Josquin Des Prez: Miserere mei Deus
Perhaps a native of the Vermandois region of Picardy, he was a singer at Milan Cathedral in 1459, remaining there until December 1472. By July 1474 he was one of the 'cantori di capella' in the chapel of Galeazzo Maria Sforza. Between 1476 and 1504 he passed into the service of Cardinal Ascanio Sforza, whom he probably accompanied in Rome in 1484. His name first appears among the papal chapel choir in 1486 and recurs sporadically; he had left the choir by 1501. In this Italian period Josquin reached artistic maturity.
He then went to France (he may also have done so while at the papal chapel) and probably served Louis XII's court. Although he may have had connections with the Ferrara court (through the Sforzas) in the 1480s and 1490s, no formal relationship with the court is known before 1503 when, for a year, he was maestro di cappella there and the highest-paid singer in the chapel's history. There he probably wrote primarily masses and motets. An outbreak of plague in 1503 forced the court to leave Ferrara (Josquin's place was taken by Obrecht, who fell victim in 1505). He was in the north again, at Notre Dame at Condé, in 1504; he may have been connected with Margaret of Austria's court, 1508-11. He died in 1521. Several portraits survive, one attributed to Leonardo da Vinci.
Josquin's works gradually became known throughout western Europe and were regarded as models by many composers and theorists. Petrucci's three books of his masses (1502-14) reflect contemporary esteem, as does Attaingnant's collection of his chansons (1550). Several laments were written on his death (including Gombert's elegy Musae Jovis), and as late as 1554 Jacquet of Mantua paid him tribute in a motet. He was praised by 16th-century literary figures (including Castiglione and Rabelais) and was Martin Luther's favourite composer.
Josquin was the greatest composer of the high Renaissance, the most varied in invention and the most profound in ｅxpression. Much of his music cannot be dated. Generally, however, his first period (up to circa 1485) is characterized by abstract, melismatic counterpoint in the manner of Ockeghem and by tenuous relationships between words and music. The middle period (to circa 1505) saw the development and perfection of the technique of pervasive imitation based on word-generated motifs. This style has been seen as a synthesis of two traditions: the northem polyphony of Dufay, Busnois and Ockeghem, in which he presumably had his earliest training, and the more chordal, harmonically orientated practice of Italy. In the final period the relationship between word and note becomes even closer and there is increasing emphasis on declamation and rhetorical ｅxpression within a style of the utmost economy.
His many motets span all three periods. one of the earliest, the four-part Victimae paschali laudes (1502), exemplifies his early style, with its dense texture, lack of imitation, patches of stagnant rhythm and rudimentary treatment of dissonance. Greater maturity is shown in Planxit autem David, in which homophonic and freely imitative passages alternate, and in Absalon, fili mi, with its flexible combination of textures. His later motets, such as In principio erat verbum, combine motivic intensity and melodic succinctness with formal clarity; they are either freely composed, four-part settings of biblical texts, or large-scale cantus firmus pieces. Transparent textures and duet writing are common.
Josquin's 18 complete masses combine elements of cantus firmus, parody and paraphrase techniques. one of the earliest, L'ami Baudichon, is a cantus firmus mass on a simple dance formula; the simplicity of melody and rhythm and the clarity of harmony and texture recall the Burgundian style of the 1450s and 1460s. Fortuna desperata, on the other hand, is an early example of parody. Canonic writing and ostinato hgures are features. His last great masses, notably the Missa de beata virgine and the Missa 'Pange lingua' were preceded by works in which every resource is deployed with bravura.
Josquin's secular music comprises three settings of Italian texts and numerous chansons. one of the earliest, Cela sans plus, typifies his observance of the formes fixes and the influences of the Burgundian style of Busnois and Ockeghem. Later works, such as Mille regretz, are less canonic, the clear articulation of line and points of imitation achieved by a carefull balanced hierarchy of cadences. Some, like Si j'ay perdu mon ami, look forward to the popular 'Parisian' chanson of Janequin.
The Hilliard Ensemble
Painting by Petrus Christus: The Lamentation
조스캥 데 프레(Josquin desPrs, 1440? ~ 1521)
조스캥은 플랑드르 악파의 최대의 음악가이며 200년에 이르는 르네상스 시대의
뛰어난 천재로서 음악의 황태자로 불리웠다. 그는 동시대의 레오나르도 다 빈치에
비견되었으며 다 빈치의 미술에서의 업적을 그는 음악에서 이룩했다는 평가를 받았다.
그는 부르고뉴 공국에서 태어났으나 이탈리아, 프랑스 궁정을 비롯하여 국제적
으로 활약하였다. 플랑드르적 폴리포니 기법에 이탈리아적 균형잡힌 형식과 화성법을
동화시켜 간결, 명쾌한 내용의 작품을 작곡하였다.
미사, 모테트, 샹송 등 다양한 작품을 남겼는데 미사의 경우 정선율은 거의 하나의
성부에 한정되었으나 이것을 전성부에 넓혔다. 또 각 성부간의 선율을 서로 모방하면서
독자적인 선율 전개를 모색한 통모방 양식에 의한 순환 미사곡을 확립하였다.
그의 20곡의 미사는 폴리포니의 여러 기법이 사용되었으나 최만년에 작곡하여
1539년 출판된 미사 팡제 링구아는 16세기 르네상스 미사곡의 전형적인 통모방 양식
이 사용되었다. 이것은 그레고리오 성가의 임누스 혀여 노래하라를 정선율로 사용한
5개 통상문을 지닌 4성 미사이다. 간결하고 균형잡힌 서법에 의한 우아함과 서정미