shared proximity with animals, such as cows, Eurasians and Africans became more resistant to those diseases compared with the indigenous populations encountered outside Eurasia and Africa.[93] For instance, the population of most Caribbean and several Pacific Islands have been completely wiped out by diseases. 90% or more of many populations of the Americas were wiped out by European and African diseases before recorded contact with European explorers or colonists. Some cultures like the Inca Empire did have a large domestic mammal, the llama, but llama milk was not drunk, nor did llamas live in a closed space with humans, so the risk of contagion was limited. According to bioarchaeological research, the effects of agriculture on physical and dental health in Southeast Asian rice farming societies from 4000 to 1500 B.P. was not detrimental to the same extent as in other world regions.[94]

Technology[edit]

In his book Guns, Germs, and Steel, Jared Diamond argues that Europeans and East Asians benefited from an advantageous geographical location that afforded them a head start in the Neolithic Revolution. Both shared the temperate climate ideal for the first agricultural settings, both were near a number of easily domesticable plant and animal species, and both were safer from attacks of other people than civilizations in the middle part of the Eurasian continent. Being among the first to adopt agriculture and sedentary lifestyles, and neighboring other early agricultural societies with whom they could compete and trade, both Europeans and East Asians were also among the first to benefit from technologies such as firearms and steel swords.[95]

Archaeogenetics[edit]

The dispersal of Neolithic culture from the Middle East has recently been associated with the distribution of human genetic markers. In Europe, the spread of the Neolithic culture has been associated with distribution of the E1b1b lineages and Haplogroup J that are thought to have arrived in Europe from North Africa and the Near East respectively.[96][97] In Africa, the spread of farming, and notably the Bantu expansion, is associated with the dispersal of Y-chromosome haplogroup E1b1a from West Africa.[96]

Comparative chronology[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jean-Pierre Bocquet-Appel (July 29, 2011). "When the World's Population Took Off: The Springboard of the Neolithic Demographic Transition". Science. 333 (6042): 560–561. Bibcode:2011Sci...333..560B. doi:10.1126/science.1208880. PMID 21798934.

  2. ^ Jump up to:a b Pollard, Elizabeth; Rosenberg, Clifford; Tigor, Robert (2015). Worlds together, worlds apart. 1 (concise ed.). New York: W.W. Norton & Company. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-393-25093-0.

  3. ^ Compare:Lewin, Roger (2009-02-18) [1984]. "35: The origin of agriculture and the first villagers". Human Evolution: An Illustrated Introduction (5 ed.). Malden, Massachusetts: John Wiley & Sons (published 2009). p. 250. ISBN 978-1-4051-5614-1. Retrieved 2017-08-20. [...] the Neolithic transition involved increasing sedentism and social complexity, which was usually followed by the gradual adoption of plant and animal domestication. In some cases, however, plant domestication preceded sedentism, particularly in the New World.

  4. ^ "International Stratigraphic Chart". International Commission on Stratigraphy. Archived from the original on 2013-02-12. Retrieved 2012-12-06.

  5. ^ Jump up to:a b c Graeme Barker (2009). The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why did Foragers become Farmers?. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-955995-4.

  6. ^ Armelagos, George J. (2014). "Brain Evolution, the Determinates of Food Choice, and the Omnivore's Dilemma". Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 54 (10): 1330–1341. doi:10.1080/10408398.2011.635817. ISSN 1040-8398. PMID 24564590.

  7. ^ "Neolithic". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2017-07-21.

  8. ^ "The Slow Birth of Agriculture" Archived 2011-01-01 at the Wayback Machine, Heather Pringle

  9. ^ "Wizard Chemi Shanidar". EMuseum. Minnesota State University. Archived from the original on June 18, 2008.

  10. ^ Zalloua, Pierre A.; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth (6 January 2017). "Mapping Post-Glacial expansions: The Peopling of Southwest Asia". Scientific Reports. 7: 40338. Bibcode:2017NatSR...740338P. doi:10.1038/srep40338. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 5216412. PMID 28059138.

  11. ^ Diamond, J.; Bellwood, P. (2003). "Farmers and Their Languages: The First Expansions". Science. 300 (5619): 597–603. Bibcode:2003Sci...300..597D. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.1013.4523. doi:10.1126/science.1078208. PMID 12714734.

  12. ^ Thissen, L. "Appendix I, The CANeW 14C databases, Anatolia 10,000-5000 cal. BC." in: F. Gérard and L. Thissen (eds.), The Neolithic of Central Anatolia. Internal developments and external relations during the 9th–6th millennia cal BC, Proc. Int. CANeW Round Table, Istanbul 23–24 November 2001, (2002)

  13. ^ Denham, Tim P.; Haberle, S. G.; et al. (2003). "Origins of Agriculture at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of New Guinea". Science. 301 (5630): 189–193. doi:10.1126/science.1085255. PMID 12817084.

  14. ^ The Kuk Early Agricultural Site

  15. ^ Kealhofer, Lisa (2003). "Looking into the gap: land use and the tropical forests of southern Thailand". Asian Perspectives. 42 (1): 72–95. doi:10.1353/asi.2003.0022. hdl:10125/17181.

  16. ^ Gordon Childe (1936). Man Makes Himself. Oxford university press.

  17. ^ Scarre, Chris (2005). "The World Transformed: From Foragers and Farmers to States and Empires" in The Human Past: World Prehistory and the Development of Human Societies (Ed: Chris Scarre). London: Thames and Hudson. p. 188. ISBN 0-500-28531-4

  18. ^ Charles E. Redman (1978). Rise of Civilization: From Early Hunters to Urban Society in the Ancient Near East. San Francisco: Freeman.

  19. ^ Hayden, Brian (1992). "Models of Domestication". In Anne Birgitte Gebauer and T. Douglas Price (ed.). Transitions to Agriculture in Prehistory. Madison: Prehistory Press. pp. 11–18.

  20. ^ Sauer, Carl O. (1952). Agricultural origins and dispersals. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

  21. ^ Binford, Lewis R. (1968). "Post-Pleistocene Adaptations". In Sally R. Binford and Lewis R. Binford (ed.). New Perspectives in Archaeology. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Company. pp. 313–342.

  22. ^ Rindos, David (December 1987). The Origins of Agriculture: An Evolutionary Perspective. Academic Press. ISBN 978-0-12-589281-0.

  23. ^ Richerson, Peter J.; Boyd, Robert; et al. (2001). "Was Agriculture Impossible during the Pleistocene but Mandatory during the Holocene?". American Antiquity. 66 (3): 387–411. doi:10.2307/2694241. JSTOR 2694241.

  24. ^ Wright, Ronald (2004). A Short History of Progress. Anansi. ISBN 978-0-88784-706-6.

  25. ^ Anderson, David G; Albert C. Goodyear; James Kennett; Allen West (2011). "Multiple lines of evidence for possible Human population decline/settlement reorganization during the early Younger Dryas". Quaternary International. 242 (2): 570–583. Bibcode:2011QuInt.242..570A. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2011.04.020.

  26. ^ Grinin L.E. Production Revolutions and Periodization of History: A Comparative and Theoretic-mathematical Approach. / Social Evolution & History. Volume 6, Number 2 / September 2007 [1]

  27. ^ Hole, Frank., A Reassessment of the Neolithic Revolution, Paléorient, Volume 10, Issue 10-2, pp. 49-60, 1984.

  28. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e 

     Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Nadel, Dani; Weiss, Ehud; Groman-Yaroslavski, Iris (23 November 2016). "Composite Sickles and Cereal Harvesting Methods at 23,000-Years-Old Ohalo II, Israel". PLOS onE. 11 (11): e0167151. Bibcode:2016PLoSO..1167151G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0167151. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 5120854. PMID 27880839.

  29. ^ Enzel, Yehouda; Bar-Yosef, Ofer (2017). Quaternary of the Levant. Cambridge University Press. p. 335. ISBN 9781107090460.

  30. ^ Zohary, D., The mode of domestication of the founder crops of Southwest Asian agriculture. pp. 142-158 in D. R. Harris (ed.) The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. UCL Press Ltd, London, 1996

  31. ^ Zohary, D., Monophyletic vs. polyphyletic origin of the crops on which agriculture was founded in the Near East. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 46 (2) pp. 133-142

  32. ^ Hillman, G. C. and M. S. Davies., Domestication rate in wild wheats and barley under primitive cultivation: preliminary results and archaeological implications of field measurements of selection coefficient, pp. 124-132 in P. Anderson-Gerfaud (ed.) Préhistoire de l'agriculture: nouvelles approches expérimentales et ethnographiques. Monographie du CRA 6, Éditions Centre Nationale Recherches Scientifiques: Paris, 1992

  33. ^ Jump up to:a b Weiss, Ehud; Kislev, Mordechai E.; Hartmann, Anat (2006). "Autonomous Cultivation Before Domestication". Science. 312(5780): 1608–1610. doi:10.1126/science.1127235. PMID 16778044.

  34. ^ "Tamed 11,400 Years Ago, Figs Were Likely First Domesticated Crop".

  35. ^ Flannery, Kent V. (1969). "Origins and ecological effects of early domestication in Iran and the Near East". In Ucko, Peter John; Dimbleby, G. W. (eds.). The Domestication and Exploitation of Plants and Animals. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers (published 2007). p. 89. ISBN 978-0-202-36557-2. Retrieved 2019-01-12. Our earliest evidence for this new technology comes [...] from the lowland steppe of Khuzistan. [...] once irrigation appeared, the steppe greatly increased its carrying capacity and became, in fact, the dominant growth centre of the Zagros region between 5500 and 4000 B.C.

  36. ^ Lawton, H. W.; Wilke, P. J. (1979). "Ancient Agricultural Systems in Dry Regions of the Old World". In Hall, A. E.; Cannell, G. H.; Lawton, H.W. (eds.). Agriculture in Semi-Arid Environments. Ecological Studies. 34 (reprint ed.). Berlin: Springer Science & Business Media (published 2012). p. 13. ISBN 978-3-642-67328-3. Retrieved 2019-01-12. Archeological investigations on the Deh Luran Plain of Iran have provided a model for the internal dynamics of the culture sequence of prehistoric Khuzistan [...]. Somewhere between 5500 and 5000 B.C. in the Sabz phase of the Deh Luran Plain, irrigation water was apparently diverted from stream channels in a fashion similar to that employed in early Mesopotamia.

  37. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f 

     Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Jones, Martin K.; Kovaleva, Olga (18 July 2018). "Barley heads east: Genetic analyses reveal routes of spread through diverse Eurasian landscapes". PLOS onE. 13(7): e0196652. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1396652L. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0196652. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 6051582. PMID 30020920.

  38. ^ Brown, T. A.; Jones, M. K.; Powell, W.; Allaby, R. G. (2009). "The complex origins of domesticated crops in the Fertile Crescent" (PDF). Trends in Ecology & Evolution. 24 (2): 103–9. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2008.09.008. PMID 19100651.

  39. ^ Mithen, Steven (2006). After the ice : a global human history, 20.000–5.000 BC (1. paperback ed.). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Univ. Press. p. 517. ISBN 978-0-674-01570-8.

  40. ^ Compiled largely with reference to: Weiss, E., Mordechai, E., Simchoni, O., Nadel, D., & Tschauner, H. (2008). Plant-food preparation area on an Upper Paleolithic brush hut floor at Ohalo II, Israel. Journal of Archaeological Science, 35 (8), 2400–2414.

  41. ^ Ozkan, H.; Brandolini, A.; Schäfer-Pregl, R.; Salamini, F. (October 2002). "AFLP analysis of a collection of tetraploid wheats indicates the origin of emmer and hard wheat domestication in southeast Turkey". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 19 (10): 1797–801. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.molbev.a004002. PMID 12270906.

  42. ^ van Zeist, W. Bakker-Heeres, J.A.H., Archaeobotanical Studies in the Levant 1. Neolithic Sites in the Damascus Basin: Aswad, Ghoraifé, Ramad., Palaeohistoria, 24, 165–256, 1982.

  43. ^ Hopf, Maria., "Jericho plant remains" in Kathleen M. Kenyon and T. A. Holland (eds.) Excavations at Jericho 5, pp. 576–621, British School of Archaeology at Jerusalem, London, 1983.

  44. ^ Jacques Cauvin (2000). The Birth of the Gods and the Origins of Agriculture, p. 53. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-65135-6. Retrieved 15 August 2012.

  45. ^ Riehl, Simone; Zeidi, Mohsen; Conard, Nicholas (2013-07-05). "Emergence of Agriculture in the Foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran". Science. 341 (6141): 65–7. Bibcode:2013Sci...341...65R. doi:10.1126/science.1236743. PMID 23828939.

  46. ^ Peltenburg, E.J.; Wasse, Alexander; Council for British Research in the Levant (2004). Maya Haïdar Boustani, Flint workshops of the Southern Beqa' valley (Lebanon): preliminary results from Qar'oun* in Neolithic revolution: new perspectives on southwest Asia in light of recent discoveries on Cyprus. Oxbow Books. ISBN 978-1-84217-132-5.

  47. ^ Jump up to:a b L. Copeland; P. Wescombe (1966). Inventory of Stone-Age Sites in Lebanon: North, South and East-Central Lebanon. Imprimerie Catholique. p. 89.

  48. ^ Bellwood 2004, pp. 68–9.

  49. ^ Bellwood 2004, pp. 74, 118.

  50. ^ Subbaraman 2012.

  51. ^ Bellwood 2004, pp. 68–72.

  52. ^ Consortium, the Genographic; Cooper, Alan (9 November 2010). "Ancient DNA from European Early Neolithic Farmers Reveals Their Near Eastern Affinities". PLOS Biology. 8 (11): e1000536. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000536. ISSN 1545-7885. PMC 2976717. PMID 21085689.

  53. ^ Jump up to:a b c Original text published under Creative Commons license CC BY 4.0: Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS onE. 9 (5): e95714. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...995714G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. PMC 4012948. PMID 24806472. 

     Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

  54. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g 

     Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Turbón, Daniel; Arroyo-Pardo, Eduardo (5 June 2014). "Ancient DNA Analysis of 8000 B.C. Near Eastern Farmers Supports an Early Neolithic Pioneer Maritime Colonization of Mainland Europe through Cyprus and the Aegean Islands". PLOS Genetics. 10 (6): e1004401. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004401. ISSN 1553-7404. PMC 4046922. PMID 24901650.

  55. ^ Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (7 May 2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS onE. 9 (5): e95714. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...995714G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4012948. PMID 24806472.

  56. ^ Coningham, Robin; Young, Ruth (2015). The Archaeology of South Asia: From the Indus to Asoka, c.6500 BCE–200 CE. Cambridge University Press Cambridge World Archeology. p. 111. ISBN 9781316418987.

  57. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h 

     Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (7 May 2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS onE. 9 (5): e95714. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...995714G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4012948. PMID 24806472.

  58. ^ Eleni Asouti and Dorian Q Fuller (2007). TREES AND WOODLANDS OF SOUTH INDIA: ARCHAEOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVES.

  59. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f He, Keyang; Lu, Houyuan; Zhang, Jianping; Wang, Can; Huan, Xiujia (7 June 2017). "Prehistoric evolution of the dualistic structure mixed rice and millet farming in China". The Holocene. 27 (12): 1885–1898. Bibcode:2017Holoc..27.1885H. doi:10.1177/0959683617708455.

  60. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f Bellwood, Peter (9 December 2011). "The Checkered Prehistory of Rice Movement Southwards as a Domesticated Cereal—from the Yangzi to the Equator"(PDF). Rice. 4 (3–4): 93–103. doi:10.1007/s12284-011-9068-9.

  61. ^ Jump up to:a b Fuller, D. Q. (2007). "Contrasting Patterns in Crop Domestication and Domestication Rates: Recent Archaeobotanical Insights from the Old World". Annals of Botany. 100 (5): 903–924. doi:10.1093/aob/mcm048. PMC 2759199. PMID 17495986.

  62. ^ Siddiqi, Mohammad Rafiq (2001). Tylenchida: Parasites of Plants and Insects. CABI.

  63. ^ Thacker, Christopher (1985). The history of gardens. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-520-05629-9.

  64. ^ Webber, Herbert John (1967–1989). Chapter I. History and Development of the Citrus Industry Archived 2016-05-23 at the Portuguese Web Archive in Origin of Citrus, Vol. 1. University of California

  65. ^ Molina, J.; Sikora, M.; Garud, N.; Flowers, J. M.; Rubinstein, S.; Reynolds, A.; Huang, P.; Jackson, S.; Schaal, B. A.; Bustamante, C. D.; Boyko, A. R.; Purugganan, M. D. (2011). "Molecular evidence for a single evolutionary origin of domesticated rice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 108 (20): 8351–6. Bibcode:2011PNAS..108.8351M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1104686108. PMC 3101000. PMID 21536870.

  66. ^ Jump up to:a b Zhang, Jianping; Lu, Houyuan; Gu, Wanfa; Wu, Naiqin; Zhou, Kunshu; Hu, Yayi; Xin, Yingjun; Wang, Can; Kashkush, Khalil (17 December 2012). "Early Mixed Farming of Millet and Rice 7800 Years Ago in the Middle Yellow River Region, China". PLoS onE. 7 (12): e52146. Bibcode:2012PLoSO...752146Z. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0052146. PMC 3524165. PMID 23284907.

  67. ^ Bayliss-Smith, Tim; Golson, Jack; Hughes, Philip (2017). "Phase 4: Major Disposal Channels, Slot-Like Ditches and Grid-Patterned Fields". In Golson, Jack; Denham, Tim; Hughes, Philip; Swadling, Pamela; Muke, John (eds.). Ten Thousand Years of Cultivation at Kuk Swamp in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. terra australis. 46. ANU Press. pp. 239–268. ISBN 978-1-76046-116-4.

  68. ^ Mahdi, Waruno (1999). "The Dispersal of Austronesian boat forms in the Indian Ocean". In Blench, Roger; Spriggs, Matthew (eds.). Archaeology and Language III: Artefacts languages, and texts. one World Archaeology. 34. Routledge. p. 144–179. ISBN 978-0-415-10054-0.

  69. ^ Blench, Roger (2010). "Evidence for the Austronesian Voyages in the Indian Ocean" (PDF). In Anderson, Atholl; Barrett, James H.; Boyle, Katherine V. (eds.). The Global Origins and Development of Seafaring. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research. pp. 239–248. ISBN 978-1-902937-52-6.

  70. ^ Beaujard, Philippe (August 2011). "The first migrants to Madagascar and their introduction of plants: linguistic and ethnological evidence" (PDF). Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa. 46 (2): 169–189. doi:10.1080/0067270X.2011.580142.

  71. ^ Walter, Annie; Lebot, Vincent (2007). Gardens of Oceania. IRD Éditions-CIRAD. ISBN 978-1-86320-470-5.

  72. ^ Jump up to:a b c Diamond, Jared (1999). Guns, Germs, and Steel. New York: Norton Press. ISBN 978-0-393-31755-8.

  73. ^ The Cambridge History of Africa

  74. ^ Smith, Philip E.L., Stone Age Man on the Nile, Scientific American Vol. 235 No. 2, August 1976: "With the benefit of hindsight we can now see that many Late Paleolithic peoples in the Old World were poised on the brink of plant cultivation and animal husbandry as an alternative to the hunter-gatherer's way of life".

  75. ^ Johannessen, S.; Hastorf, C. A. (eds.). Corn and Culture in the Prehistoric New World. Westview Press.

  76. ^ Graeme Barker (2009). The Agricultural Revolution in Prehistory: Why Did Foragers Become Farmers?. Oxford University Press. p. 252. ISBN 978-0-19-955995-4. Retrieved 4 January 2012.

  77. ^ Denham, Tim et al. (received July 2005) "Early and mid Holocene tool-use and processing of taro (Colocasia esculenta), yam (Dioscorea sp.) and other plants at Kuk Swamp in the highlands of Papua New Guinea" (Journal of Archaeological Science, Volume 33, Issue 5, May 2006)

  78. ^ Loy, Thomas & Matthew Spriggs (1992), " Direct evidence for human use of plants 28,000 years ago: starch residues on stone artefacts from the northern Solomon Islands" (Antiquity Volume: 66, Number: 253, pp. 898–912)

  79. ^ "The Development of Agriculture". Genographic Project. Archived from the original on 2016-04-14. Retrieved 2017-07-21.

  80. ^ McGourty, Christine (2002-11-22). "Origin of dogs traced". BBC News. Retrieved 2006-11-29.

  81. ^ Fleisch, Henri., Notes de Préhistoire Libanaise : 1) Ard es Saoude. 2) La Bekaa Nord. 3) Un polissoir en plein air. BSPF, vol. 63.

  82. ^ Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Jared Diamond (1997).

  83. ^ James C. Scott,Against the Grain: a Deep History of the Earliest States, NJ:Yale UP, (2017), "The world's population in 10 000 BC, according to a careful estimate was roughly 4 million. A full five thousand years later it has risen only to 5 million...One likely explanation for this apparent human progress in subsistance techniques together with a long period of demographic stagnation is that epidemologically this was perhaps the most lethal period in human history".

  84. ^ Sands DC, Morris CE, Dratz EA, Pilgeram A (2009). "Elevating optimal human nutrition to a central goal of plant breeding and production of plant-based foods". Plant Sci (Review). 177(5): 377–389. doi:10.1016/j.plantsci.2009.07.011. PMC 2866137. PMID 20467463.

  85. ^ O'Keefe JH, Cordain L (2004). "Cardiovascular disease resulting from a diet and lifestyle at odds with our Paleolithic genome: how to become a 21st-century hunter-gatherer". Mayo Clin Proc (Review). 79 (1): 101–108. doi:10.4065/79.1.101. PMID 14708953.

  86. ^ Shermer, Michael (2001). The Borderlands of Science. Oxford University Press. p. 250.

  87. ^ Hermanussen, Michael; Poustka, Fritz (July–September 2003). "Stature of early Europeans". Hormones (Athens). 2 (3): 175–178. doi:10.1159/000079404. PMID 17003019.

  88. ^ Eagly, Alice H.; Wood, Wendy (June 1999). "The Origins of Sex Differences in Human Behavior: Evolved Dispositions Versus Social Roles". American Psychologist. 54 (6): 408–423. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.54.6.408.

  89. ^ Diamond, Jared (May 1987). "The Worst Mistake in the History of the Human Race". Discover Magazine: 64–66.

  90. ^ Peterson, V. Spike (2014-07-03). "Sex Matters". International Feminist Journal of Politics. 16 (3): 389–409. doi:10.1080/14616742.2014.913384. ISSN 1461-6742.

  91. ^ Jump up to:a b Sherratt 1981

  92. ^ Furuse, Y.; Suzuki, A.; Oshitani, H. (2010). "Origin of measles virus: Divergence from rinderpest virus between the 11th and 12th centuries". Virology Journal. 7: 52. doi:10.1186/1743-422X-7-52. PMC 2838858. PMID 20202190.

  93. ^ Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Jared Diamond, 1997

  94. ^ Halcrow, S. E.; Harris, N. J.; Tayles, N.; Ikehara‐Quebral, R.; Pietrusewsky, M. (2013). "From the mouths of babes: Dental caries in infants and children and the intensification of agriculture in mainland Southeast Asia". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 150 (3): 409–420. doi:10.1002/ajpa.22215. PMID 23359102.

  95. ^ "BBC – History – Ancient History in depth: Overview: From Neolithic to Bronze Age, 8000–800 BC". Retrieved 2017-07-21.

  96. ^ Jump up to:a b Semino, O; et al. (2004). "Origin, Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area". American Journal of Human Genetics. 74 (5): 1023–34. doi:10.1086/386295. PMC 1181965. PMID 15069642.

  97. ^ Lancaster, Andrew (2009). "Y Haplogroups, Archaeological Cultures and Language Families: a Review of the Multidisciplinary Comparisons using the case of E-M35"(PDF). Journal of Genetic Genealogy. 5 (1).

  98. ^ Liverani, Mario (2013). The Ancient Near East: History, Society and Economy. Routledge. p. 13, Table 1.1 "Chronology of the Ancient Near East". ISBN 9781134750917.

  99. ^ Jump up to:a b Shukurov, Anvar; Sarson, Graeme R.; Gangal, Kavita (7 May 2014). "The Near-Eastern Roots of the Neolithic in South Asia". PLOS onE. 9 (5): 1-20 and Appendix S1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0095714. ISSN 1932-6203.

  100. ^ Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Arpin, Trina; Pan, Yan; Cohen, David; Goldberg, Paul; Zhang, Chi; Wu, Xiaohong (29 June 2012). "Early Pottery at 20,000 Years Ago in Xianrendong Cave, China". Science. 336 (6089): 1696–1700. doi:10.1126/science.1218643. ISSN 0036-8075.

  101. ^ Thorpe, I. J. (2003). The Origins of Agriculture in Europe. Routledge. p. 14. ISBN 9781134620104.

  102. ^ Price, T. Douglas (2000). Europe's First Farmers. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780521665728.

  103. ^ Jr, William H. Stiebing; Helft, Susan N. (2017). Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture. Routledge. p. 25. ISBN 9781134880836.

  104.  

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

The Agricultural Revolution on YouTube: Crash Course World History #1