Emily Georgiana Kemp

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Full text of "The face of Manchuria, Korea, & Russian Turkestan"


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191 I 

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I ESS than three years ago I made a journey with 
a friend, Miss MacDougall, across the Chinese 
^ Empire from north-east to south-west, and 
while my interests in the changes going on there was 
intensified, a profound anxiety took possession of my 
mind as to the effect these changes would produce in 
the national life. The European and other Powers 
who had wrangled over the possibility of commercial 
and political advantages to be obtained from the 
Chinese Government (after the Boxer troubles) have 
withdrawn to a certain extent, but like snarling dogs 
dragged from their prey, they still keep covetous eyes 
upon it, and both Russia and Japan continue steadily 
but silently to strengthen their hold upon its borders. 
These borders are Manchuria and Korea, and it is in 
this direction that fresh developments must be ex- 
pected. I read all the available literature bearing on 
the subject, but so rapidly had the changes occurred 
that books were already out of date, and they failed to 
make me see the country as it now is. 

As an instance of this, let me quote Whigham's 
(correspondent to the Morning ^Posi) " Manchuria and 
Korea," published in 1904. 1 " one cannot seriously 

1 Whigham's " Manchuria and Korea," pp. 117-119, 153, 49. 



believe that Japan would ever invade Manchuria, 
unless, indeed, she be caught by the madness with 
which the gods first visit those whom they wish to 
destroy ; but if ever her army did occupy Moukden she 
would only find another Moscow in the ancient capital 
of the Manchus, and when all is said and done what 
would be the use ? She could never hope to hold the 
Liao valley for ever against Russia ; Great Britain 
might just as well try to hold Normandy again against 
France. . . . The conclusion is that as far as Manchuria 
is concerned, Russia is even now more or less invul- 
nerable," &c. &c. This was published the year the 
Russo-Japanese war took place. 

Taking heart of grace by the kind reception of my 
former book on China, I determined to visit Manchuria 
and Korea, and to try and describe them by pen and 
brush as I had described the Face of China. My 
former fellow-traveller was willing and eager to repeat 
our wanderings, so we set out on February ist of this 
year, 1910, via the Trans-Siberian Railway. Much 
has been written by various travellers about this part 
of the journey, but the questions that I wanted 
answered are mostly ignored by them. Baedeker is 
wholly inadequate. I begin therefore my tale from 
the point where we crossed the border into Manchuria, 
so as to give more continuity to the narrative and avoid 
repetition. on our return journey across Siberia I 
give details which may possibly be of service to those 
who intend travelling on that line, and also the general 
information about the condition of the country at the 



present time, which I have gathered from reliable 
sources since my return. 

When we started for our four months' tour we had 
no intention of extending it to Turkestan, but finding 
that a railway line connected it with the one on which 
we were travelling, and that it could be reached in 
three days from Samara on the Trans-Siberian line, 
we decided to include it in our programme and so 
vary the journey home. It proved to be of ex- 
traordinary artistic interest, not to mention its his- 
torical importance both as the centre of Moslem 
learning and of Russian experiments in civilizing 
Central Asia. Russia looks with a jealous eye upon 
the traveller, and a special permit has to be obtained 
in order to travel through Turkestan, even on the 
railway line. Not only is it necessary to apply for 
this through the British Embassy at St. Petersburg, 
but several weeks elapse before a notification can be 
received that the Russian Government graciously 
permits the traveller to cross Turkestan. We were 
informed also that when all these formalities had been 
duly observed, the traveller was still liable to be stopped 
by the police on the ground that they (the police) had 
not received official notice of the traveller's coming, 
and in that case he would be ordered to return by the 
way he came. Despite this discouraging information 
we determined to try our luck, and in due course re- 
ceived a "note verbale " from the Ministry of Foreign 
Affairs at St. Petersburg, addressed to the British 
Embassy, permitting us to visit Tashkent, Samarkand, 


and Bokhara. In point of fact our difficulty proved 
to be not that of getting ///, but that of getting out of 
Russian territory, as will be seen later on. 

Despite the difficulties, Russian Turkestan is well 
worth visiting, and had the scope of this book per- 
mitted, I should like to have added further illustra- 
tions of Samarkand. All the illustrations suffer from 
lack of time, and the earlier ones from the inclemency 
of the weather, but they are an attempt to show as 
accurately as possible what the countries and people 
are like, and especially to give correct colouring, in 
this way supplementing the photographs with which 
many previous works on these countries have been 

We were warned before undertaking the journey 
that great dangers would lie in our path. I should 
indeed regret depriving the arm-chair critic of the 
pleasure of threatening us with tigers, brigands, Hun 
Hutzes, and the lowest class of Japanese ruffian, or of 
his special satisfaction in shaking his head over the 
follies of those who run into unnecessary danger ; but 
in the interest of other travellers I must confess that 
we met none of these things, though doubtless it would 
have added to the piquancy of the narrative to have 
done so. The only striped beasts we saw in the forests 
were chipmunks, and the only people who were to 
be feared were the monks in a certain Buddhist 

I cannot omit a word of thanks to the many 
missionaries who helped to make our journey such a 


pleasant one, and without whose kindly aid we should 
have missed a large part of its interest. The Medical 
Mission work of the Irish and Scotch Presbyterians in 
Manchuria, and the various branches of work of 
American and Australian Presbyterians in Korea have 
been briefly described in this book, but their profound 
value can only be appreciated by those who have come 
in personal contact with them. In the troublous 
times of the last decade they have proved their worth, 
and I only hope that the ominous cloud still over- 
hanging the land may be dispersed and a time of 
prosperous growth succeed the trials which they have 
triumphantly endured. 

As I write these words the June number of World's 
Work falls into my hands, and I read what Japanese 
writers have to say upon the Manchurian question. 
Adachi Kinnosuke pointsout that, despite theimmense 
financial strain of the war with Russia, Japan has 
trebled her army and strengthened her navy to an 
equal extent during the few years that have elapsed 
since that struggle, which cost her the lives of 300,000 
men. The reason which he assigns for these military 
preparations is the necessity of being able to face China. 
At the close of the Russo-Japanese war Baron Komura 
tried to induce the Chinese Government to open 
Manchuria to Japanese colonists, but as Manchuria is 
imperatively needed by China for her own surplus pop- 
ulation, which are pouring into it daily by thousands 
in the early spring, it was only natural that she should 
resent the proposal, and refuse to grant the desired 


permission. Hence the present attitude of Japan. 
"If you do not allow our people to colonise Manchuria 
peacefully, there is only one thing for us to do : to 
enter it anyhow." Yet the density of population in 
Japan at the present time is considerably less than that 
of Great Britain, of Belgium, of Holland, of Saxony, 
of Alsace Lorraine, of Hesse, of Baden ; not to 
mention other non-European countries. The new 
Russo-Japanese Alliance is concerned mainly with 
their railways, and Japan insists on China relin- 
quishing her project of a railway into Mongolia. 
Now it is an open secret that Russia is to have a 
railway direcl from Irkutsk to Peking — the inference 
is obvious. The situation is an interesting one ; but 
I have neither the knowledge nor the impertinence 
requisite for prophesying the course of events. My 
object will be attained if I can in any way succeed in 
describing the condition of affairs at the present 

The latest step in advance is the annexation of 
Korea, the highroad into Manchuria. 

August 26, 1910. 




The Face of Manchuria 


I. Hulan 3 

II. Moukden 1 1 

III. Hsin Muntun 34 

IV. Liao Yang 42 
V. A Visit to the Thousand Peaks 5 1 

VI. From Moukden to Korea 58 

XIV. Ashiho 141 

(For narrative purposes included in Part II.) 

The Face of Korea 

VII. Pyong Yang 67 

VIII. Sunday at Pyong Yang 74 


The Face of Manchwia 

IX. The History of Roman Catho- 
licism in Korea 84 
X. Seoul 93 
XI. Fusan 107 
XII. The Diamond Mountains 113 

XIII. Seoul to Dalny 134 

XIV. Ashiho 141 

The Face of Russian Turkestan 

XV. Through Siberia 151 

XVI. Into Turkestan 171 

XVII. Tashkent 178 

XVIII. The Home of Tamerlane 188 

XIX. Samarkand 201 

XX. Bokhara 220 

XXI. Through the Caucasus 230 

Index 241 

Map To fa ce page 248 



Tamerlane's Tomb 


Foo Ling Tomb 

To face page 1 2 

Imperial Tomb, Moukden 


Manchu Ladies' Greeting 


Korean Gate, Liao Yang 


Blind Buddhist Nun 


Buddhist Monastery- 


Korean in Mourning 


Coy Korean Maiden 

7 6 

Korean Woman 


Empress's Tomb 


Korean Graves 


(A) Fusan ; (B) Korean Village 


(A) Devil Posts ; (B) " Ten 





North Gate, Seoul 

l 3 l 

Mohammedan Mosque 


Prayer at a Saint's Tomb 


Tamerlane's Tomb (Interior) 



21 1 

Hazreti Shah Zindeh 

2I 5 

Mosque at Bokhara 




(A) Tiflis ; (B) A Persian 

2 33 

Mount Kasbec 


The Face of Manchuria 




THERE is always a thrill of expectation for the 
genuine traveller on crossing the frontier into 
an unknown country, which even the sight 
of the custom-house fails to dispel. In the case of 
Manchuria we were fortunate enough to escape the 
custom-house altogether, as having no registered 
luggage we only received a perfunctory visit from the 
politest of officials in our railway carriage at about 
1 1 p.m. While all the rest of the travellers had to 
turn out and spend an hour or more in an offensive- 
smelling office, we comfortably went to bed and awoke 
next morning to find a glorious, dazzling sun shining 
on the snowy plain between Manchuria (town) and 
our terminus, Kharbin. The railway station is in the 
Russian town, which has been built up round it, and 
still looks painfully new : it lies on the banks of the 
great Sungari River, at the junction of the Trans- 
Siberian line with the line to Moukden and Peking. 
After a night's rest in the Russian hotel we started 


The Face of Manchuria ch. i 

for Hulan, a Chinese town about sixteen miles to the 
north of Kharbin. 

No Chinese vehicle is allowed in the Russian quarter, 
so we were obliged to take a droshky to the Chinese 
town, about a half mile distant, where our belongings 
were transferred to the sleigh, which was the only 
possible vehicle for crossing the open country. It was 
of a most primitive description, a sort of raft on runners, 
with a little straw on it covered with a rug. Our 
luggage was somewhat insecurely corded on, and we 
seated ourselves in the midst of it, only too soon to 
become acutely aware of the extraordinary number of 
corners which it possessed. Between the shafts, which 
consisted of two sapling birches denuded of their 
branches, was a shaggy pony, and another little pony 
ran alongside to give what further assistance he could, 
both animals having a miscellaneous harness of bits of 
old cord, which looked incapable of enduring any strain, 
though the event proved quite the contrary. We 
passed through the old town, which was gay with New 
Year decorations, the doors all bright with tutelary 
deities, freshly pasted up. Already the streets were 
filled with traffic, heavily-laden waggons of corn drawn 
by teams varying from four to eight, stacks of straw on 
rafts, fitted with runners similar to those of the one we 
were on, and all the various equipages likely to befound 
in such a nondescript place. The drollest of all was 
a little wooden house on runners, with a tall chimney, 
which we supposed to be on its way to some other 
permanent position. This, however, proved to be the 


ch. i Hulan 

bus plying daily between Kharbin and Hulan, the place 
of our destination. It contained eleven passengers 
inside, and a stove. Outside was a heap of bedding 
on a wooden box tied on a narrow ledge at the back, 
upon which lounged another passenger. 

It was desperately cold and almost impossible to 
keep one's extremities warm, but the Chinese cope 
successfully with this difficulty. Nearly every one 
wears ear muffs (some of them beautifully embroidered 
and fur-lined), or big turned-up collars as high as 
their heads, or caps coming over the ears, and at the 
other extremity large felt boots. Passing through 
the busy town we plunged down into the river-bed 
of the Sungari, a most perilous descent, as the sledges 
slither away and sometimes turn completely round, 
unless the driver dexterously contrives to push them 
into a convenient rut. We passed one heavy cart 
that had turned completely on to its side, while yet 
another was being dug out of a rut with a pickaxe. 
The ponies show their mettle, and though they have 
the worst of tempers, and not infrequently give a 
sudden bite to the passers-by, they work with a will 
to drag their often too heavy loads over the difficult 
ground. We passed the landing-stage, whence in 
summer the steamers ply daily up to Hulan. 

After struggling up the farther bank we passed over 
a bumpy plain for several hours, with various incidents 
to mark the road. Our umbrellas soon disappeared, 
then a collision sent a basket flying. Sometimes we 
were in imminent peril as some passing vehicle would 


The Face of Manchuria ch. i 

skid violently ; once I thought escape was impossible, 
as a large cart crashed into our side, missing my arm 
by a hair's-breadth, but we strove — I hope not un- 
successfully — to imitate the Chinese imperturbability 
of appearance. During one of our halts for repairs 
we were overtaken by the above-mentioned bus, and, 
behold ! there was the Chinaman still on the back of 
it, trying to take a nap. We passed and repassed the 
vehicle, and he was always in the acl of trying to sleep 
in some different attitude, but apparently never suc- 
ceeding — the only Chinaman I have ever met who 
failed to sleep in any attitude whatever ! 

These plains are very fertile, and as soon as spring 
comes there is a steady stream of workers to be seen 
arriving from China proper, especially from the pro- 
vince of Shantung, to which they return when the 
harvest is ended. Many come to accumulate enough 
money during eight or nine years to buy land and 
bring their families up to live here. In facl: we met 
some emigrants already arriving with all their scanty 
possessions. The Chinese Government is now waking 
up to the importance of colonisation on the borders 
of the empire, in order to check the sure and steady 
pressure of the Russians from without. 

As we approached Hulan we came to another river 
to be crossed, but not nearly so large a one as the 
Sungari. Few foreigners come to such an out-of-the- 
way corner of the empire, so people came hurrying 
out to see us, calling to one another, " Come and 
see the shaggy women ! " " These shaggy women 

ch. i Hulan 

are tip-top ! " The expression " shaggy " seems to 
have been first applied to the Russians, who wear 
their hair somewhat loose and long, but it is now the 
common designation for foreigners of all nationalities. 

We travelled slowly, though occasionally our little 
ponies would break into a trot ; then the driver would 
leap into the air, fold his legs beneath him and alight 
seated cross-legged on the cart, with a solid thud, like 
some gigantic frog. Hulan is quite a Chinese town, 
and indeed Manchuria is rapidly becoming populated 
with the Chinese, for whom its fertile plains offer an 
excellent home. The old Manchu towns are in a 
decadent condition, and can only hope for a fresh 
lease of life by new blood being introduced from the 
south. No wonder the Japanese cast covetous eyes 
on the land where crops produce an increase of 100 
per cent. The crops are mainly wheat and beans, 
both of which are being largely exported to Britain. 
Great quantities of oil are obtained from the beans, 
and the refuse is made into large flat cakes, nearly as 
big as cart wheels, which form excellent fuel. The 
price of beans in the north is three times as great as 
it was a year ago, and the people in Manchuria are 
on the whole more prosperous than elsewhere in the 
Chinese Empire. 

on Sunday morning we attended service in the 
Mission Hall, and received a warm welcome from the 
people, to whom we were formally presented at the 
conclusion of the service. The Mission is still in its 
infancy, but promises well, and when the medical 


The Face of Manchuria ch. i 

side is started will make more rapid progress. The 
next day "the faithful of Hulan " sent us gifts of 
cakes, and asked when we were leaving, that they 
might speed us on our way. We left too early, how- 
ever, to go and thank them in person, as we had a 
four hours' sleigh ride in order to catch the express 
at Kharbin, which only goes twice a week direct, to 
Moukden. Unfortunately we had mistaken the day, 
and we doubly regretted that we had not waited to 
return the courtesies shown to us. 

The first section of the railway line running south- 
wards is still in the hands of Russia, and one's atten- 
tion is continually arrested by the large numbers of 
soldiers who are kept all along the line to guard it. 
Kwan-cheng-tze is the terminus of the Russian line : 
it is not quite half-way from Kharbin to Moukden. 
The Japanese call their station at Kwan-cheng-tze 
Changchun, which is rather puzzling to the traveller 
who is unaware that the place boasts two names. 
All passengers have to change trains here. 

We had a leisurely journey across the plains, and 
arrived at Kwan-cheng-tze about 8.30, our halting- 
place for the night. It boasts a brand new Japanese 
hotel just opposite the station, which was radiantly 
clean and fresh, such a contrast to the Russian one at 
Kharbin. There was no lack of attention, for the 
Chinese boys flew to do our bidding, and fetched us 
tea unbidden. In the morning we started at 8.30 on 
the Japanese section of the line. The cars are long 
open corridor ones, and kept admirably clean, but one 

ch. i Hulan 

misses the privacy so dear to the Englishman. All 
day long we slowly wended our way southward, stop- 
ping at many stations of a mushroom growth : it 
requires no imagination to fancy yourself back in 
Europe as far as the houses are concerned, but the 
people are quite out of keeping with them. The 
train had a sonorous bell attached to the engine, 
absolutely like that of a church, which heralded 
our approach to the stations. At almost every station 
there is a little house where hot water is to be ob- 
tained ; the moment the train stops out dash numbers 
of Chinese, carrying their teapots, which they get 
replenished. We had no need to bestir ourselves, as 
the conductor was most attentive and kept us well 
supplied. The trains always have Japanese military 
officials on board, who usually go only short stages, 
being replaced by others whenever they get out. The 
trains are very crowded, and in the third class they 
are packed like monkeys in cages : some of the car- 
riages have three shelves one above the other, on 
which the passengers lie, and as they are lighted at 
the top by a single dim candle, at night the top man 
certainly has the best of it. 

At 6 p.m. we steamed into Moukden punctual to 
the minute, and found a deafening crowd ready to 
lay hold of the passengers. We were greeted by a 
man possessing a few words of English, and able to 
understand where we wanted to go, so we were glad 
to entrust ourselves to his care. He even satisfied 
any curiosity we might have had as to the personal 


The Face of Mci7ichuria ch. i 

appearance of our host, whose main feature, judging 
from the description, was a huge moustache. The 
drive was thrilling, and the five miles were none too 
long ; it was the New Year festival, and all sorts of 
things were to be seen in the thronged streets. Bril- 
liant moonlight illuminated the city from above, and 
lanterns and fireworks lit it up intermittently from 
within. A short drive brought us near a thoroughly 
Burmese dagoba of old times, and then through a 
horrible iron archway of the worst type of modern 
times. Farther on we passed through the gloomy gate- 
way in the big city wall, and found an almost impene- 
trable throng of sightseers. Our driver had no longer 
a chance of pointing out interesting buildings, and 
giving us details of his faith, &c, with which he had 
varied the earlier part of the drive, for he was obliged 
to keep up a monotonous shout of " hech ! hech ! 
hech ! " only varied by what sounded like " hurry 
on, hurry on ! " a much needed injunction to his 
steed. After about an hour's drive we reached the 
group of Mission buildings, hospitals, schools, and 
dwelling-houses situated on the river bank, which is 
radiant with lotus blossom in the summer-time. But 
I must not begin describing the charms of Moukden 
at the end of a chapter : it demands one to itself. As 
the relation of Manchuria to China is but little known, 
it may be of interest to the reader to have the brief 
account which forms the beginning of the next 
chapter, but after this warning it is easy for those 
who are not interested to skip the next four pages. 



THE story of the rise of the Manchu dynasty 
is like a romance, and no parallel to it is 
to be found in the pages of history. In the 
middle of the sixteenth century there was no Manchu 
Empire, and the Manchus themselves were wild, un- 
cultured barbarians without any written language, 
living in caves which they hollowed in the earth, and 
engaged in constant warfare with other tribes living 
like themselves in the northern part of that country 
which we call Manchuria, the central and southern 
part being inhabited by the Chinese. In the year 
1559 Noorhachu was born, with the prospect of be- 
coming ruler over six little hamlets ; by the year 1 6 1 6 
he had conquered all the adjacent tribes and founded 
the Manchu kingdom, receiving from the " great 
Ministers " the title of Ying Ming — " brave and illus- 
trious." Noorhachu's military conquests and singular 
political sagacity alarmed the Chinese, whose frequent 
attacks and whose murder of his father and grand- 
father had roused his deep-seated enmity. He pre- 
pared an army of picked men, and drew up a paper 
of " seven hates," addressed to the Emperor of China. 

The Face of Ma?ichuria ch. ii 

Instead of despatching it to the Emperor, he addressed 
it to Heaven, burning the document with full sacri- 
ficial rites, after which he started his campaign (i 6 1 7) 
by attacking the Chinese in the territory east of 
Moukden. In the midst of this campaign he was 
recalled to his capital, Hingking, by the news that a 
Chinese army of 200,000 men was approaching. on 
reaching Moukden this force divided into four armies 
of equal size : they were all in turn defeated by the 
smaller forces of Noorhachu within the space of five 
days, the number of killed being computed at 45,000. 
After one month's rest he led his victorious troops to 
the conquest of Moukden and Liao Yang, and at the 
latter place he built a palace for himself and made it 
the seat of government. 

Noorhachu, oras hewas afterwards styled, Taidsoo = 
the Great Ancestor, was far-sighted enough to recog- 
nise that his only means of holding the large territory 
which he had won was by wise and good administra- 
tion, and in this he was successful. In 1625 he retired 
to Moukden and made it his capital ; in the following 
year he died there, after an unsuccessful campaign 
against the Chinese. They were led by a determined 
general who brought (for the first time) "terrific 
western cannon " against him, which had been cast 
by Jesuit missionaries. 

Noorhachu was buried in the Foo Ling tomb, east 
of Moukden, a fitting resting-place for the great 
founder of the Manchu dynasty. It was during his 
son's reign that the Manchu dynasty was firmly placed 





Mk ^ ^ ■ 



ch. ii Moukden 

upon the throne of China in the person of Noorhachu's 
grandson, a boy of five years old (1644). His father 
had been summoned by the Chinese to aid them 
against several hordes of rebels who had devastated 
the empire, and he sent a powerful army led by his 
brother. The Manchus, after defeating the rebel 
army, marched on Peking, where Li Dsuchung, the 
most noted rebel leader, had entrenched himself, and 
where the last of the Ming Emperors had in conse- 
quence committed suicide. Li Dsuchung had indeed 
proclaimed himself Emperor in his stead, but after a 
reign of one day he fled from the city at the approach 
of the Manchus, was pursued by them, and severely 
defeated. The Manchu general at once sent for his 
nephew — the ninth son of the reigning monarch, a 
child of five yearsold — and placed him upon thethrone, 
himself acting as Regent. The new Emperor received 
the title of Ta-tsing, or " Great Pure " — the name of 
the present dynasty. The Regent was an able ruler, 
and soon succeeded in dispersing the rebels and re- 
storing order throughout the empire. At the end of 
six monthscomparative peace had been established, and 
the Regent issued a proclamation that all who sub- 
mitted to the new rule would enjoy the same rank, 
position, and emoluments, as they had done under the 
Ming dynasty. 1 He ordered sacrifices to be offered at 
the Ming tombs, and that a tomb should be erected 

1 This wise policy has been consistently carried out ever since. In 1878 
there was not a single Manchu governor or viceroy of any of the eighteen 
provinces of China. (Ross, p. 566.) 

J 3 

"The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

for the last of them, where sacrifices should also be 
offered. He postponed the enforcement of the humili- 
ating law requiring change of dress, the shaving of the 
head, and wearing of the queue and Manchu cap, and 
he promised those who complained of the negle6t of 
etiquette and music among officials, that proper atten- 
tion should be given to this matter as soon as war was at 
an end. It is an interesting fatt that the Manchus 
should afterwards have so completely succeeded in im- 
posing their dress on the Chinaman, the wearing of the 
queue becoming universal ; but equally interesting is it 
to observe that the women never could be madetoadopt 
it. The Manchu woman's dress is to this day quite 
different fromthe Chinese, from itswonderful wing-like 
head-dress down to its largeshoes. The Chinese woman 
refused to unbind her feet, and was in consequence 
never admitted within the precincts of the palace at 
Peking. In facl it may be stated that whereas it is 
impossible to distinguish between a Chinaman and a 
Manchu, there is no part of a Chinese woman's dress 
which is quite the same as a Manchu's. The latter 
have different styles of arranging their hair from the 
spreadeagle style, so commonly seen in Peking, to the 
curious one shown in the sketch (see next chapter), and 
also wear different kinds of shoes — some with a heel 
attached to the centre of the sole, others with a flat 
white sole some two inches thick. 

The foregoing historical details are mainly drawn 
from Dr. Ross's book,"The Manchus,or the Reigning 
Dynasty of China." The uniqueness of the story lies 


ch. ii Moukden 

in the fact that when the Manchus conquered China 
they were merely a horde of savages attacking a highly 
educated people, infinitely their superiors in number 
and resources. They not only conquered them, but 
for centuries they imposed their yoke upon them, 
always hated, yet always obeyed. As the centuries 
elapsed the Manchus grew weaker in their own 
country, and never fused with the conquered race. 
In China proper they still live apart ; walled Manchu 
cities may be found within many walled Chinese 
cities ; and it is only last year that the stringent rule 
forbidding Manchu women to marry Chinese hus- 
bands has been rescinded. It needs no explanation 
to see why the opposite rule held with regard to 
Manchu men marrying Chinese wives, who, ipso facto, 
lost their nationality. 

I have tried to show in the foregoing pages how 
the Manchus won their position in China, and also 
how the southern part of Manchuria, including 
Moukden, was originally Chinese. Those who wish 
to wrest it from China are seeking to take an integral 
part of the empire. No one who visits Moukden 
can fail to see that it is a thoroughly Chinese city, 
with its magnificent walls and gateways, and the big 
drum tower and bell, like the one at Peking. Alas 
for the modern utilitarian spirit ! Already they are 
beginning to pull down the fine old gateways, and to 
replace the inimitable shop fronts with shabby imita- 
tions of European ones. 

It was cold weather when we walked through 


The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

those fascinating streets, and in the fish shops we saw 
quantities of frozen as well as dried comestibles. 
Game was plentiful and cheap, and the frozen deer 
had quite a life-like appearance, standing waiting for 
a customer. In one street nothing but boots was 
being sold, and the fact was evident from afar, for out- 
side the shops were hung gaily painted effigies of 
boots, some two feet in length. Above some shops 
were dragons, over others tigers, or the phoenix, or 
lotus blossoms all painted in every colour of the rain- 
bow, and hanging from them signboards bearing the 
name of the shopkeepers. The cash shops have 
almost a screen of strings of gigantic cash dependent 
from the eaves. The curio shops still contain things 
to charm the soul of the artist, though every day sees 
their treasures diminishing, to be replaced by modern 
imitations. The glorious jade that used to be obtain- 
able is scarcely to be found, and the bronzes have 
mostly been carried off to the West ; still one hopes 
for the best, and carries off a few things, which if not 
so old as they boast to be, have at least an air of 
antiquity and some noble suggestion of the glory of 
the art of the Ming dynasty. 

Our first expedition at Moukden was naturally to 
the Foo Ling tombs to see where the great founder 
of the Manchu dynasty lies buried. It is disappoint- 
ing to be unable to gain information as to the date 
of the tomb, but no doubt the Manchus adopted the 
architecture and arts of China at an early stage of 
their conquest. 


ch. ii Moukden 

It was by no means a promising morning when we 
set out, but our time was limited, and we had per- 
suaded the doctor to take an unwonted holiday from 
his strenuous labours, so delay was impossible. Where 
no guide-books are obtainable, it is doubly valuable to 
have kind friends willing to place their knowledge at 
your disposal, and doclors are skilful at smoothing 
other things as well as pillows ; in fact I can give no 
better advice to travellers than to try and secure the 
help of the medical missionary — the busier the better 
— as a guide to all that is best worth seeing in the 
foreign field. Dr. Young had kindly procured for us 
the requisite permit to visit the tombs, which can 
only be obtained through the British Consul. We 
set out in a weird glass chariot, quite suggestive of 
Cinderella's coach ; it had windows the whole way 
round, and was lined with mouse-coloured plush, not 
to mention a fine mirror opposite to us. We had 
a retainer standing on a step behind, who spent all 
his time jumping on and off, as he required to lead 
the horse round every corner and over every obstacle 
in the road. Passing outside the city we saw an 
endless stretch of graves beyond graves ; then we 
came to a beautiful park-like place where lilies of the 
valley grow thickly in the spring — but alas ! people 
are digging them up so ruthlessly, that it is to be 
feared there will soon be none left. The trees seemed 
to grow finer and finer as we neared the tombs. The 
wall surrounding them has been damaged by its occu- 
pation during the war, when the Japanese troops took 

17 B 

The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

possession and were attacked by the Russians : the 
wall is riddled by bullets, but it is astonishing how 
comparatively little damage had been done. The 
gateway is beautifully decorated with green tiles, and 
there are handsome large green medallions set in the 
Venetian red wall. Inside is a fine avenue of hoary 
trees leading to the main avenue, in which are some 
curious stone animals ; these are so familiar to us by 
photos and by the description of other travellers, that 
it is unnecessary for me to attempt it. They form 
but a detail of the fine effect which is created by the 
lofty buildings among the trees, enclosed within a 
high wall. The colouring of the building — mellowed 
by time — is superb, and as we saw it under the fast 
falling snow, was most impressive. 

Some difficulty attended our entrance despite the 
permit, but the doctor's tact overcame it, and once 
inside they were most civil to us, and becarne quite 
interested when I began to sketch. The actual 
grave of Noorhachu, or Taidsoo, the grandfather of the 
first Manchu Emperor of China (Ching dynasty 
1 644), is a lofty mound at the far end of the enclosure, 
and surrounded by a wall of its own. The entrance 
by which the ruling Emperor approaches the tomb 
is very fine, a handsomely carved marble pailow sur- 
rounded by trees, and as we looked at the whole 
group of buildings from the top of the wall, along 
which there is an excellent walk, they form a most 
impressive sight. The trees are full of mistletoe, but 
of a different species from ours ; it has either yellow 

ch. ii Moiikden 

or scarlet berries, and in some trees we saw both 

There are many interesting monuments in Mouk- 
den, but I venture to think this is the finest of all. 
The design is copied from the Ming tombs near 
Peking, and it is said that it was originally planned 
to carry away the stone animals from the former in 
order to use them for the Moukden tombs. This 
design was frustrated, however, for a descendant of the 
Mings accidentally heard of it, whereupon he at once 
went and mutilated all the stone beasts, knocking off 
the ear of one and the beard from another, and thereby 
rendering them useless. While this explanation is 
merely a tradition, the facl remains. The Ming 
tombs, forty miles north of Peking, are designed on a 
much larger scale than the Moukden ones, and cover 
a distance of several miles in length, as compared with 
acres in the case of the latter. In my opinion this 
detracts considerably from the effecl, as only one detail 
can be properly seen at a time ; first the fine marble 
pailow of five gateways, then at varying distances other 
gateways (very dilapidated), then a square tower 
containing a stone tablet on a tortoise, then a 
dromos of stone animals and warriors facing one 
another, with a considerable space between each 
couple, so that the sixteen couples extend over a 
space nearly a mile in length. Between them and 
the tombs is a considerably greater distance, and 
whereas the above-mentioned memorials are all in a 
straight line, the thirteen tombs are arranged in a fan 

l 9 

The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

shape at the base of the hills which enclose the end 
of the valley. 

These Peking tombs date back to the time of the 
Ming dynasty, which ended in 1644, and the Mouk- 
den tombs are considerably later. Their whole design 
is taken direcl from the former, and there is no attempt 
to introduce any Manchu characteristics. The reason 
for this is obvious ; the Manchus were emerging from 
a state of barbarism, and possessed no architecture 
worthy of the name. 

After the tombs the most interesting building at 
Moukden is the palace, for which also an order has to 
be obtained through the Consul. We visited it twice. 

This palace is thoroughly Chinese in appearance 
(I failed to ascertain its date, but it is at least some 
centuries old), with its gorgeous golden roofs and 
Venetian red walls. The facades are decorated with 
coloured tiles of great beauty and infinite variety of 
detail : they challenge comparison with some of the 
majolica most highly prized in Europe. Under the 
wide eaves there are finely carved dragons, stretching 
their sinuous length from end to end. The buildings 
are ranged court beyond court, with a fine staircase 
leading to the innermost one at the back. But the 
main object of the visitor is to see the priceless trea- 
sures locked up in its rooms, for they contain the most 
valuable possessions of the Chinese throne. Unfor- 
tunately, when admittance has been obtained, it is not 
easy to see the treasures, for they are carefully wrapped 
up in cases, or stacked in hopeless confusion in cup- 

ch. ii Moukden 

boards, and are taken out one by one and laid on a 
table for the visitor to see them, and then put away 
again. First we were shown imperial robes, studded 
with pearls and jewels, then jade-mounted swords. 
Jade is considered by the Chinese to be the most pre- 
cious of all stones, and it is one of the hardest to cut. 
" It was first brought toEnglandfrom Spanish America 
by Sir Walter Raleigh," says Bushnell ("Chinese Art," 
p. 134), and he derived the word "jade" from the 
Spanish piedra de hijade — "stone of the loins." 
Vessels of jade are always used in the Chinese Imperial 
ritual worship, and must be of various colours, accord- 
ing to the particular ceremonial in which they are 

After showing us these things the officials began to 
lose their distrust, and invited us to come inside the 
enclosure and peer into the dark cupboards, whence 
we picked out things that looked particularly attrac- 
tive, but found that the waning light prevented our 
doing justice to the opportunity. 

It was on our second visit that we were shown the 
much more valuable collection of bronzes and porce- 
lain, the door to which could only be unlocked after 
prolonged effort, and in the presence of special officials. 
Other visitors besides ourselves were anxious to enter, 
but a special permit was required, and they were sent 
away disappointed. The porcelain was piled in end- 
less heaps in glass cases, which probably remained un- 
opened for decades, and there was no attempt at classi- 
fication. The beauty of colour and design could be 

The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

but imperfectly realised, as sets of bowls or dishes 
were all piled in one another, so as to occupy the least 
possible space, and there was but little variety in pro- 
portion to the large quantity of china displayed. A 
visit to the British Museum gives a much better con- 
ception of this form of Chinese art. It was much the 
same case with the bronzes, and it was even more 
difficult to see them than the china. There was one 
fine example of the " gold splash," which is so well 
represented at the South Kensington Museum in 
Mr. Behren's collection. To my great disappointment 
there was little variety of design. It is to be hoped 
that the Chinese may be sufficiently imbued by the 
modern spirit to make them copy (to a certain extent) 
the arrangement of our museums, so that the art 
treasures contained in the palace may be more acces- 
sible to visitors. Outside the palace were the curious 
fences known as " deer's horns," which are also to be 
seen at the great tombs and outside official buildings. 
They are long pieces of wood set at right angles to 
one another as closely as possible, and running through 
a long heavy beam. The lower ends of the cross 
pieces are heavy, and are set into the ground, the 
upper ones taper to a point : altogether the " deer's 
horns " form a strong, though simple, barrier. They 
are usually painted red. 

After seeing the palace we visited the fine church, 
built by the native Christians after the destruction of 
the former one by the Boxers in 1 800. It seats several 
hundred people, and has a native pastor. It may 

ch. ii Moukde?i 

interest readers to know that among the State papers 
found during the Russian occupation of Moukden 
was a description of the destruction of the property of 
the Christians. This was written in Manchu, which 
is quite different from Chinese writing, and bound in 
imperial yellow silk, enclosed in a yellow silk box and 
sent to Peking. There it was countersigned by the 
late Emperor and late Dowager Empress, and sent back 
to Moukden to be placed in the State archives. Could 
any more conclusive proof be found that the Boxer 
outrages were sanctioned by the Court at Peking ? 
We were privileged to see this interesting historical 

At the time of the Boxers all the missionaries in 
Manchuria were obliged to flee, some without time 
to take even necessary clothing with them. one of 
the most popular doclors learnt afterwards that the 
robbers in a certain village had planned to carry him 
off in order to save him from the Boxers ! It is im- 
possible to overestimate the influence of the medical 
missionary, and no mission field has been more favoured 
in this respecl: than Manchuria. The medical mission 
work was started at Moukden in 1882 by Dr. Christie, 
who has steadily built up the work there, and whose 
new hospital is the model for what such institutions 
should be. Despite the prejudices of the people, the 
work has steadily grown. The renown of the foreign 
doclor has spread for hundreds of miles, and the 
message which is nearest to his heart has been carried 
into remote villages in the Long White Mountains by 

2 3 

The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

patients who return from the hospital not only cured, 
but also imbued with the missionary spirit which has 
brought a new life to them. The resped which is 
felt for this work is shown in no way more clearly than 
in the fact that when the hospital was obliged to be left 
for ten months during the war between China and 
Japan, the buildings with their contents were left 
absolutely unharmed. 

Not so fortunate, however, was the hospital during 
the Boxer time, for all the buildings were destroyed 
by fire, and when they might have been rebuilt, 
another desolating war swept over the country. The 
missionaries had returned and had their hands more 
than full, for Moukden was the refuge to which 
crowds of destitute Chinese were driven. No less 
than seventeen refuges, containingsome 10,000 people, 
were under the care of the missionaries, for the 
officials thankfully recognised their efforts and co- 
operated with them, doing similar work themselves. 
There were as many as four hospitals being carried 
on at the same time, for not only were there numbers 
of wounded, but epidemics of smallpox and fever 
spread among the refugees. 

When at last the time came for building the new 
hospital, the money granted as an indemnity for the 
destruction of the former ones by the Boxers was 
wholly inadequate, for the price of everything was 
more than quadrupled. The Chinese were not slow 
to show their sense of indebtedness for the unstinted 
labours on their behalf, and the new buildings, owing 


ch. ii Moukden 

to their generosity, were built on a larger scale than 
before. The Japanese, too, came forward with most 
generous aid, in return for the work that had been 
done for their wounded during the war. Marshal 
Oyama sent a donation of about £100 for the Red 
Cross work, and ordered all the wood required for 
the buildings to be sent up by rail, free of charge, 
from Newchwang. This was of the greatest import- 
ance, as there was no seasoned wood to be obtained 
in Moukden, and it meant a saving of several hundred 
pounds. The Viceroy sent a gift of over £600, to 
which he added another £150 when he opened the 
new hospital. Another friend carted all the bricks 
and tiles ; a director of the Chinese railway ordered 
all the requisite Portland cement and floor tiles to be 
brought up free of charge from Tang Shan to Hsin 
Muntun, and others helped in various ways. No 
wonder the hospital is such a splendid success, when 
it has such workers and such friends ! It has several 
wings radiating out from a long central corridor, with 
a fine operating theatre at the end. There is an 
X-ray apparatus and other special furnishings. 1 There 
are outbuildings for students, &c, a laboratory and 
class-rooms, besides the preaching hall, where service 
goes on daily. 

But what, it may be asked, is the staff for this large 

1 When it was made known at the opening of the hospital that more 
furnishings were required, many gifts, both in money and requisites, were at 
once contributed, while two merchants told the docior to apply to them for 
money as it was needed, which he did several times till the hospital was 

2 5 

The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

work ? The surprising answer is one man ; only last 

year has a second been appointed, to give a part of 

his time to assisting Dr. Christie. He has, of course, 

trained Chinese assistants to help him in the work, 

and very efficient some of them are, and two Chinese 

hospital evangelists, who follow up the cases, but 

the bulk of the work falls on himself. What would 

our doctors at home think of having to perform ten 

operations in a day, after handing over nine minor 

ones to the assistants ? But that was the case the day 

we visited the hospital. It accommodates 1 1 o patients, 

and the beds do not lack occupants. The attendance 

of out-patients is frequently 200 or 300 per morning, 

so that the attendance for the year is very large, last 

year numbering over 26,000. After the recent visit 

of the Naval Commission returning from Europe, a 

request came for medical aid for 200 men with badly 

frost-bitten ears, as the soldiers are not allowed to 

wear ear-muffs when on parade. It is not etiquette 

to wear ear-muffs or spectacles when speaking to any 

one, and the curious custom is now coming into 

fashion of touching the glasses instead of removing 

them. The hospital is a free one, but poor as are 

many of the patients, few of the in-patients leave 

without giving an offering, and many out-patients do 

the same. Some of the beds are supported from 

home, and it only requires £5 per annum to support 


It will be seen from these figures how requisite it 

is to have a larger staff, and to undertake (what is now 


ch. ii Moukden 

being planned) a training college for the Chinese. 
The late Viceroy promised a yearly sum of about 
£420 for this purpose, but as he has been replaced by 
an anti-foreign Viceroy, it was feared that his promise 
would not be ratified by his successor. Despite the 
further facl that the new buildings are not yet begun, 
when the matter was placed before him he promised 
to consider it, and shortly afterwards sent word that 
the sum had been duly placed in the bank to the 
credit of the mission. The college will be a union 
one of the Irish Presbyterians and the United Free 
Church of Scotland, and may draw students also from 
the Danish Lutheran stations, the only other mission- 
ary society working in Manchuria. As there are 
now some 40,000 Christians there will be no diffi- 
culty in rinding students, though it will not be entirely 
confined to Christians. 

The course will be a thorough one, extending over 
five years after the preliminary examination, and 
diplomas will be given. The estimated cost of the 
new buildings and equipment is ^2500, and two 
houses for professors £1500. An excellent site has 
already been obtained through the generosity of the 
Chinese, which is close to the hospital. 

I have described at some length the medical mission 
here, and yet have done scant justice to it ; of the 
women's work a word must also be said. There are 
two fully qualified women doctors, and their hospital, 
withaccommodation for seventy patients, is socrowded, 
that a new wing is now being added. They do a 


The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

large amount of work in the people's homes, as many 
of the ladies are not to be reached otherwise, also 
they do work as far as time allows in the district 
round Moukden. When it is known that the doctor 
is coming, patients crowd to see her ; and one realises 
a little the magnitude of the work when one chances 
to see the missionary come back utterly worn out by 
a two days' visitation, having interviewed over 900 
patients in that short space of time. 

Women's work in Moukden is not merely medical, 
but also educational. Besides the training of Bible 
women there is an excellent girls' boarding school, 
for which new buildings (badly needed) are in course 
of erection. Great excitement was caused in the 
little community by the girls being taken, for the 
first time in their lives, to see an exhibition. It is 
rather disappointing to the traveller who thinks he 
is going to the genuine Far East to find it invaded by 
industrial exhibitions and school excursions, but alas, 
such is the prosaic fact. 

We devoted a day to visiting the imperial tombs 
on the north of the city, and although it was the end 
of March, we suffered intensely from the cold, and had 
not the advantage of going in a glass coach as we did 
on the occasion of visiting the eastern tombs. The 
road was too rough, and even the solid droshky built 
in Odessa, and drawn by two sturdy beasts, was 
severely tested by the frightful ruts into which we 
were frequently plunged. The Russian driver was 

a capital, good-tempered fellow, and never hesitated to 



ch. ii Moukden 

drive through a quagmire or up a bank into a 
ploughed field when necessity compelled. After three 
hours' driving we approached a fine bluff crowned 
with pine-trees, among which gleamed the golden 
roofs of the tombs, so we knew that our destination 
was at hand. 

" Deer's horns " palisades enclosed the wood at the 
base of the cliff, and we turned up a gully to the left 
of it. The road soon became very steep, and we left 
the carriage to climb up on foot. The view of the 
entrance gate among the trees as seen in the 
accompanying sketch, was peculiarly striking after the 
long drive over the dun-coloured plain, for as yet there 
was no sign of spring. Passing through the gateway 
we soon came to the lofty facade of the main en- 
closure, and a surly old guardian of the place came to 
challenge our entry. We produced the permit, which 
we had obtained through the Consul, and were kept 
a long time waiting before we were allowed to enter, 
but there was plenty to interest us in the scene. It 
was a sort of square, with the dwellings of the officials 
on either side, and at the lower end a small temple 
facingthe plain below, down to which were longflights 
of steps, and then a steep paved incline the same width 
as the steps and with balustrades at the sides. Lofty 
pine-trees surrounded the place, and scattered amongst 
them at the bottom were stone animals and figures. 
At a short distance from the stepswas the State entrance 
gateway, but that was closed. one could imagine 
how fine the effect would be to see a gorgeous royal 


The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

procession enter the gateway from the plain, cross the 
short level space under the avenue of pine-trees, and 
mount the long ascent to the towering, golden-roofed 
temples behind which the imperial tomb stands. The 
colouring in the brilliant sunlight looked very rich as 
it gleamed among the dark pine-trees. 

Before leaving, we asked the man who had showed 
us round if we could have some hot water for tea, 
but he said there was none, so we took our things 
outside, and sat down to sketch and lunch. At first 
I could not think what was the matter, for the paint 
seemed thoroughly intraclable ; then it suddenly 
dawned on me that no sooner was a wet wash laid 
on the paper than it froze. Yet this was the last 
week of March, and midday, with the sun shining 
full on us. Sketching generally seems to be done 
under difficulties, and this trip more so than ever. 
It will be understood how doubly welcome was the 
sight of our guide returning to say that he had got 
hot water for us, and he took away our teapot and 
filled it, for all Chinese understand the right making 
of tea. As we were drinking it shortly afterwards, 
a pitiable figure came creeping up the hill, evidently 
suffering acutely from asthma. When we offered 
him a cup of hot tea a look of intense gratitude shone 
in his eyes, and when he had drunk it, still speechless, 
he drew himself up and made a European military 
salute, then passed slowly on to the gateway. 

As we returned to the city we agreed that no one 
should fail to visit the tombs who comes to Moukden. 


ch. ii Moukden 

It is of course tiresome to have to get permits, and 
takes a little time, but there is nothing within the 
city that is half so picturesque as these two groups of 
tombs, to each of which a whole day should be de- 
voted. Some inscriptions at the Foo Ling tomb, we 
were told, are quite unique, but the heavy snow when 
we were there prevented our doing justice to the fine 
details of architecture. 

There is an unpromising-looking hotel at Moukden 
called the Astor House, but Americans who stayed 
there assured us it was quite comfortable, and every 
one passing through Moukden ought certainly to stop 
and see it, especially in view of its being so rapidly 
modernised. The old temples seem to be in a state 
of utter disrepair, and the most interesting one, the 
Fox Temple, will soon cease to exist. The worship of 
the fox is very common in Manchuria, and is especially 
incumbent upon officials, all Mandarins beingsupposed 
to do it, as the fox is the keeper of the seals of office. 
Doolittle, in his " Social Life of the Chinese," says : 
" There is in connection with some of the principal 
civil yamens a small two-storied building devoted to 
the worship of his Majesty, Master Reynard. There 
is no image or picture of a fox to be worshipped, 
but simply an imaginary fox somewhere. Incense, 
candles, and wine are placed upon a table in the room 
of the second storey of this building, and before this 
table the Mandarin kneels down and bows his head 
in the customary manner, as an act of reverence to 
Reynard, the keeper of his seals of office. This 


The Face of Manchuria ch. ii 

sacrifice, it is affirmed, is never performed by deputy. 
The Chinese believe the official seal of the Mandarin, 
after he has arrived at his yamen, to be in the keeping 
of the fox. They assert with great earnestness, and 
apparent sincerity, that if the Mandarin did not 
worship the fox on his arrival at his residence, his 
seal of office would shortly disappear in some inex- 
plicable way, or some singular and strange calamity 
would certainly befall him or his yamen." 

We visited the Temple of Hell, where all sorts of 
horrible penalties are vividly depicted in stucco, and 
these are more terrible as indicating what Chinese 
punishments have been, than in suggesting what may 
be expected in the future world. The temples seem 
to be little frequented by the people, and it is only on 
certain occasions that the people flock to them. The 
ancestral tablets in his own home have the main part 
of a Chinaman's devotions. 

on our second visit to Moukden we had rather a 
rickety droshky, and were amused to see the way the 
driver arranged the luggage. The Chinese never make 
any difficulty about the quantity, for fear by so doing 
of losing a fare. The man therefore entirely filled his 
footboard with luggage, and seated himself on it with 
a large bag of bedding on his lap. We had not gone 
far when a wheel rolled off into the gutter, and we 
waited some time for it to be put on again, the luggage 
meanwhile being deposited in the road. The job was 
not satisfactorily managed, for we had to go very, very 
slowly, and have the wheel continually hammered on. 


ch. ii Moukden 

It began to rain, and in order to put up the hood most 
of the luggage had to be piled on the top of ourselves, 
and we found it, to say the least, both hot and heavy. 
At last our driver gave up in despair, and by means of 
signs made us understand that he would go and fetch 
another vehicle. When he returned with a cart the 
transfer was soon made, and our driver with great 
secrecy explained that he had bargained with the carter 
to take us to our destination for a certain sum. The 
difficulty then arose as to how we were to pay him, 
for we only possessed Japanese and Pekingese money, 
which he eyed with distrust, and declined to accept. 
We gave him, however,arather liberal fare,and pointed 
to him to take it to a big shop, opposite which we 
were standing. There he was reassured as to its value, 
and came back smiling ; he thrust his head into the 
cart with a final rejoinder to us only to pay the right 
fare to the carter, evidently feeling that we were liable 
to spend our money too lavishly. 



Hsin Muntun 

FROM Moukden we made a flying visit to Peking 
and into Shansi, but as that does not come with- 
in the scope of this book, I shall take up my 
narrative from the point where we re-entered Man- 
churia on our return by the South Manchurian Rail- 
way. We were astonished to see the hundreds of 
emigrants going north : every train was packed with 
them. There was an accident on the line, a young 
lad of twenty having his leg badly crushed by the train 
preceding ours. First aid was rendered by the officials, 
who are trained to give it, and by means of a chunk 
of coal and some cord the bleeding was stopped, 
the ligature being so tight as completely to stop the 
circulation. The lad was put on a big sort of door 
and placed in the luggage van of our train, and the 
conductor came round as soon as we had started again 
to see if a docl:or was aboard to give further aid. Our 
party provided one, and there were all necessary requi- 
sites in the shape of bandages, splints, permanganate 
of potash, &c, in the surgery at the junction farther 
up the line, so that the patient was made as comfort- 
able as possible when he arrived there, and a message 


ch. iii Hsin Muntun 

was telegraphed to the medical mission at Hsin 
Muntun, which happened to be both his and also our 
destination. on arrival the do6tor and assistants were 
waiting, and the young man was carried away at once 
to the hospital. Amputation was necessary, but the 
lad would not at first agree to it ; however, just as we 
had finished dinner a message came to say that his 
friends had been summoned, and that both they and 
he were willing for the operation to take place, so no 
time was lost in performing it. 

Next morning we visited him in the hospital, and 
found him looking quite comfortable, and not at all 
pale even. 

In the early days of the railway there were count- 
less accidents ; people would drop things on to the 
line, and then creep under the train to pick them out, 
or step in front of it just as it was starting. We were 
surprised to find blue glass windows in many of the 
trains, but the explanation of that was, that being 
unaccustomed to glass, people were continually putting 
their heads through them as long as they were un- 
coloured ! Even now the trains all approach and leave 
the stations extraordinarily slowly, and there is a great 
bell ringing in order to warn people off the line. Of 
course there are no overhead or underground passages 
for crossing the line, so that it makes accidents almost 
inevitable. They are taken with the usual Chinese 
stolid imperturbability. 

Hsin Muntun is an interesting little town not far 
distant from Moukden, which we visited in order to 


The Face of Manchuria ch. iii 

see the admirable mission work carried on there by 
members of the Irish Presbyterian Mission, having 
received a cordial invitation from one of the staff 
whom we happened to meet on the railway as we 
travelled south. The Irish and Scotch Presbyterians 
may be said to have federated in Manchuria, and work 
together with hearty goodwill. Though Hsin Mun- 
tun offered no striking characteristics, I had the good 
fortune to make sketches of the women there, with 
their curious head-dress, similar to that worn through- 
out the country. 

In the women's hospital were two widows, a6ting 
as assistants ; they donned their best garments for my 
benefit, and may be seen in the accompanying sketch, 
saluting one another in the Manchu style. The 
Manchus always wear the hair dressed over a metal 
framework, either as in the sketch, or like a wide flat 
bow, and with both styles of head-dress a large bunch 
of artificial flowers is worn, and gold ornaments in 
addition. In winter a cap is worn out of doors, with 
fur round it, and embroidered strings hanging down 
behind, not to mention ear-muffs, an imperative ne- 
cessity where the cold is so intense. We found that in 
the women's hospital they decided to have the bulk of 
the accommodation in the shape of heated khangs, as in 
the homes of the people ; these are brick platforms, 
used instead of bedsteads : they are greatly preferred by 
the patients. It may not be so sanitary, but the people 
feel much more at home on the khang, and as physical 
health is not the main object of medical mission work, 


ch. iii Hsin Muntun 

it is obvious that due regard must be paid to the 
likings or prejudices of the people among whom the 
missionary is working. The cost of medical mission 
work is heavy, and we were touched by the efforts to 
utilise to the utmost the money which had been sent 
from home for the buildings. The funds had not 
been sufficient to provide for a porch or front door, 
so a mat shed had been erected till the requisite 
money should be forthcoming. Efficiency does not 
depend on these things, but workers would be much 
encouraged if their supporters were more numerous, 
or more generous. 

The men's hospital is larger, and is complete — 
very simple, but thoroughly practical, and attracting 
patients from all the country round. Our visit took 
place at rather a slack time of year, and it was 
undergoing a New Year's cleaning, as that is the 
occasion when all patients, if possible, return to their 
own homes. After visiting both the men's and the 
women's hospitals we went to the girls' school, and 
met with a great surprise. Three years ago the school 
was not in existence, and when the children first came, 
mostly from Christian homes in neighbouring vil- 
lages, they were absolutely ignorant of reading and 
writing. Now we saw them examined in geography, 
arithmetic, algebra, singing, and drilling. There are 
about fifty boarders : they are under the charge of a 
Chinese matron, with four senior girls as monitors to 
help her. These girls were examined last term along 
with the boys, who had been studying many years. 


The Face of Manchuria ch. iii 

The best girl pupil obtained an average of 84 per cent, 
marks, coming out ahead of the boys in arithmetic, 
Scripture, and algebra. She got 100 per cent, for 
arithmetic, 95 for an essay, 96 for Chinese classics 
(memorised), and 85 for explaining the Chinese 
classics. The children's sums were as neat and the 
figures as well written as one could wish to see, their 
maps excellent, and they answered the questions in 
geography on all parts of the world, pointing out the 
places on the charts on the wall. I am forced to 
admit that the examination in geography was more 
painful to us than to the examined, for we were re- 
quired, without book or map, to ask questions on 
Australasia and South America, parts of the world 
with which I was sadly unfamiliar. We happened 
to go back into the schoolroom after school had been 
dismissed, and found a child who had not been able 
to point out on the map the way from Shanghai to 
England now receiving a lesson on it from the 
monitor. The Irish master told us the girls are 
" tigers " for work, and far keener than the boys, to 
whom education has always been open. We went 
into the courtyard to watch them drill, and here again 
we were struck with the success of the monitress, who 
had learnt the exercises from a book, with merely an 
explanation from the foreign teacher when she failed 
to understand it. The singing is entirely taught on 
the sol-fa system, and the children have already learnt 
to sing creditably simple part music. They are nearly 
all Chinese, but apparently there is little appreciable 


ch. iii Hsin Muntun 

difference between the intellectual ability of Chinese 
and Manchus. Morning school closed with two or 
three short prayers by the girls, and the repetition of 
the Lord's Prayer : they always dismiss themselves. 
The education is free, but the children's food is pro- 
vided by the parents : they looked thoroughly well and 
happy, and comparatively clean, and none are allowed 
to have bound feet. They have a large measure of 
freedom, except that they are not allowed outside the 
large compound. The money for the building came 
in a way as unexpected as welcome. The missionary 
received word that an official desired him to come to 
the railway station to see him on his way through 
Hsin Muntun, and when they met, the official pre- 
sented him with a cheque for 3000 taels in aid of the 
excellent educational work that he was doing. This 
enabled him to start building the girls' school, of which 
he had to be not only the founder, but also the archi- 
tect. In the same way the doctor had to design his 
house and hospitals, and superintend the building of 
them ; no doubt the labour is far greater for a man 
without architectural training ; otherwise the build- 
ings seem to be quite as well done as the majority of 
houses, and at considerably smaller cost. 

Leaving Hsin Muntun we started for Moukden, 
where the Chinese stationmaster had been asked to 
give us assistance in changing stations, so that we might 
not miss the train. He spoke a little English, and 
sent a man with us to look after our luggage in 
one cart, while we went in another. The road was 


The Face of Manchuria ch. iii 

indescribable, for a thaw had set in, and oceans of mud 
added to the horrors of the way, emitting a stench 
which had lost nothing by six months' frost. We 
were flung to and fro in the cart, and it seemed an 
endless drive. on arrival we rejoiced to see that the 
clock had not yet struck, though it was just approach- 
ing the hour for the train to start. As this was the 
Japanese line (the one which extends from Dalny to 
Kwan Chengtze), we had to get our money changed 
into Japanese yen before we could buy tickets, and 
were then told there was no train for three and a half 
hours. As our friends had sent to the station at Hsin 
Muntun to inquire, and been told that this train was 
running, we felt rather provoked, but found the ex- 
planation in the fadt that it only ran three times a 
week, and this was not the right day. A pleasant little 
fellow took us to a comfortable waiting-room, and 
fetched us a kettle of hot water to make tea, but no 
sooner had we done this than another official came and 
turned us out in order to prepare a meal for a Japanese 
family, and we had to retire to a miserable little office. 
The Japanese line is well managed and clean : the 
Chinese attendant comes round at intervals with his 
feather brush, and is ready to provide you with hot 
water whenever you want it, and comes to brush you 
down before you leave the train. We were thankful 
to betake ourselves to the train as soon as it came in, 
although there was still an hour before it was due to 
start for Liao Yang. The journey is only thirty miles, 

but the ordinary trains take nearly three hours, and 

4 o 

ch. iii Hsin Muntun 

one finds it rather slow and monotonous. When one 
thinks, however, of the pre-railway days, when you 
might not infrequently take the same length of time 
to do three miles, thanks to the ocean of mud which 
constitutes a road as soon as the spring thaw sets in, 
ten miles an hour seems wild speed. 



Liao Yang 

1IAO YANG was the ancient capital of the Liao 
Tong province of Southern Manchuria, and it 
Jl is the most beautiful of Manchurian cities, for 
within the walls are orchards of plum, cherry, apricot, 
and pear, which look radiantly lovely against the 
sombre background of the walls. Originally it was 
not Manchu but Chinese, as I have pointed out on 
page 15. The Manchus tried to gain possession of 
it, but, failing in the attempt, they built a city for 
themselves on the other side of the river, which is 
called the New Liao Yang. In addition to the four 
usual gateways into the city — north, south, east, and 
west — there is one which is quite different in ap- 
pearance, called the Korean Gate, through which the 
Korean envoys used to pass when bringing tribute. 
Through it there is a lovely view on to the river, 
with low-lying hills in the distance : the sketch is 
looking not out of the city, but inwards. Just within 
the gate is a dusty sort of waste place at the foot of 
the wall, frequented by scavenger dogs, and you may 
see, as we did, a wisp of straw in which a dead baby 

has been wrapped and cast out, for the Chinese do 


ch. iv Liao Tang 

not bury them, in the hopes that the ill-luck caused by 
the death of the child may be averted. 1 To this day 
the cart may be seen going round Peking to collecl: 
the little corpses, just like a scavenger's cart. 

Just outside the Korean Gate we saw a cadet corps 
marching along in good style, with drums beating, 
and creating just as much interest as a similar one 
does at home. These city walls were in existence 
before the Manchu dynasty came (in 1644), and yet 
the bricks look as new in most parts as if they had 
just been built, and it is only where the Russians made 
breaches in them that they are at all ruinous ; we 
found this to our cost when we wanted to climb 
down them after seeing the view. The dust had 
accumulated somewhat on the outer side, so we 
climbed up with comparatively little difficulty, and 
were well rewarded by the glorious panorama illumin- 
ated by the rays of the setting sun. The Liao River 
runs just outside the east wall, and the fields and dis- 
tant hills wore the lovely golden colour of an Egyptian 
scene. Just below us the ferry-boat was conveying 
passengers, carts, mules, cows, donkeys, &c, from 
one shore to the other, and we watched a carter first 
getting his cart up the steep bank and then returning 

1 Dr. Arthur Smith, the well-known authority on Chinese customs, told me 
that the reason for the non-burial of children in China is due to the facl that 
they are not recognised as an integral part of the family till after marriage. 
Consequently it is not uncommon to marry them after death, in order to be 
able to give them an adopted son to perpetuate the family, and to offer 
worship at the ancestral shrine. In one case of which he knew, the corpse 
of the bride was carried with great pomp to the village where the bridegroom 
had lived, and they were both buried together. 


The Face of Manchuria ch. iv 

to carry his fare, an old lady, up the bank on his back. 
A recalcitrant cow had to be hauled aboard by a cord 
tied to its front leg and by its bridle, but most of the 
animals seemed quite accustomed to the job. After 
watching them awhile we turned southward to where 
a range of hills bounded the horizon, ending with a 
peak loftier than the rest, and known by the Japanese 
as " Kuropatkin's eye." This ridge was held by the 
Russians during the war, and for six months previous 
to the battle of Liao Yang they were busy making 
defences between the hills and the city. The trenches 
and barbed wire entanglements were admirably 
executed, and it cost seven days of hard fighting 
before the Japanese were able to enter the city. Point 
after point was taken and retaken ; the Russian ranks 
were mowed down like standing corn, and the 
Japanese displayed an equal courage, so that during 
those seven days the loss of the two armies was 
reckoned at 25,000 men left dead on the field. The 
Japanese general sat in a temple some miles away 
from the scene of aclion, directing the operations, 
but with the information coming steadily in from all 
points by telephone. He had pushed forward, leaving 
no means of retreat, and by the end of the battle he 
was at the end of his resources, victorious, but unable 
to follow up the victory. In England few people 
realised the tremendous struggle that was going on, 
and the magnificent prowess of the two nations. 
The Russian soldier mournfully asked, " Why do 
we come out here to fight ? " but he fought valiantly 


ch. iv Liao Yaiig 

all the same. Eighteen months ago Kitchener sent 
a party of forty young officers from India to visit 
these battlefields, with Japanese lecturers to instruct 
them daily, while they sat taking notes on the hill- 
sides overlooking the plain. There was always one 
Japanese soldier present, who had taken part in the 
action, to describe his own personal experiences, which 
must have added a vivid touch to the technical details. 
The Japanese travelled lightly, and, fortunately for 
them, the standing crops rendered cavalry practically 
useless. The principal crop is millet, which grows 
fifteen feet in height, and the Russians crushed it 
down by means of improvised rollers drawn by horses. 
In the Japanese army everything is utilised, and is 
as compact as possible. A general was seen lost in 
study one day, and he explained that he had found a 
use for the little boxes in which the rations were 
carried and for the paper in them, but he could not 
think what to do with the string ! During a plague 
of rats in the north the Japanese all provided them- 
selves with ear-muffs, which they manufactured out 
of the rat skins. 

one of the interesting sights at Liao Yang is the 
Fox Temple, which standson a little hill, and is reached 
by a fine flight of steps. The worship of the fox is 
a purely indigenous form of worship in China ; but 
it is mixed up with the other religions, and fox 
shrines may be seen in Buddhist or Taoist temples. 

In the principal building was a Buddha, before 
which worshippers were offering cakes and incense, 


The Face of Manchuria ch. iv 

and there was also a large bag of paper money on 
the altar. In an adjoining shrine were three large 
figures of the fox family, dressed as officials, with 
literary badges on the front of their robes. The old 
priest came in to remove some of the offerings for 
his midday meal, and on inquiry said he had often 
seen the fox come in, and that it was white. In one 
of the side doors is a hole, just like those to be seen 
for cats in old French castles, through which the fox 
is supposed to enter. 

As we returned from the walls we watched a man 
flying a wonderful centipede kite, some sixty feet 
in length. The head was that of a dragon, with 
wide open jaws, and a red tongue ; its eyes rotated in 
their sockets with a whirring sound, and it was 
painted gold, and pink, and blue. The sections of the 
body were round discs of green and pink paper on a 
light bamboo framework, with a stick about four 
feet long protruding on each side, and a tuft of feathers 
at the ends to represent the legs of the beast. This 
kite is a graceful objedt serpentining in the sky, and 
when at a considerable height, a messenger kite was 
sent up to it, which discharged a shower of crackers (?) 
on its arrival and then sped swiftly down the string 
again, having accomplished its errand. These kites 
sometimes require as many as six men to hold them, 
and a very strong cord is necessary. 

Passing along the street we came to an interesting 
medicine stall, where four bears' paws and some stags' 
antlers were the most prominent goods. The latter 

4 6 

ch. iv Liao Tang 

are in great request when they are in velvet, and 
hunters dig pits for the deer in the eastern mountains 
of Manchuria. Sometimes the hunter is robbed of 
his prey by the wily bear, who finds the antlers a 
tasty morsel, and gnaws them off before the hunter 
comes round to visit the pit. As medicine the antlers 
are dried and ground into powder. Other medicines 
on the stall were eagles' claws, deers' hoofs, and dried 
centipedes, about four inches long, attached to bits 
of bamboo. We bought one of these, and inquired 
what disease it is used for ; " wind in the stomach," 
was the reply. 

All diseases in China seem to have their root in an 
evil temper, and it is not uncommon for patients so 
afflicted to come for medicinal treatment to the dis- 
pensary. The prescription of one of the lady doctors 
is as follows : " Go into a room alone, take a mouth- 
ful of mixture (a nice pleasant one), and hold it in the 
mouth twenty minutes before swallowing." This 
remedy has excellent effects, and may be used in 
England with equal efficacy. 

We were so charmed with the city of Liao Yang, 
that it required small persuasion to induce us to return 
there a month later in order to visit the neighbouring 
mountains of Chang Shan (a thousand peaks), and I 
shall let the account of it follow the present chapter. It 
was the last week in April, and all the fruit-trees and 
the elms were bursting into blossom and leaf, as we 
walked from the station outside the gate to the mission 
premises within it, embowered among orchards, and 


The Face of Manchuria ch. iv 

the scent of lilac filling the air. The mission gardens 
were beginning to show signs of the loveliness which 
has won them a well-deserved reputation among tra- 
vellers, and we returned like old friends to our former 
quarters. Life on the mission field soon cements 
friendship, and medical mission work must appeal 
even to the stubbornest heart. We had already visited 
the two hospitals, models of practical, unostentatious 
usefulness, with the excellent native staff trained by 
Dr. Westwater, whose name is a household word in 
the land. To him was due the fact that the town 
was saved from the horrors of bombardment by the 
Russian troops, and one has but to walk through the 
streets of Liao Yang with him to see how universal 
is the respect in which he is held. 

There are various temples of different religions in 
Liao Yang, and we visited the Temple of Hell, where 
are depicted all the horrors of future punishment, 
than which nothing could be more ghastly than the 
Chinese conception. The grotesqueness of their real- 
istic execution in coloured plaster fortunately took 
away some of the gruesomeness, and in one of the 
side shrines we found the extraordinary figure of the 
popular deity, called the " Ten Parts Imperfect one." 
The sketch in Chapter XII. hardly does justice to 
the hideousness of the figure, which represents the 
main woes to which flesh is heir in China — lameness, 
blindness, dropsy, harelip, boils, &c. &c, and to this 
deity the people come to pray in all cases of sickness. 

We also visited a picturesque Buddhist shrine, 




ch. iv Liao Ta?ig 

where an old blind nun lives, the owner of much 
property, and of the orchards adjacent to the mission 
property. We found her seated on the khang imme- 
diately behind the figure of the Buddha, where she 
has spent many, many years in meditation. She 
welcomed us with cordiality, and made us sit down 
beside her, while she entered into a long and intimate 
conversation with our host, whom she had not met 
for some years. The nun had a remarkable head, 
closely shaven, of course, under her black cap, and 
looked more like a man than a woman. She told us 
that she became blind when she was only six years 
old, and now she was seventy-nine. She felt our 
hands with the subtle, searching touch of the blind, 
and had not a little to say on them ; we much 
regretted our ignorance of Chinese, as our feminine 
curiosity to know what she said was left ungratifled. 
The conversation then turned on the great problems 
of life, both this life and the next, but she seemed 
entirely ignorant of Buddhist philosophy, and took 
refuge in futile platitudes ; as regards the future she 
said, " We die, and there is nothing more." It is dis- 
appointing to find how utterly ignorant they are of 
anything beyond the externals of their religion. The 
Taoist monks, on the contrary, boast many men of 
learning, and have more conception of real religion. 
I understand this is also the case in other parts of 
the Chinese Empire. 

In contrast with the various temples nothing more 
charming could be found than the simple beauty of 

49 D 

The Face of Manchuria ch. iv 

the mission church. It is always difficult to arrange 
for parts of a building to be screened off without 
spoiling the effecl: of it as a whole ; at the present time 
this is still considered necessary in China, so that the 
men and women may be separated from one another, 
also they have separate entrances. In the Liao Yang 
church the difficulty was ingeniously conquered by 
making the transept the women's part, and diminish- 
ing the space of the nave where it joins the transept, 
by erecting a smaller arch on either side containing 
a screen. The pulpit, being in the centre, commands 
the whole building. This church was designed by 
an archite6t specially sent out by the mission com- 
mittee, and it is of no small importance that such 
buildings should be carefully designed to be in har- 
mony with the architecture of the country, and not 
to seem European. At the great World Missionary 
Conference at Edinburgh, stress was laid by speakers 
from all lands on the growing desire of native 
Christians to have their own national churches. To 
this end every detail must be studied ; not only must 
religion be taught them in their own language, but 
the churches in which they worship must have a 
homelike feeling, so that nothing may suggest to them 
that Christianity is a foreign religion. When all is 
said and done it came from the East and not from the 
West, so that its externals at least should have as 
little Western colouring as possible. 



A Visit to the Thousand Peaks 

NEXT morning we made an early start for the 
Changsha Valley, in which is an interesting 
group of monasteries, both Taoist and Budd- 
hist. The former do not admit women visitors, but 
the latter do. The carts containing our luggage and 
bedding had started about 3 a.m., as we were to 
do the first few miles by rail across a monotonous 
plain. There was only a goods train at that early 
hour, 7.25, but one car is attached to it for passengers, 
and in this we travelled for nearly an hour. It contains 
but one small seat at each end, occupied by Japanese 
and guards, so the rest of the company mainly squatted 
on the floor. Some had nice skin rugs or parcels on 
which to sit, and looked eminently comfortable, but 
we had to make the best of narrow window ledges, 
and were glad enough to reach the roadside station 
where we got out. There was a little waiting-room 
in which we sat, as the cart had not yet arrived, 
but thanks to the care of a charming hospital assistant, 
who came to look after us from Liao Yang, we were 
promptly invited into the booking-office, where several 
smart Japanese officials were seated round a stove, and 


The Face of Manchuria ch. v 

European chairs were given to us. A bullfinch was 
piping cheerfully in a corner, and they brought us tea 
to beguile the time. In about half-an-hour the carts 
turned up, but our hearts sank at the thought that 
they had required four hours to do considerably less 
than half the journey. We were soon packed into 
the carts, each with our bedding and various odds and 
ends. We promptly became aware that the more 
padding we had the better, as the jolts of the carts 
grew worse as time went on. For three hours we 
crossed the plain and then halted for lunch. This 
was our first experience of a Manchurian inn, which 
certainly falls far short of Chinese inns. The kitchen 
and guest-room are always combined, the khang 
running along each side of the room, and the fires are 
at one end of it, at right angles to the khangs. We 
were installed comfortably on one side of the room, 
and enjoyed a discreet investigation by the other 
guests and villagers from the other side of the room. 
Dr. Westwater's excellent servant acted as vigilant 
guardian, and made us quite break the tenth command- 
ment before the end of our excursion. It took nearly 
another two hours before we came to the mouth of 
the valley, where the monasteries lay, and the dull 
monotony of the plain gave way to a ravishing scene 
of craggy and abrupt hills clothed with vegetation. 

The wild flowers were beginning to come out, 
purple anemones, white violets, &c, but nothing like 
the wealth of the woods we had just left in Korea. 
The monasteries were pitched aloft in inaccessible- 




ch. v A Visit to the Thousand Peaks 

looking spots, terrace above terrace. When we reached 
the gorge where we were to stay, it looked well-nigh 
impossible for the carts to make the ascent. At the 
entrance gate they halted, and a group of men came 
forward to help push them up over the rocks. Each 
cart had two mules, and they pulled with right good- 
will, so that in a few minutes of pushing, pulling, and 
shouting, the carts had been rushed up through the 
second gateway on to the platform where they were 
to be housed. Much disappointment was shown by 
the monks at the non-appearance of our friend the 
doclor, who was evidently a favourite here as every- 
where, but heavy work at the hospital and other 
reasons had prevented his accompanying us. Up and 
up the rock-cut steps we climbed to the guest-room, 
which had been bespoken for our use, and a more at- 
tractive spot itwould have been impossible to find. Far 
below the mountain torrent murmured, and wild 
pigeons and kites added their notes to the music of the 
brook. I sat down to sketch shortly after our arrival, 
and the scene was precisely the one to charm a Chinese 
artist of the old school. I found myself insensibly 
imitating the reproductions I possess of work done 
by noted artists of three hundred years ago. A tiny 
bright green bird perched on a tree close by, and soon 
the gong began to sound for evening worship. A few 
monks made their way up the flights of steps to where 
a faint glimmer of light showed from within the main 
temple, bowing and kneeling at intervals on the way. 
Evening settled down and we repaired to our cell, 


The Face of Manchuria ch. v 

thinking of the lovely rose-coloured dawn when I 
would paint the scene. Alas ! next morning showed 
a leaden sky, and by the time we had finished break- 
fast large snowflakes came floating down. The scene 
melted away before our eyes, and soon the ground was 
white with snow, and the weather showed no signs of 
clearing. The disappointment was a bitter one ; our 
one day, our only opportunity gone, and the long cold 
hours of the day without any occupation to fill them. 
Fidus Achates brought us a charcoal brazier, but it was 
poor comfort. After lunch, however, the clouds broke 
and the snow ceased falling, so we went out to prospecl. 
We were guided by our servant Jim down the gorge 
and up another, where we came to a long flight of steps 
leading up to a small Taoist temple, with beautiful 
wooden carvings round the shrines, and a thoroughly 
picturesque little courtyard with various plants in it, 
and brass ornaments brilliantly polished. Altogether 
it formed a charming picture, and had all the appear- 
ance of being carefully tended. A curious sundial 
and various ornamental tablets were arranged in the 
court, and there were also the conventional pair of 
trees on either side of the steps leading to the principal 
shrine. The sun began to shine fitfully, and the snow 
to melt from sunnyspots,so we hastened back to sketch. 
Scarcely were we settled when the gorge began 
to resound with periodic whistle calls, and then we 
saw men in a kind of blue uniform, and each with a 
scarlet blanket slung across one shoulder, beginning 
to ascend the temple steps. They continued to arrive 


ch. v A Visit to the Thousand Peaks 

till the whole place was swarming with them, and 
finally we saw our little platform invaded. It seemed 
time to interfere, so my friend went back and told our 
servant we could not possibly have them established in 
our outer room, which was already full of their things, 
and strewn with orange peel ; for the time being re- 
monstrance was effectual, but after a short evacuation 
they returned and took fresh possession. I then went 
to the charge and told Jim to send them away. He 
went instead to fetch an official in European tourist's 
dress, with field-glasses slung over his shoulder, and to 
my surprise he spoke excellent English. He explained 
that this was a party of one hundred students from a 
commercial college at New Chwang who had come 
for an excursion, and were going to spend three days 
here. I pointed out that these rooms had been engaged 
for us before we came, and that it was impossible for 
us to have people filling the outer one, our only means 
of exit. He asked if we should obje6t to having a 
party of little boys in it, and we said we certainly 
did object, and that for this night they must sleep 
elsewhere. He promised to arrange it so, and all 
their things were taken away, leaving us in peace 
and content. Alas ! it was only for an hour ; then 
he returned to say that they had sent to try and find 
accommodation in another monastery but in vain ; 
that the carts had arrived bringing the little boys who 
were very tired, and he begged they might have our 
outer room, promising they should be quite quiet. 
We were compelled to give in, though sorely against 


The Face of Manchuria ch. v 

our will, as the next day we were starting on a long 
journey to Kharbin, not to mention the fatiguing six 
hours' cart journey. I must admit that the boys be- 
haved perfectly : they came in like mice, and were 
sound asleep before we knew they had arrived : only 
gentle snores proclaimed their presence. In the 
morning they were up and out by 5.30 in perfect 
silence. As we started at 6 o'clock we could only 
admire the excellent discipline and good manners 
which they displayed, and almost regret that we had 
not seen more of them. 

It was a lovely morning, and we were sorry to quit 
the peaceful valley, the more so as we emerged into 
a raging dust-storm on the plain. Our return journey 
was much more rapid than the previous one, and we 
reached the station one and a half hours before the 
train started. The tiny waiting-room was already 
crowded, and the atmosphere dense, for the people 
have the vaguest conception of time, and are 
accustomed to wait hours at the station. We had 
no longer our previous escort to find us more com- 
fortable accommodation, so we had toexercisepatience. 
The bookstall does not yet form part of the equip- 
ment of a Chinese railway station ; we were reduced 
to the study of humanity. We returned to Liao 
Yang for the third and last time, and found the same 
kind welcome and sense of home-coming which is 
familiar to all visitors at Liao Yang. We were told 
that the good monks at Changsha had refused to take 
any remuneration for our accommodation, but had sent 


ch. v A Visit to the "Thousand Peaks 

word to the do&or that it was time to think of it 
when he came again. Perhaps that was a gentle hint 
for him to come soon, but it was a different experience 
from the one we had in the Buddhist monastery that 
we visited in Korea. 

A few hours later we took the bi-weekly express 
train for the north, and reached Kharbin in about 
eighteen hours. 

I must now take my narrative back to the time 
after out first visit to Liao Yang when we returned 
to Moukden, as the base from which to go to Korea. 
In the map at the end of the volume it will be seen 
that the single line from the north to Moukden is 
replaced by three lines spreading out fan shape, one 
to Korea, one to Dalny (both of these are Japanese), 
and one to Tientsin, which is Chinese. 



Moukden to Korea 

WE left Moukden at 8 a.m. by the ordinary 
Japanese train, but the permanent line 
to Antung is only completed for a short 
distance. In our carriage there was a framed 
notice in Japanese, of which there was apparently 
an abbreviated form in English below, which ran, 
" Hands off the rope, please." No rope or check- 
string was visible, so the order was rather a dead 
letter. After travelling two and a half hours we had to 
change to the light railway on which are no first-class 
carriages. The accommodation was limited in every 
way, and the narrow benches made us long for the 
" cushioned seats " which Maggie's brothers found so 
reposeful in " What every woman knows." Despite 
the beauty of the scenery the way seemed long : 
hour after hour passed by, while still we crept up the 
mountain gorges. The Manchurian side showed little 
vegetation on the crags, except some stunted pine- 
trees. on all the Japanese lines we were struck with 
the large number of soldiers hanging about. The 
Chinese Government granted permission for one 
soldier to every ten miles of railway ; but there are 


ch. vi Moukden to Korea 

15,000 men to 703 miles of railway, according to Mr. 
Tyenaga's reckoning in an article entitled " Man- 
churia's Strategic Railway." They are quartered in 
various places. Yet Japan notified to the Powers the 
withdrawal of her troops from Manchuria only a few 
months ago ! At midday we made a short halt, and 
the Japanese officers had tea served to them, and pro- 
duced their "luncheon baskets." These consisted of 
three neat little trays, a paper serviette, and chopsticks : 
the top tray was filled with rice, the next with a 
vegetable salad, and the third with rissoles, fish, and 
other savouries. Another Japanese passenger pro- 
duced from his sleeve a toothpick, knife, fruit, &c. 
It was a continual source of interest to us to see what 
came out of that receptacle — note-book, pencil, 
handkerchief, cigarettes, matches, a veritable box of 
tricks ; finally he selected a lump of coal from a truck 
attached to the rear of the carriage, wrapped it in 
paper, and added it to the other treasures up his sleeve, 
or perhaps it would be more correct to say down his 
sleeve, for it formed a sort of pouch. He was an 
interesting specimen of the indeterminate Jap, so 
common in Manchuria ; his clothes, the first day of 
the journey, were a mixture of European, Chinese, 
and Japanese, but next day he appeared in a sort of 
European clerical black suit and white shirt, a costume 
which was by no means adapted to his mode of sitting. 
He took off his elastic-sided boots, climbed on to the 
narrow seat on which he had previously placed a 
folded blanket, gathered his clothing carefully to- 


The Face of Ma?ichui~ia ch. vi 

gether, and sat down cross-legged. If it had not been 
for the large felt wideawake hat which rested on his 
ears, he would have looked, with his folded arms, like 
some contemplative Buddha. Much of the time he 
spent in sleep, but every now and then he woke up, 
and at once set to work with feverish energy, writing 
rapidly in his note-book. 

As we zig-zagged up the mountain the air grew 
colder and denser, for our carriage was full, and every 
one smoked but ourselves. We managed to light 
the stove with the remains of the luncheon boxes, 
and fortunately there was a scuttle of coal with which 
to replenish it. The main drawback was the difficulty 
of escaping being burnt owing to the narrow space, 
and one's dress paid with a couple of holes. 

At 7.40 p.m. the train stopped for the night, and 
we betook ourselves to a Japanese inn tinctured with 
Europeanism. It consisted of a squat tower with 
ten sides, of which the centre, also ten-sided, formed 
the parlour. Each of these inner walls formed a 
door, seven of which opened into bedrooms. As 
they were all alike, no one seemed able to remember 
which was his room, so we had to barricade our door 
if we wanted to exclude visitors. The other guests 
were led off in turns to have a bath, and returned in 
due course arrayed in hotel dressing-gowns and 
slippers to sit before the stove and smoke. Next 
morning we started again at 8 o'clock, and spent a 
similar day to the previous one, climbing through 
mountain gorges and crossing and recrossing the same 


ch. vi Moukden to Korea 

river. The hill-sides boasted more vegetation, and 
the brown autumn leaves still clung to the trees, of 
which a number are wild mulberry, which grows 
freely in these mountains. We reached Antung soon 
after 6 o'clock, and went to a Japanese inn, recom- 
mended by the proprietor of the one where we had 
spent the previous night : he telegraphed to them to 
meet us at the station. Antung is a considerable 
place, and the Japanese town is situated quite apart 
from the Chinese ; the railway and ferry were near 
the hotel, and we started betimes for the latter, which 
runs in connection with the train at Wiju on the 
south bank of the Yalu River. We took our tickets, 
but they possessed literally no change at the ticket- 
office. I was able to pay almost the correct sum, 
only three farthings in excess of the full price, and 
the man offered to give me the change later on. It 
did not seem worth while struggling through a dirty 
crowd for this magnificent sum afterwards, so I did 
not return, but an hour later, when we were seated in 
the train at Wiju, an official solemnly presented the 
three farthings to me ! 

The river was full of ominous-looking blocks of 
ice, and the tug looked sadly unequal to making 
its way through it : in fact it had missed running 
on that account more than one day the same week, 
so we thought ourselves fortunate in getting across 
the river at once. There is often considerable 
delay, both at the time of the freezing and of the 

thawing of the river, and unfortunately there is 


The Face of Manchuria ch. vi 

no bridge of any kind. The permanent line will 
necessitate the building of a bridge, but it is not 
expected to be ready within the next two years, 
though the Japanese are straining every nerve to 
complete the line. The tug was wretchedly small 
and crowded, but performed its journey valiantly, 
crunching through the ice, and landing us in about a 
quarter of an hour on the Korean bank of the Yalu, 
where a well-appointed train awaited us. Never was 
a first-class carriage more welcome to weary travellers, 
never was an excellently cooked lunch which was 
served in due course more highly appreciated, and 
the attendant gave the finishing touch to our content- 
ment by administering a much-needed brush down 
before our arrival at Pyong Yang. Everything was a 
strange contrast from what we had left ; the cold 
colouring of Manchuria was replaced by a warm red 
soil, through which the first tokens of spring green 
were beginning to appear. Instead of the blue 
clothing to which we had been accustomed, every 
one here was clad in white, both in town and country. 
Rice fields greet the eye at every turn, for this is the 
main cereal grown. The only things that were the 
same were the Japanese line and the Japanese official, 
no more conspicuous here than in Manchuria, and 
apparently firmly rooted in both. 

Korea is somewhat larger in extent than Great 
Britain, about 80,000 square miles in size, and the 
population is estimated at about twelve to thirteen 

millions. Owing to the mountainous character of 


ch. vi Moukden to Korea 

Korea, a large part of it, especially in the north, is 
uninhabitable ; in facl: some people estimate that 
only one quarter is occupied. No census of the popu- 
lation was taken till that made by the Japanese in 
1904. As the people feared that this was preliminary 
to a tax, they made every effort to prevent correct 
numbers being ascertained, and consequently the 
returns were less than nine and a half millions. 
Another census is now being taken, which, in all 
probability, will be much more accurate. 

Korea is a country abounding in valuable produces, 
one of the chief of which is gold. There are also 
excellent anthracite coal and other minerals, but as 
yet these resources have been little utilised. At the 
present time no less than one hundred and eighty- 
four mining concessions have been granted to British, 
American, German, and French companies, and their 
prospecls are thoroughly encouraging. Korea is the 
fifth largest cotton producing country in the world, 
and now that it is opening up to trade, with fresh 
facilities of transport by land and sea, it is likely to 
make rapid progress. The people are naturally peace- 
ful and diligent, and under a wise rule the land ought 
to become an ideal one. Christianity and education 
are spreading rapidly, the former being said to have 
already 200,000 adherents. The written language is 
alphabetical, and consists of twenty-five letters, but 
the literate Koreans use Chinese characters, and all of 
them are expected to know that language. The 
missionaries decided to use the Vn Mum, the native 


The Face of Manchuria ch. vi 

script, and most of the Christian literature is pub- 
lished in that form. The Protestant Missions have 
been working only about twenty-five years in Korea, 
but the Roman Catholics were there long ago, and 
the terrible persecutions they underwent form one of 
the most striking chapters in Korean history. The 
former have had remarkable success, and have intro- 
duced fresh methods of missionary enterprise, which 
will be described in the next chapter, as they are 
likely to have great influence on the future develop- 
ment of missions in other countries. Nowhere have 
the people of a country more thoroughly recognised 
their duty of handing on the gift they have received, 
or of accepting their personal responsibility for evan- 
gelising their own people. 


The Face of Korea 



Pyong Yang 

WE reached Pyong Yang (written Ping Yang 
by the war correspondents, and universally 
pronounced Piang) in the early afternoon, 
and found chairs sent by our kind hosts to take us 
from the station to the town, a distance of about one 
and a half miles. Other passengers got into rickshas, 
and others again into the drollest little trolleys on 
wheels, like boxes with the front side missing, and con- 
taining a bench to seat two persons. These trolleys run 
on the narrowest gauge tram lines, and are propelled 
with great rapidity by a coolie running on each side : 
I have never seen them anywhere but at Pyong Yang. 
We set off in our chairs, our luggage being carried 
on frames called " giggies " on the backs of coolies, 
and the Chinese interpreter, whom we had brought 
from Tai Yuan Fu (Mr. Cbiao,pronounced"jow," as in 
jowl) walking with a friendly Korean evangelist sent 
to meet us. We had been told that Chinese was 
understood everywhere, but this proved entirely in- 
correct (like most of the information we had received), 

The Face of Korea ch. vii 

and we were vastly entertained to see that these two 
could only communicate by writing ; this they did on 
the surface of the dusty road as they went along. Our 
pace was fortunately slow, as Korean carriers are not 
likethe Chinese, and they set us down pretty frequently 
for a rest, which was an opportunity for communica- 
tion eagerly seized by the writers. Near the station 
are handsome large new red brick barracks, and a 
Japanese suburb is growing up : it is sad to see every 
place being disfigured by European-looking erections 
of the ugliest and most aggressive type. The American 
Presbyterian group of buildings are a delightful con- 
trast to these, and are Korean in style with necessary 
adaptation for Western requirements, but there is a 
hideous new school on the brow of the hill facing 
them, which stands in conspicuous nakedness likeablot 
on the landscape. A sort of building epidemic seems 
to have broken out, which threatens to sweep away all 
pi£turesqueness from the important towns in Korea. 

The city of Pyong Yang is of great antiquity, and 
is said to date back as far as 1 122 B.C., when the cele- 
brated Ki Cha reigned there. 

The streets still retain a great charm, but each day 
sees it lessening. The stalls contain all sorts of strange 
comestibles, among which fish occupy a prominent 
position, and various seaweeds are a naturalaccompani- 
ment to them. Dried cuttle fish hang up in rows, and 
are a tasty dish in the eyes of the natives, and all kinds 
of other fish are dried and hung up in strings to form 
artistic designs for the adornment of the shops, as well 



ch. vii Pyong Tang 

as for the benefit of purchasers. Next in number to 
fish shops are those for hats, I should think, and these 
are quite unique. I understand that a book has been 
written on the subject, so numerous are the varieties 
in Korea. The common hat is made of black crino- 
line, rather like the old Welsh hat, but not so tall, and 
it is tied with black strings under the chin. As the 
whole of the rest of a Korean's costume is white, the 
black hat forms a telling contrast. The hair is allowed 
to grow long, and is gathered into a top knot, which 
is visible within the transparent crown of the hat. A 
closely fitting cap of horsehair rising into a peak is 
worn indoors, and below it is a tight band of horse- 
hair about a quarter of an inch wide, bound round 
the head, greatly to the detriment of the circulation. 
The mourning cap or hat is white, or rather cream 
colour, and still more commonly is a large hat worn as 
mourning, looking like an inverted flower, and accom- 
panied by a long coat of stiff undressed cotton to match 
(see sketch). Scholars wear a somewhat different 
shaped crinoline hat, and boys celebrate their engage- 
ment by wearing a special little straw hat. Official 
hats again are quite different, of which an example 
may be seen in the design on the book cover. 

one of the most familiar sights passing along the 
streets is thewater-carrier,for up to thepresenttime the 
water-supply of Pyong Yang has been entirely drawn 
from the river, and the men carry the water in pails 
on their backs ; in facl, unlike China, every thing almost 

iscarried on the back in Korea, and frequently the loads 


The Face of Korea ch. vii 

are of a great weight. The old tradition is that Pyong 
Yang is a floating city (it was built boat-shaped), and 
no one is supposed to dig in it, for fear of sinking the 

one of the most interesting places outside the town 
is a famous temple beautifully situated on the brow of 
a hill, set up to the god of war. It was small and fairly 
well kept, and the priest made some fuss before allow- 
ing us to enter. Like all the temples here, there is but 
scant space within the building for any worshippers, 
but as they have no conception of congregational 
worship, this is a matter ot no importance. The 
original religion of Korea was Shamanism, the worship 
of evil spirits, and although it is supposed to have been 
superseded first by Confucianism and later on by 
Buddhism (a.d. 550), it still retains its hold over the 
people, and is carried on side by side with Confucian- 
ism and Buddhism. Its shrines are to be found in 
Seoul itself and also by the wayside in all parts of the 
country. The main point in the religion of the edu- 
cated Korean, as of the Chinese, is ancestor worship, 
and in the courtyard of every large house may be seen 
the ancestral tablet house, where are the tablets of two 
or three generations. There seem to be considerably 
fewer temples in Korea than in China ; they are less 
imposing, and less frequented. 

We next visited the fine new waterworks built by 
the Japanese, and they have selected a beautiful spot 
on the summit of a hill overlooking the town, as well 
as an island in the river which they have connected 


ch. vii Pyong Yang 

with the mainland by a bridge. Soon that picturesque 
being — the water-carrier — will be nothing more than 
a memory ; but undoubtedly the advantages of a good 
water-supply will reconcile the inhabitants to the 
change. I am greatly astonished at the charge of 
dirtiness so frequently brought against the Koreans, 
for on the whole they would bear comparison with 
almost any European nation. They lavish endless 
time and energy on getting their clothes white and 
well laundered, for which they possess the most primi- 
tive implements imaginable. The garment is folded 
quite wet, placed on a board, and beaten rapidly with 
two flat sticks for any length of time. The sound 
greets one's ears all day and every day in the streets, 
and resembles that of a stick being drawn across pal- 
ings ; if you happen to be lying ill, the endless sound 
is apt to be as nerve racking as the notes of the brain- 
fever bird in India. 

After climbing down to the river-bed by the water- 
works, we proceeded to climb up the opposite slope, 
where numbers of people seemed bent on holiday- 
making, and there was a Japanese tea-house half-way 
up to Pioneer Point, whence a magnificent view is 
gained over a large stretch of country. The old city 
walls and a watch-tower surmount the pine-clad hill, 
and a short walk brings one to a tomb of historic in- 
terest. In the heart of the pine forest is Kicha's grave, 
but the entrance was tightly shut and barred, so that 
we were only able to get a glimpse of it. Like all 
important Korean graves, it is a mound surrounded 


The Face of Korea ch. vii 

by stone animals and figures of servants for the use 
of the deceased, and an altar on which sacrificial food 
is placed. Kicha is said to have cometo Korea in 
i 122 B.C. as a refugee from China, to be the founder 
of the empire, and to have given it its name of "Land 
of Morning Freshness." His dynasty lasted nearly a 
thousand years. The old city wall of PyOng Yang is 
said to date from Kicha or Kuei-ja's reign, but it is, 
alas, now in course of demolition. This synchronises 
with the coming of the first party of Cook's personally 
conducted tours ! 


It is possible that some readers of this book may 
wish to have their memories refreshed about the events 
which have crowded so rapidly on one another's 
heels during the last half century, so I have ventured 
to set down a table of dates with notes, which can 
easily be skipped by those whose memories do not 
require it. 

i 876. First foreign treaty with Japan — unsuccess- 
ful attempts had previously been made by the Russians 
and Americans to obtain permission to trade. 

1883. Trade relations opened with Great Britain, 
America, and Germany. Owing to internal factions, 
the Chinese, representing the conservative forces of 


ch. vii Pyong Tang 

government, got decided hold in Korea over the 

radical party, represented by Japanese factions. 

1885. Treaty between China and Japan guaran- 
teeing that neither country should send troops to 
Korea without previous consultation. 

1890 (approximately). First Protestant missions 
sent to Korea — mainly American. 

1894. China sent troops (without advising Japan) 
to put down the Tonghak rebellion ; hence resulted 
the war with Japan, in which China was completely 

1896. Russian influence became powerful. The 
Emperor took refuge in Russian legation. Lobanoff 
Yamaga agreement between Russians and Japanese to 
respecit the independence of Korea, and not to send 
troops except by mutual agreement. 

1903. Russian intrigue won large timber conces- 
sions on the Yalu, and demanded port on the N.W. 
coast opposite Antung-Yongampo, which they re- 
named Port Nicholas. This was applied for by Great 
Britain and United States of America as an open port, 
but Russian influence prevented this being granted. 

1904. War declared between Russia and Japan ; 
Korea made agreement with Japan to facilitate its 
campaign on the basis of Korea's independence. Since 
then the Japanese have steadily increased their control 
over Korean affairs. 

1907. The Emperor forced by the Japanese to 
abdicate in favour of his nephew. 



Sunday at Pyong Yang 

SUNDAY is a busy day for missionary workers 
at PyOng Yang, as the rapid growth of the 
work and the need for consolidation by 
constant instruction, taxes the resources even of 
the large staff of foreign as well as native helpers. 
We were told that in many cases before the building 
of a church is completed the congregation has out- 
grown it, and that from one church alone (the central 
one at PyOng Yang) no less than thirty-nine others 
have " swarmed " merely for lack of space, not from 
any discord. Thirty-five of these churches are in the 
district round the town, four others are in the town 
itself; the youngest of them already has a member- 
ship of 561. This is the result of sixteen years of 
work, for the missionaries settled there in 1894, and 
the first convert was baptized that year. 

We started out about 1 o o'clock to make a round of 
some of the places of worship. The first visited was 
a women's institute, where we found a large upper 
room filled with about 500 women and nearly as 
many babies and little children. At the door of the 
Korean churches and schools the first thing to be 


ch. viii Sunday at Pyong Tang 

noticed is the shoe stand, where each comer deposits 
shoes before entering. The floors are covered with 
matting, and every one sits cross-legged : the babies 
are noisy, but their crying is not nearly so sharp as 
that of Europeans, though sufficiently disturbing to 
any ordinary speaker. At the harmonium a sweet- 
faced Korean girl sat, whose playing was very superior 
to the singing. What it lacked in harmony, how- 
ever, was atoned for by its earnestness, and in all the 
services the reverent attention of the whole audience 
was most impressive ; even the little children covered 
their eyes with their hands during prayer. From 
below stairs came the lusty tones of children singing 
" Hold the Fort," and we found a Sunday school in 
progress, the classes sitting in circles on the floor, 
each with a girl teacher in the centre. The children 
have been less cared for than the adults hitherto, but 
they look most attractive and winning, and greater 
efforts are now being made to provide for their in- 

We next visited the central church, where the 
men had just finished their morning session of Bible 
instruction (9-10.30), and the women were rapidly 
gathering. Nowhere could there be found a more 
attractive sight than the hundreds of white clad 
women, carrying their books wrapped in cloth tied 
round their waists in front, or their children tied on 
behind, the little ones dressed in every colour of the 
rainbow. The service is much like Sunday school 
at home ; after the opening hymn and prayers, the 


The Face of Korea ch. viii 

women are divided into classes, and the older children, 
like a gay group of butterflies, are gathered at the 
back of the church to be taught separately. Some 
of the girls had hats which take up space, as they 
are much larger than umbrellas, and are carried by 
both hands, extending over the head in front and to 
the knees behind. These are peculiar to this district, 
and are used not mainly for protection from the sun 
or rain, but from the vulgar gaze of man. I sketched 
one of the school girls on the verandah, wearing the 
big hat. They have to be left outside the church 
in the verandah with the shoes. Some of the young 
women of the wealthier classes look quite charming 
in their nun-like coifs, and dressed from head to foot in 
dazzling white silk, with smart little sleeveless coats 
lined with white fur ; the fur also forms a border all 
round the coat and outlines the arm-holes. Woman- 
kind in Korea suffers from a strange lack — the absence 
of names. A woman may possess a pet name, other- 
wise she has none ; frequently she does not even know 
her husband's name. If she becomes a Christian and 
receives baptism she acquires a name, and this must 
give her quite a new sense of dignity. The Korean 
woman has not been considered of much value in the 
past, but she is awakening (under Christian influences) 
to a sense of responsibility, and she takes her share in 
the work of evangelisation among her people. There 
had been a fortnight's Bible study for women just 
before our arrival at Pyong Yang, attended by over 500, 

many of whom had come long distances on foot to 



ch. viii Sunday at Pyong Ya?tg 

attend it. Some had travelled no less than seventy 
miles on foot, carrying their supply of food with 
them; they were lodged by the Christians in the city 
without charge, and after earnest study they set out 
on their long homeward journey. There is also a 
special Bible school for a fortnight for those women 
who wish to become teachers or Bible women, 
many of whom are supported by the native church. 
The Women's Missionary Society of the Central 
Church has supported two missionaries for some years. 

The morning school in the Central Church num- 
bered five or six hundred, so that when both men 
and women come in the afternoon to a united service 
of worship the church is full to overflowing : it holds 
1500 to 1700. 

The venerable pastor, Kil Moksa, is a Korean of 
solid character, who has done much to lessen the 
evils incident to the coming of the Japanese. Seeing 
the utter hopelessness of resistance, he persuaded the 
people neither to flee nor to resist, so that the blood- 
shed which took place in the south of the country was 
avoided in the north. His influence is not only power- 
ful but widespread, and it is sad to see the curtailing 
of his work owing to increasing blindness. He was 
originally an ardent Confucian, and not content with 
a passive faith he practised rigorous austerities in order 
to obtain peace of mind. In describing this time, Kil 
Moksa said: " I was trying to put away every thought 
of worldly advancement and every filthy or unclean 
impulse, for I knew right and wrong then just as well 


The Face of Korea ch. viii 

as I do now. I endeavoured to keep my mind pure 
by concentrating upon the idea of a full moon in my 
stomach. By centring my thoughts upon this I 
endeavoured to shut out the world and secure a view 
of spiritual truth. I wanted to get a vision of some 
spiritual being, but all the time, in spite of my efforts, 
my mind was filled with thoughts I would fain have 
dismissed. I could not get the victory. At the end 
of my stay on the mountain side, when I went to the 
homes of my friends, I was filled with disgust because 
their conversation was all about worldly advancement 
or interspersed with filthy stories." When Kil 
Moksa became a Christian he was equally filled with 
this passionate desire for righteousness, not for him- 
self only, but for his people. When his people 
seemed to be growing careless, he started a daily prayer- 
meeting at 4 o'clock in the morning, and this was 
soon attended by six or seven hundred people, with 
the result that a great revival took place, and his 
people promised to spend over 3000 days in trying 
to win others to a knowledge of Christ. 

We next visited the Union Theological Seminary, 
vacated by the students on Sunday and used as a 
church, where we found numbers of men all seated 
on the floor with the teacher in the centre. The 
bulk of the teaching and preaching in Korea is done by 
natives, and every church has a native pastor ; the 
foreign missionary acts as superintendent of groups 
of churches (sometimes as many as fifty or sixty) 
extending over a large area of the province. The 


ch. viii Sunday at Pyong !Ta7ig 

college students were all busy on Sunday either 
preaching or itinerating in town and country, and in 
order to facilitate this arrangement they have no 
classes on Saturday afternoon or Monday morning. 
They remain at college only three months in the year, 
and spend the remaining nine in practical work. 
Their course extends over five years, and by this 
arrangement the four missions which it represents are 
able to supply the requisite number of teachers from 
their ordinary staff of workers ; these teachers can 
be spared from their other work for three months in 
the year, though it is only in cases of special qualifi- 
cation that the same man is sent three years in suc- 
cession. The head of the college is, of course, a 
permanent official, and lives at Pyong Yang. This 
is Dr. Moffett, who was stoned out of PyOng Yang 
when he first came ; he frequently used to hear the 
remark at he passed along the streets on those early 
days, " Look at this black rascal ! why did he come 
here ? let us kill him." Nowhere was the opposition 
to Christianity fiercer than at PyOng Yang ; it was a 
notoriously bad city. The students at the present 
time number 126, and the missions represented are 
the American Presbyterian (North and South), the 
Australian Presbyterian, and the Canadian Presby- 
terian. The college is a modest and unpretentious 
building in native style, and it is proposed to build 
dormitories round the compound as soon as the 
ground has been levelled. 

From this point we crossed the town to the im- 


The Face of Korea ch. viii 

posing group of buildings of the Methodist Episcopal 
Mission, which are in American style. The fine 
large church has a belfry, which can be seen as well 
as heard from afar. We entered at the back of the 
women's side, divided from the men's by a screen, 
and found it well filled. one of the missionaries told 
us that it had the largest " floor space " of any church 
in Korea. As w r e entered four young men mounted 
the platform and sang an anthem, but none of our 
party could decide whether it was in Korean or 
English. Then the sermon began, and we slipped 
out to continue our pilgrimage. The greatest har- 
mony exists between the different missions, and the 
preacher for the day belonged to the Presbyterians. 
The main difference between the missions is one of 
policy. The Presbyterians encourage the Koreans 
to rely upon their own efforts for support, to build 
their own churches in native style, and to undertake 
the work of evangelisation at their own expense. 
The offerings of the Korean church (that is of all the 
missions) is said to be already £25,000 per annum, 
and the number of converts 200,000 ; not a bad result 
to show for only twenty-five years of missionary work. 
(These figures are drawn from the report for the World 
Missionary Conference at Edinburgh.) The American 
Episcopal Mission do not expecl: as much from the 
native church as do the Presbyterians, and they keep 
the pastorate and general control to a greater extent 
in their own hands. They have larger funds at their 
disposal, and do not require the village communities 


ch. viii Sunday at Pyong Yang 

to build their own churches, whereas the Presbyterians 
only help them with a loan, which is repaid in two 
years. Even the primary schools are entirely sup- 
ported by the Koreans. The Methodist Episcopal 
Mission has initiated work among the blind, and it has 
a promising school of blind girls, who are already pre- 
paring text-books in Braille with a view to the opening 
of other schools for the blind. The Presbyterians 
have also started a class for blind boys, but it is more 
difficult to know what to teach them as a means of 
livelihood than it is in the case of girls. They have 
begun to prepare a New Testament in Braille type, 
but it will require a great deal of revision ; the British 
and Foreign Bible Society has promised to print it 
as soon as it is ready, at cost price. The lot of the 
blind in Korea is a sad one ; their sole means of earn- 
ing a living is by practising sorcery. 

In conclusion, I must add a word as to the character 
of the native Christians in Pyong Yang, but which is 
equally applicable to the rest of the Korean Church. 
It is not only remarkable to see the number of Christians, 
but still more so to see their character. one of the 
ablest speakers at the Edinburgh Conference was the 
Hon. T. H. Yun of Songdo, Minister of Education, 
and leader of the native church, a man of culture and 
refinement, of whom any country might well be 
proud. He spoke of the danger due to the extra- 
ordinarily rapid growth of the church, yet nevertheless 
urged the desirability of trusting it with enlarged 
responsibilities. As far as my experience goes this 


The Face of Korea ch. viii 

has been done in Korea to a greater extent than any- 
where else in the many mission fields that I have 
visited. The Christians have shown such a keen 
desire for instruction, together with such an aptitude 
for learning, that they are much more capable of self- 
government, and of forming a national church, than 
would be conceived possible by those who have not 
seen this wonderful people. They have devoted 
themselves with extraordinary ardour to the study of 
the Bible. The membership of a great Bible class at 
Syen Chun is over thirteen hundred, and the Bible is 
the most read book in Korea to-day. They memorise 
it apparently as well as do the Chinese ; two school 
girls may be mentioned as having learnt by heart the 
whole of the New Testament, with the exception of 
St. Matthew's Gospel, in the course of a year. Yet 
less than thirty years ago it was prohibited to sell it 
in the Hermit Kingdom, as Korea has so justly been 
called, and it was only possible to do so by having the 
Gospels done up in bundles, unbound, and distributed 
through the country by the natives. To them is 
mainly due the introduction of Christianity into 

Another striking feature of the Korean church is 
the importance they attach to prayer, and their implicit 
belief in its efficacy. Where else in the world is to 
be found a weekly prayer-meeting which habitually 
numbers thirteen or fourteen hundred ? Yet such is 
the case at the Central Church at PyOng Yang. 
Mention has already been made (page 78) of an early 

ch. viii Sunday at Pyong Tang 

morning prayer-meeting, which cannot find a parallel, 
I think, in any of our home churches. 

No less important is the characteristic of generosity 
both in the matter of money and labour. In some 
churches they are hardly willing to admit any one as 
a member who has not already won at least one con- 
vert to Christianity. A form of contribution was 
started by which people promise to give a day's work 
during a certain specified time. Last year there were 
over 67,000 days promised throughout the country. 
It is hardly necessary to give further details as to the 
generosity of the Koreans with regard to money, 
because of what has already been related, but I must 
point out that the majority of the Korean Christians 
are extremely poor, and great self-sacrifice is involved 
by the amount of work which they support, as well 
as by what they do personally. 



The History of Roman Catholicism 
in Korea 

/* I AHE extraordinarily rapid progress of Protes- 
tant missions in Korea makes one turn with 


interest to the past history of the country 
in its attitude towards Christianity, as shown in the 
work of the Roman Catholics. This history is a 
very unique one, and is characterised by some of the 
same features as we see to-day ; the zeal, self-sacri- 
fice, and faith, the independent spirit which makes 
the Koreans able, if need be, to carry on the work 
without foreign aid, are to be seen on every page of 
its history. No church has had to pass through more 
ceaseless and relentless persecution for the first century 
of its existence, nor has counted more heroic martyrs 
among its members. The story has been fully told 
in Pere Dallet's Histoire de /'Eg/ise de Koree, and I 
was so impressed with that work that I have ven- 
tured to make a brief sketch of it, in the hope that 
it will be of interest to those who are unable to study 
that history for themselves. 

The first introduction of Christianity into Korea 


ch. ix Roman Catholicism in Korea 

was a strange one. In 1592 Japan sent an army of 
200,000 men to conquer the country, and a large 
number of these men had been selected for the pur- 
pose because they were Roman Catholics, and Japan 
was anxious to get rid of them. The great general 
known as Taiko Sama thought this was an excellent 
method of extermination, but when the war was 
prolonged, the Christian admiral of the fleet sent to 
Japan for priests and commenced missionary work. 
Many converts were baptized, and things looked 
promising, when the sudden recall of the army to 
Japan, followed by a fierce persecution, completely 
stamped out the work in both countries. 

Korea continued her policy of jealously excluding 
all foreigners from entering the country, and only 
occasionally were a few books (printed in Chinese) sent 
over by the Jesuits from Peking. Not until 1784 
was the work recommenced, and then it emanatedfrom 
a purely Korean source. A young man called Piek-i, 
of great physical strength and intellectual keenness, 
heard that the father of a friend of his was going as 
ambassador to the court of China, and that his son 
was to accompany him. He therefore begged his 
friend, Senghoun-i, to use the opportunity to visit the 
foreigners there, in order to study their science and 
religion. Senghoun-i not only fulfilled his friend's 
request, but was so deeply impressed by what he 
heard that he became a Christian and was baptized, 
after which he returned to his native land, carrying 
books, crosses, and pictures with him. He at once 


The Face of Korea ch. ix 

sent books to Piek-i, who retired into solitude to study 
them, and was soon convinced by pondering over the 
life of Christ of the truth of what he read. No 
sooner did Piek-i become a Christian than he set 
out to tell his friend, Senghoun-i, the good news. 
"The great God of Heaven," he said, " has had pity 
on the millions of our fellow-countrymen, and He 
desires us to make them share in the benefits of the 
Redemption of the world. It is the command of 
God. We cannot be deaf to His call. We must 
spread this religion and evangelise the whole world." 
How thoroughly these words express the feelings and 
action of the Korean Christians of the present day ! 

Piek-i at once commenced the work of evangelisa- 
tion, and success attended his labours ; but close upon 
its heels came that persecution which was to con- 
tinue down to the present day. There were no 
foreign missionaries to help or instruct the youthful 
disciples, and naturally they were unable to see the 
bearing of Christian teaching upon the customs to 
which they had always been accustomed. They 
evolved from their books a conception of the priest- 
hood, and elected from their number a sort of religious 
hierarchy, which existed for some years undisturbed. 
When eventually they heard that this was not sanc- 
tioned by the authorities at Peking, and that they 
must utterly renounce the ancestor worship, which 
formed the basis of their former religious belief, and 
was so integral a part of the national life, it was a 

severe blow to them. They loyally obeyed, however, 


ch. ix Roman Catholicism in Korea 

the mandate to destroy the ancestral tablets, and a 
storm of persecution swept over the church. 

The leaders were tortured and executed, firmly- 
refusing to renounce their faith. Nevertheless the 
number of converts increased, and ten years after the 
baptism of Senghoun-i at Peking there were 4000 
Christians in Korea. A time of comparative peace 
followed, and the church was consolidated. At last 
a priest was sent over from China called Jean dos 
Remedios, in 1 79 1 ; but he was unable to penetrate 
into the country, and was obliged to return to Peking. 
No further attempt to send a missionary was made for 
several years. Then a young Chinaman called Tsiou 
was selected for the perilous task, and during a stormy 
night he succeeded in crossing the closely guarded 
frontier disguised as a Korean. Some months later the 
news of his arrival became known to the authorities, 
and they ordered his arrest. But the Koreans who 
had long been asking for a missionary to be sent to 
them guarded him with the utmost loyalty, and the 
authorities seized instead the Koreans who had 
brought him into the country, and after cruel tortures 
which utterly failed to make them confess his where- 
abouts, they were put to death. 

Tsiou, meanwhile, mainly owed his safety to a 
devoted Christian woman, and continued his labours 
unremittingly in secret, while she prosecuted an im- 
portant work in teaching a large number of girls. 
During the reign of the king at that time on the throne 
of Korea, the persecution was somewhat limited, but 


The Face of Korea ch. ix 

as soon as he died in 1800 it broke out afresh with 
redoubled energy. Tsiou was at last captured, and 
with many others laid down his life, not only willingly, 
but joyfully. He was only twenty-five years of age. 
The persecution raged till the next year, when the 
kin": issued a strange edict, to the effect that he was 
determined to have done with the matter ; that the 
Christians filling the prisons should at once be judged 
and executed, and after that no more trials were to be 
instituted. JV1 any were publicly executed, while others 
were strangled in the prisons in order to expedite 
matters. Then followed a lull, and the church had a 
breathing space, but all its leaders had been put to 
death, and it was reduced to a pitiable condition. 

The church sent a fresh appeal to the bishop at 
Peking to send them another priest, but he was utterly 
unable to grant their request, for the mission itself 
was at a low ebb on account of the French Revolution. 
No missionaries were coming out to the foreign field, 
and no promise even could be held out to the Koreans 
of any one coming to them in the future. Again and 
again their messenger braved untold risks to carry 
their piteous appeal to China, but in vain. To those 
who like myself intensely dislike the system and many 
of the tenets of the Roman Catholic Church, while 
loving and profoundly venerating many of its adher- 
ents, this absence of the priesthood may well seem a 
blessing in disguise. 

In 1 8 16, for the fifth time, the messenger of the 
Korean Church arrived in Peking, and the bishop, 


ch. ix Roman Catholicism in Korea 

touched by their importunity, promised to send them 
a priest. Plans were arranged that he should be met 
and secretly taken into the country, for persecution 
still raged. The time came, but at the rendezvous 
the Koreans found no priest awaiting them ; it had 
proved impossible to find any one willing to undertake 
the well-nigh hopeless mission. Years elapsed : they 
were all marked by the same record of faith and 
suffering, heroically borne, until the year 1827. Then 
followed three or four years of comparative peace, and 
the church steadily grew in numbers. 

A letter was sent by it to the Pope, beseeching 
him to send reinforcements to the suffering Christians. 
He forwarded the appeal to the directors of the 
" Missions Etrangeres " in France, which had recently 
been re-established, after its destruction by Napoleon 
in 1 805. The directors forwarded the appeal, making 
it known throughout their missions, with the result 
that Monseigneur Brugniere, a missionary in Siam, 
volunteered for the perilous task in a letter burning 
with apostolic love and zeal. His offer was accepted 
by the society, and after some delay he set out accom- 
panied by a young Chinese priest, educated in Naples, 
who had also volunteered for the service. 

Three years were spent by them in weary journey- 
ings without success, owing partly to the jealousy of 
a Chinese priest who had been sent meanwhile to 
Korea by the Sacree Congregation de la Propagande, 
and when at last the difficulties were on the eve of 
being overcome, Monseigneur Brugniere was taken 

The Face of Korea ch. ix 

suddenly ill and died on the very threshold of the 
promised land. 

In 1836 the first European missionary penetrated 
into the country, and he was soon followed by others 
in steady succession. Despite the ceaseless persecu- 
tions the number of Christians in 1838 was estimated 
at 9000. The following year a more violent persecu- 
tion than ever broke out, and the three French mis- 
sionaries were betrayed and executed, beside many 
Koreans of all ranks. The authorities were firmly 
resolved to exterminate them ; but the attitude of the 
Korean people in general towards the Christians was 
no longer what it had been. Whereas previously they 
had been despised, now they were respected, for the 
people realised that there was a power in this religion 
which nothing could annihilate. The Christians had 
been decimated as to numbers, and such as had escaped 
destruction were reduced to a state of utter destitu- 
tion, yet still they remained loyal to their convictions. 
The non-Christian Koreans came to the rescue and 
lent them the necessary grain to sow their fields, well 
assured that they would honestly repay the loan, un- 
like what would have been the case with some others 
of their fellow-countrymen. 

The foreign missionaries having been murdered, 
there was a new development in the life of the Korean 
Church ; for the first time they had two priests of 
their own nationality consecrated in China. They 
came to the church at a time of great need, for per- 
secution was raging more hotly than ever. The time 


ch. ix Roman Catholicism in Korea 

for labour was but brief in the case of one of them, 
Andre Kim. His undaunted courage and zeal led 
him, at the age of twenty-five, to the crown of mar- 
tyrdom, " he being made perfect in a short time, 
fulfilled a long time. For his soul pleased the Lord." 

In 1850 we again find two French missionaries at 
work, who gave their testimony as to the steady 
growth of the church, despite ceaseless persecution. 
European missionaries could only enter the country 
by stealth, and they always had to endure untold hard- 
ships in the prosecution of the work, which could 
never be carried on openly. Monseigneur Daveluy 
described it in these words : " Our year (1859) may be 
summed up thus — miseries upon miseries, but every- 
where the great protection of God, and in the midst 
of tribulations the advance of the apostolic work." 

The aggressiveness of the Russians in the north in 
1866 goaded the Korean Emperor into a fierce deter- 
mination to exterminate the Christians once for all. 
He began by putting to death all the French mis- 
sionaries upon whom he could lay his hands, and nine 
out of twelve were taken. They seem to have been 
put to the torture before execution ; one was Bishop 
Daveluy, who had spent twenty-one years in the 
country, and another was the latest recruit who had 
only been there nine months. The three other mis- 
sionaries succeeded in escaping from the country, and 
one of them told the whole sorrowful story to the 
French admiral at Tientsin, which resulted in the 
sending of an expedition against Korea. 


The Face of Korea ch. ix 

Meanwhile the church in Korea was exposed to 
relentless persecution, and was again left to carry on 
unaided the long struggle to win her people to the 
Catholic faith. Here Pere Dallet's narrative ends ; 
but it would not be complete without adding one word 
as to the position and numbers of the Roman Catholics 
in Korea at the present day. I regret that it only 
amounts to a statistical statement drawn from Krose's 
Katholische Missions Statistik^ 1908. 

The mission is that of the Paris Seminary, and there 
are 45 European priests, 53 sisters,and 10 native priests 
now working in different parts of the country. Their 
native membership numbers 64,070 and they have 
8220 catechumens. They have 45 stations, and a 
considerably larger number of schools. I hoped to 
have visited the sisters working at Seoul, and to 
have been able to give some personal details, but was 
prevented from doing so, as well as from visiting 
various institutions, owing to the facl of having a 
severe chill, which confined me to bed during much 
of the time I was there. 




UNLIKE Venice, Seoul should not be ap- 
proached after dark, but we arrived late at 
night,and drovein rickshas through ill-lighted 
streets and over endless stones to our destination, 
Miss Pinder's rest-house for missionaries, excellently 
situated in the upper part of the town. 

With morning light we received a different and 
beautiful impression of the town. It is encircled 
within lofty hills of granite that change in colour at 
different times of day from gold and steel to deep 
blue. Formerly high walls surrounded it, pierced by 
noble gateways, but these walls are rapidly disappear- 
ing to form material for building Japanese houses of 
truly Philistine ugliness. Every day sees new and 
deplorable changes in the way of picluresqueness, and 
one is tempted to say that even sanitation may be 
too dearly bought. 

We started on a lovely spring morning to visit 
the old palace, which, subject to certain rules, is now 
thrown open to the public at a small charge. The first 
rule is that visitors must be respectably dressed, the 
next that they must not catch birds or fish, and so on. 
The Imperial Palace covers a large area of ground, 


The Face of Korea ch. x 

and is surrounded by lofty walls, in which there are 
eight or ten doorways, surmounted by the typical 
curved and tiled roofs. It looks like a small walled 
town, and used to contain some 3000 persons. The 
main entrance to the palace is at the end of a wide 
thoroughfare, adorned with fine stone animals on 
pedestals, and flanked by official buildings on each side, 
which, alas, are being pulled down to be replaced 
by Japanese buildings. This thoroughfare was a 
gay and busy scene. The Korean dress is eminently 
picturesque, and many of the women wear brilliant 
cloaks of lettuce or apple green with scarlet streamers ; 
this cloak depends from the crown of the head to below 
the knees ; the sleeves are never used, nor indeed could 
they be used, as the space for the neck is filled in 
with a piece of white material which acts as a cap and 
raises the coat several inches above the proper height. 
This strange garment is said to have been originally a 
man's coat, and the wives used to wear it (as so many 
Eastern women do) to conceal their figures in the streets. 
It certainly adds a most charming note of colour to the 
streets of Seoul. The ordinary dress of the women is 
entirely white ; it consists of a short coat, baggy 
trousers, and large pleated apron completely enclosing 
them and acting as a skirt. The lower class women 
are not careful to prevent there being a gap between 
the upper and lower garments ; as they seem to be 
always nursing a baby, they no doubt think the cos- 
tume was devised to suit that purpose. My sketch 
shows the dress with the addition of the winter cap. 



ch. x Seoul 

on passing from the square into the precincts of 
the palace by the main gateway you have a vision of 
harmony in green ; a delicate, subtle blending of 
greens in courtyard buildings, and pine-trees behind 
them, while the range of hills towers in the back- 
ground. A beautiful bridge spans a sort of moat, over 
which grotesque stone creatures lean towards the 
water as if about to plunge into it. on the right 
there is an entrance to an open space of ground where 
the Japanese are erecting a boys' school. This is a 
hard blow to Korean pride, but unfortunately our 
Japanese allies are apparently reckless of such details, 
and instead of trying to make their protectorate as 
conciliatory as possible, they too often do the reverse ; 
indeed it is only in rare instances that they seem to 
do otherwise. In many ways they are doing a great 
deal which should benefit the country, but in such a 
manner as to make it thoroughly obnoxious. It is 
of little use to repudiate the idea of annexation, when 
they trample on the dearest wishes of the Korean, 
and treat him as a vanquished foe. From this court- 
yard one passes into others where the sewing women 
used to live, for there are numbers of courts sur- 
rounded by houses varying in size and importance, but 
all of them in a state of decay. 

The palace is the most beautiful and cherished spot 
in the capital, and it is sad to see it falling to pieces 
with alarming rapidity, while the part inhabited by 
the Empress was absolutely destroyed and its very 
stones used in the construction of other buildings. 


The Face of Korea ch. x 

The great audience chamber is a glorious colour 
study in green, Venetian red, gold, and blue, with 
lofty pillars stretching up to the ornate roof, which 
culminates in a centrepiece of gold dragons, some- 
what different in design from the Chinese dragon. 
Although it is only one storey, the roof has been so 
built so as to give it a great appearance of height. 
All round the hall are latticed windows, which could 
be set open for large audiences. The hall is sur- 
rounded on three sides by a fine large paved court, 
through the centre of which runs a double line of 
stones like milestones ; they mark the places where 
the courtiers used to stand according to their rank 
when waiting their turn for audience on state 

Court beyond court the palace stretches to the 
Emperor's private apartments, which were more 
modest in size than the public halls. 

The Emperor used to rise about noon, so the 

morning hours were quite quiet, no unnecessary 

labour being permitted. The imperial reveille was 

announced by a roll of drums, summoning all 

courtiers, physicians, and attendants to be in readiness 

for his Majesty's appearance. Then the courts 

became thronged like a busy hive of bees ; the 

courtiers got out of their chairs at the entrance, and 

were only allowed to bring in one or two attendants, 

while the remainder of their retinue waited outside. 

The court dress consists of a beautiful myrtle green 

coat, a square breastplate (betokening the official 

9 6 

ch. x Seoul 

rank) fastened on by a thick belt standing out several 
inches from the body, black velvet top-boots with 
white soles, and a peculiar tall black cap made of 
horsehair, with ears of the same material standing 
out on each side of it. This costume forms the 
design on the cover of the book, and it was a Korean 
gentleman who kindly gave me the opportunity of 
sketching it. This costume was also worn by 
eunuchs when on duty in the palace. As in China, 
eunuchs have played a sorry part in the political game 
in Korea. 

The ordinary business of the court used to be trans- 
acted during the afternoon. Sometimes one of the 
ministers of the foreign legations would be received 
in audience by his Majesty, and sometimes there 
would be a special function with regard to ancestral 
worship. once a year the Emperor would go to a 
certain field outside Seoul (which was pointed out to 
us near the east gate of the city) to plough the first 
furrow of the year. 

After sundown the gates of the palace were shut 
and barred, and no one might go in or out without 
special permission of the Emperor. During the night 
state business was transacted, and not only was his 
Majesty informed of matters of importance, but he 
was also entertained with the small talk of the palace. 
There were always one or two Ministers of State on 
duty throughout the night, and they left the palace 
at daybreak, when the Emperor retired to rest. 

To the left of the Emperor's private apartments 

97 g 

The Face of Korea ch. x 

there is a gateway leading out into a place of delight, 
a large walled garden containing a spacious open 
summer-house surrounded by water. It is on a stone 
platform, and consists of two storeys, supported on 
handsome pillars and devoid of walls. The roof was 
of the usual Chinese type, with overhanging eaves 
enriched with carvings painted blue, green, and gold, 
contrasting finely with the Venetian red of the balcony 
and ceilings. A flight of steps leads down from it 
to the pond which is full of lotus blossoms, below 
which gold fish may be discerned in peaceful security. 
Here again the hand of time is heavy, walls are falling 
down, steps dropping asunder, and the brickwork 
beginning to crumble at the present time. It is only 
used for Japanese garden parties, and one would fain 
hope that the Japanese love of beauty will conquer pre- 
judice sufficiently to save it from the ravages of time 
and neglect before it is too late. Beautiful pine-trees 
and hills form a worthy setting to this jewel. 

The Dowager Empress Hong had her own residence 
and separate establishment in the rear of this part of 
the palace, where she was frequently visited by the 
Emperor, usually accompanied by the Crown Prince. 
In Korea it is considered the duty of every son, or 
adopted son, to visit his mother daily. Every after- 
noon the Dowager Empress sent two or three of her 
ladies-in-waiting to present her compliments to his 
Majesty, and to inquire after his health. The ladies 
who were sent on this errand had to wear some 
additional garment for the purpose, or to have their 


ch. x Seoul 

hair dressed over an immense frame. The residence 
of the Dowager Empress was enclosed within high 
walls, and the entrance gate was hung with dark blue 
cloth, ornamented with balls of white cotton wool, 
so that when the gates were open no one should be 
able to see into the courtyard. Two of the palace 
police, men of superior position to the city police, 
were stationed as guards outside the gates. After 
the death of the Empress Min, the Crown Prince 
occupied the same residence as the Emperor, and they 
were rarely separated from one another. During the 
Russo-Japanese war it was reported by some of the 
war correspondents that the Emperor had married the 
daughter of an American missionary, and that she 
was called the Empress Emily Brown. As this story 
obtained a certain amount of credence in America I 
am glad to be able to state publicly that there was 
not a word of truth in the rumour. The Emperor 
was devoted to the memory of the Empress Min, and 
has not married again. For this and the other details 
of palace life I am indebted to a friend who was at 
that time closely connected with the court, and who 
continued so for many years afterwards. 

The Crown Princess had her own house and estab- 
lishment like the Dowager Empress, but on a smaller 
scale. Every afternoon she went to pay her respects 
to the Emperor, attended by her ladies-in-waiting 
and eunuchs, and they might not leave the royal 
presence until dismissed. This custom was not con- 
fined to royalty, but in the Korean nobility etiquette 


The Face of Korea ch. x 

demands that daughters should pay their respects to 
fathers, and daughters-in-law to their fathers-in-law, 
and that they should remain standing until dismissed 
or asked to sit down. According to the usual custom 
in the East the wives of the sons live in the same 
compound as the father, frequently in the same build- 
ing as his wife and daughters, so the carrying out of 
this custom is a simple matter. 

It may be of interest to know some details of the 
life of the women in an eastern palace. They come 
into the palace as children of nine or ten years old, 
bright, good-looking (the Korean ideal of beauty is 
very different from ours), and intelligent girls. They 
are trained by other girls a year or two older than 
themselves, each for her own department. As soon 
as the children enter service the pigtail of childhood 
is abandoned, and the hair is dressed in a knot, resting 
on the nape of the neck. This signifies marriage in 
the case of all other Korean maidens ; but marriage 
is prohibited in the case of those who enter service 
in the palace, although it is admittedly the duty of 
every woman. The girls are dressed in white silk 
jackets and long mazarine blue silk skirts. The little 
ones are sometimes allowed to wear pink or yellow 
silk jackets, but never the elder ones. 

If the attendants commit any serious offence, it is 
reported to the head of the department ; those, for 
instance, who acl: as ladies' maids are reported to the 
head lady in waiting, those in the kitchen to the 
head housekeeper. one particular woman in this 

ch. x Seoul 

department had been responsible for over fifty years 
for the dressing of the fish, yet she was only sixty-five 
when she mentioned the fa<5t, so her responsibilities 
had begun early. 

There are, however, alleviations to the lot of the 
palace attendants, for they have alternately ten days' 
duty and ten days' holiday. The royal ladies have 
not only women attendants, but also eunuchs, one of 
the worst curses of life in an eastern palace. They 
are required to carry messages from one department 
to another, and also to perform other duties. one 
of the eunuchs belonging to the household of the 
Dowager Empress used to read aloud to her a small 
daily Korean newspaper. While so doing he sat out- 
side the window, where he could be heard, but whence 
he could not see inside, because the window was or 
paper. Korea is like China in respecl: of windows, 
and is only now beginning to replace paper by glass. 

All this old palace life which I have been describing 
came to an end not long after the death of the Dowager 
Empress in 1904. We wandered among the deso- 
late ruins which marked the site of her residence. 
Finally we reached a grove of pines where is a strange 
memorial — more like a bandstand than anything else 
— it marks the site where the remains of the late 
Empress Min were burned, after she had been cruelly 
done to death by the Japanese in 1895. In vain her 
ladies had closed up round her and tried to save her ; 
in vain had one of them declared herself to be the 
Empress and paid the penalty — in vain, alas ! — with 

The Face of Korea ch. x 

her own life. She was hunted from the very presence 
of the Emperor to her own apartments in the middle 
of the night, and there put to the sword. In 1897 
the court removed to the new palace in the western 
seclion of the city, where the deposed Emperor still 

Another day we visited the mausoleum erected to 
her memory, in a beautiful spot some miles to the east 
of the city. Passing through the east gate we took a 
tram through the suburbs till we reached the terminus, 
and there turning off into the woods we walked along 
a beautiful shady road for nearly a mile. one or two 
parties of Japanese were the only people we met, and 
they were evidently bent on picnicking, a favourite 
form of amusement among them. We had an Ameri- 
can friend with us, and when we got to our destination 
she feared we would not be allowed to climb the hill 
on which the monument stood. I decided not to 
wait for permission, and hastily ran up to a beautiful 
spot commanding a fine view over the plain with the 
tomb immediately below me, and set to work with the 
utmost despatch. I had the pleasure of seeing the other 
visitors arrive and get sent away, and then the guard 
came up to dislodge me. I met him with a disarming 
smile, and showed him the sketch, ignoring his obvious 
intention. Our American friend was greatly con- 
cerned as to the righteousness of feigning ignorance, 
for she understood and translated all they were saying, 
such as that no one was allowed there except people 
of great importance, &c. &c. Further shouting from 

ch. x Seoul 

below to send us away was followed by the slow climb- 
ing of the hill by other officials. I greeted them in 
the same way as the first, and it had an equally dis- 
arming effect ; they seemed quite nonplussed, and 
before they could decide how to a6t the sketch was 
finished, and I presented them with an acceptable 
douceur^ and said good-bye. Their refusal to allow 
people to approach the tomb, where only the little 
finger of the Empress is buried, is quite reasonable, 
for the dearest Korean feelings have been outraged 
by the wanton disregard shown by visitors who have 
amused themselves by pretending to ride the stone 
animals and otherwise " fooling " about the spot. 

Outside Seoul there are many graves of humbler 
persons, but selected with equal care, and I have made 
a sketch of one showing the kind of horseshoe mound 
within which they are most frequently placed. It 
was a beautiful spot, fragrant with wild azalea just 
coming into bloom. It is well described in Dr. Gale's 
" Korean Sketches " (p. 216). "A grave is chosen on a 
mountain front if possible, having two arm-like ridges 
on either hand, one called the dragon side and one 
the tiger. There should be a mountain directly in 
the foreground called the An-san, to stand as a support 
to the family of the dead, otherwise the grave luck 
would flow down the valley and be dissipated. There 
must be free exit for streams or surface waters. This 
is the grave site in outline. Then come the special 
mountain peaks that are looked for on either side of 
the An-san. one will mean long life to the family, 


The Face of Korea ch. x 

another a numerous posterity, another rank, another 
wealth. Every mountain peak to right or left hand 
has its special message, which the geomancer (the man 
who has selected the site) holds in his professional 

There is not much to be seen in the town of Seoul, 
though it boasts a museum and zoological gardens. 
The present palace is beautifully situated near the east 
gate amongst fine pine-trees, and the present Emperor 
lives a secluded life there since the Japanese insisted 
upon his ascending the throne. Naturally these 
buildings are not open to the public. 

There are various missionary bodies at work in the 
capital, where they have their headquarters, but all 
the leading people seemed to be away itinerating in 
the country. The Roman Catholics and Anglican 
Missions are active, but, as one of its members in- 
formed me, the work of the latter has only been fully 
developed during the last few years. The Young 
Men's Christian Association have fine premises pre- 
sented by an American, and the Salvation Army are 
the newest comers in the field. 

The Japanese have built fine banks, post-office, 
railway station, and other public offices, but they prove 
desperately slow in transacting business. I had already 
experienced in Moukden that it required nearly an 
hour to get a few pounds on a letter of credit at a 
Japanese bank, and here they were equally slow. To 
my joy I saw a nice slab of Indian ink and a brush 
on the counter for signing names, for the Japanese, and 



ch. x Seoul 

Chinese, and Koreans sti\\ paint instead of writing their 
signatures. I thought I would utilise the time by 
completing a sketch in my book while the clerk was 
busy calculating how much the sum I wanted would 
come to in Japanese money. I was soon disabused 
of the idea, for the whole staff of the bank collected 
round to watch the proceeding, including the clerk 
who was doing my business. No doubt they found 
it a pleasant distraclion, and time seemed to be of no 
importance. Their calculations are all done with an 
abacus, and when I asked them simply to double the 
sum I had originally asked for, it took exaclly eighteen 
minutes to calculate twice five ! It is obvious that 
the interests charged on banking transa6tions must 
be large to cover the cost of stately buildings and 
numberless clerks, combined apparently with a mini- 
mum of business. The Japanese have imposed a 
Japanese currency on the country, and the bulk of the 
money used does equally for both countries, but there 
is a small quantity of coin bearing the Korean stamp 
which is not current in Japan. 

It seems absurd to the traveller to hear the Japanese 
pretending that they have not annexed Korea, for they 
have, practically speaking, taken possession of every- 
thing in the most high-handed manner ; they have dis- 
possessed the Koreans of all riparian rights, of fishing, 
game shooting, of the coasting trade, of large quanti- 
ties of land, for which a purely nominal price has been 
given, and which the Koreans have been forced to sell 
contrary to their wishes. The railways, post, and tele- 


The Face of Korea ch. x 

graph, the currency, taxation, and customs, are entirely 
in their hands ; what is left for them to appropriate ? 
The bitterness of the bondage is aggravated by the 
fact that so few of the Japanese trouble to learn the 
language, so that misunderstandings constantly arise. 
They have given different names to the places, even 
to the capital. The courtesy, which is such a universal 
charadteristic of the Japanese at home, he has left 
behind. However, it is to be remembered that this 
is a transitional period, and it is ardently to be desired 
that the Japanese Government will continue their good 
attempts to withdraw those who have been creating 
disturbances and to place a better class of officials in 
power. Some progress has already been made in 
this direction, especially with regard to the judges. 
The Koreans are reaping the harvest of neglecled 
opportunities and churlish exclusiveness, and it is a 
bitter harvest. 

one of the saddest losses Koreans have suffered of 
late has been that of Prince Ito, their best friend 
amongst their rulers, the irony of fate being shown in 
the fact that it was a Korean who murdered the 
Japanese prince. The murderer was taken for trial 
to Japan, and faced his death sentence with great 
equanimity. As he was engaged at the time in 
writing a poem, the authorities postponed his execu- 
tion for ten days in order that he might have time 
to finish it ! 




THE journey from Seoul to Fusan is through 
lovely cultivated land, everywhere varied by 
hill scenery, of which it has been estimated 
that three-fourths of Korea consists. The largest pro- 
portion of grain cultivated is rice, but wheat, barley, 
beans, millet, and other cereals grow equally well. 
It is truly a land flowing with milk and honey, has 
a beautiful climate, and if well governed ought to be 
most happy and prosperous. It is not subject to 
earthquakes, nor to any other great disasters, such as 
floods and plagues. Last year, it is true, cholera 
broke out in Seoul, but by the splendid exertions of 
the Japanese it was quickly brought under control 
with small loss of life. 

As we travelled southward the land gradually be- 
came greener and the fruit-trees showed their delicate 
blossoms. Over the willows there was a delicate 
film of green, and the pink azaleas on the hill-sides 
glowed in the evening light. The journey of twenty 
hours seemed long, however, for we were travelling in 
an American car, and it taxed the ingenuity even of the 

small and supple Japanese officers, who were our fellow- 


The Face of Korea ch. xi 

travellers, to make themselves comfortable in the first- 
class carriage. The attendant brought slippers all 
round, and when the officers had divested themselves 
of their boots and unrolled their rugs and eider- 
downs, it became an interesting study to see them try 
to accommodate their forms to the small seats for two. 
As they found a resting-place for their heads, their 
feet crept up to the window-panes, or had to curl 
up like a spring. Happy the man who can sleep 
undisturbed in such quarters, with the constant 
noise of slamming doors and traffic passing through 
the car, which is the American ideal of railway 
comfort ! 

The day wore away, and as we were nearing Fusan 
the attendant came to brush us up and help us on with 
our coats ; he also brought the surprising news that 
our friends at the next station had telephoned up the 
line to say they were coming to meet us, and that 
we should be ready to get out at the next station. 
Accordingly we did so, and our friends told us they 
had learnt that the boat by which we were going to 
Wonsan would not start till the following morning, 
and that we should not even be allowed to go on 
board till the next day. We were only too glad to 
accept the kind hospitality which they offered us 
instead of the cold comfort of a Japanese hotel at the 
port. It was very interesting to hear of work being 
carried on by the Australian Presbyterians in this 
part of the peninsula, though they have not had as 
rapid a success as their friends in the north. They 





ch. xi Fusan 

follow the same policy, the result being a strong self- 
supporting church. 

I cannot omit a word about the experience of one 
of their new workers, as it shows the extraordinary 
results of Christianity in another mission field. 
This Scotsman only went to the New Hebrides 
some twelve years ago to work among the former 
cannibals. In order to do this more effectually they 
gave him, some time since, a motor boat to prosecute 
work among the islands ; this boat he found invaluable, 
being an experienced seaman and working it himself. 
Unfortunately, owing to an attack of black- water fever, 
he was obliged to give up work there by the doctor's 
orders, consequently the boat was left for the use of 
his successor. The natives were greatly distressed at 
his leaving, and presented him with no less a sum than 
£250 to commence work in his new sphere. He 
has decided to start a similar work among the count- 
less islands round the Southern coast of Korea as soon 
as he has sufficiently mastered the language. The 
generosity involved in such a gift is hard to over- 

It may interest people to know that the working 
expenses of the motor boat comes to less than one 
penny a mile, namely about half the cost of itiner- 
ating on the mainland. 

Fusan is a beautiful spot, in an ideal situation for 
a harbour, but the town itself has all the ugly 
characteristics of a busy seaport. The bay is sur- 
rounded with high hills, showing a picturesque and 


The Face of Korea ch. xi 

varied outline, with fruit-trees and other vegetation, 
giving a brighter note of colour to the sombre pine- 
trees which cling to their rugged sides. The natural 
excellence of the harbour, which is almost closed by an 
island, leaving a channel for ships on both sides, has 
been further improved by the removal of some of the 
spurs of the hills so as to give larger space for wharf- 
age. There is no doubt that Fusan will continue to 
grow in size and importance, as it is the terminus of 
the railway and the nearest point for reaching Japan. 
The ferry to Shimonoseki only takes twenty hours, 
and plies daily in both directions. In the centre of 
the town is a beautifully wooded little hill which has 
been laid out by the Japanese with great taste. Long 
flights of handsome stone steps lead direclly upwards 
under the shade of overhanging pine-trees, and wind- 
ing paths lead more gently to the summit, offering 
alluring seats from which to admire the bay. There 
is a succession of Shinto shrines which seem to be 
much frequented. The worshipper approaches, claps 
his hands loudly, or rings the bell to call the attention 
of the deity, and then kneels for a moment in prayer. 
Some of the worshippers tossed up beans as they 
knelt, or offered money, and there were not a few 
more costly offerings hanging up — long tresses of 
black hair. These temples are of recent date, and 
war trophies were also placed in front of them. 
Some of the passers-by paid no further attention to 
the shrine than to bow and remove their hats, but on 
the whole they elicited a considerable amount of 

ch. xi Fusan 

worship, and it is clear that the Japanese are more 
attached to their religion than some people give them 
credit for. In this case they have selected the most 
beautiful and most conspicuous place in the town for 
their temples ; have made a noble approach to them, 
and planted the little terraces with lovely flowering 
shrubs, which were just bursting into blossom. The 
hill-sides were gay with wild azalea and fragrant with 
the scent of the pines. 

We made an early start, as they assured us that it 
would be too late if we went into town by the morn- 
ing train, so a primeval bus was chartered to convey 
us over the rugged roads, and we arrived at the office 
at 9.30, only to be told that the steamer would not 
start till 4 or 5 o'clock in the afternoon. We learnt 
afterwards that a large fine steamer left the night 
before, although they so confidently assured us there 
was none. It is a hard trial of patience to travel 
in Korea. 

At the office of the Steamship Company we pro- 
cured tickets, and were amused at having to give our 
ages to be inscribed on the tickets, which cost yen 
14.70 (about twenty-nine shillings) to Wonsan, first 
class, a passage of between thirty to forty hours in 
length. The boat was a fair size, and was heavily 
laden with timber and petroleum. The staff was 
entirely Japanese, and little English was understood, 
but European requirements and wishes did not need 
to be explained, so we had no difficulty. A more 
lovely sight than the bay as we steamed out of it 

The Face of Korea ch. xi 

past the four sentinel rocks at the entrance in the 
level rays of the setting sun would be hard to imagine, 
and one could not but remember how securely hidden 
the Japanese fleet lay there in wait for the Russian 
before the great battle in which the Baltic fleet was 

Our course followed the outline of the coast pretty 
closely, and the mountains still had touches of snow 
on them, like veins outlining their shapes. The 
mountains come quite close down on to the shore, 
and little cultivation is to be seen on this side of the 
peninsula. on the eastern coast of Korea there is a 
tide of only six or eight inches, whereas on the 
western coast it is no less than twenty-seven feet 
three inches, one of the highest tides in the world. 

There were few birds visible — only an occasional sea- 
gull or cormorant, and the white-sailed boats that we 
had seen thronging the bay of Fusan were conspicuous 
by their absence. Hour after hour passed without a 
sign of life being visible. Fortunately the sea was 
calm, and the next morning but one we reached 
Wonsan at about 6 a.m. We had to land in small boats, 
and were met by a party of missionaries, with whom 
we walked through a good part of the modern town. 
It is well laid out, and has wide roads leading to the 
quarters where the American missionaries live on 
the slopes of hills overlooking the sea and embowered 
in trees. The Japanese name for Wonsan is Gensan. 


The Diamond Mountains 

OUR friends had kindly begun before our arrival 
at Wonsan to make arrangements for the 
trip which we wished to take through the 
Diamond Mountains, so that a few hours sufficed to 
complete them. An attractive route was suggested by 
a native who knew the passes ; the time at our disposal 
was only eight days, so we were obliged to give up all 
hope of doing the principal pass, which is lofty and 
very arduous for travellers. The one selected took us 
through a fine part of the chain of mountains which 
runs down the eastern coast of Korea, and enabled us 
to visit an important monastery. We started with 
four ponies and three men to look after them, and 
the price stipulated was 64 yen (a little over £6), 
the distance to be covered being approximately 
225 miles. It was probable that the men would get 
some loads for the return journey, but that could not 
be counted on. We had no saddles, so our bed bags 
had to take their place, but they made precarious seats. 
At first one thought it would be only possible to re- 
tain one's seat by holding on all the time, and the 
thought of the necessity of using a handkerchief owing 
to a severe cold in the head was an anxious one, but 

113 H 

The Face of Korea ch. xii 

time soon made us able to dispense with any grip. 
Mr. Chiao found his bedding a much more satisfactory 
seat than ours, for the usual Chinese bed bag seems to 
have been specially devised for the purpose ; he looked 
completely at his ease, though he had never ridden be- 
fore, and he hopped on and offhis pony with astonish- 
ing rapidity. The fourth beast carried our two modest 
baskets of stores and clothing, and the cots which had 
been kindly lent to us for the occasion. Having lost 
our umbrellas we bought Korean paper waterproof 
coats, at the cost of about one shilling each, and water- 
proof paper for lining our other things, as there was 
some fear of wet weather on the mountains. 

We set off about 2 o'clock with the intention of 
doing fifteen miles that evening, but it is always 
difficult to make a good start, and various hindrances 
delayed us, such as a ferry-boat with no ferryman, 
and the boat on the wrong side of the river. After 
a little time a woman came slowly down to the ferry 
and got into the boat, so our men exhorted her to 
pull herself across by means of the rope ; 'this, how- 
ever, she declined to do, and sat patiently waiting 
for some one else to come and take her across. It was 
only when we saw her close at hand that we discovered 
she was blind, so probably that had made her afraid 
of crossing alone. We became very impatient as time 
went on and no one appeared ; I urged our men to 
ford the stream higher up, which was evidently a 
frequented route. However, they were too timorous, 
and were afraid of trying an unknown path, so we 


ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

lost much valuable time. It was only at the close of 
our journey that we learned that none of the men had 
traversed any part of our route previously ; naturally 
the result was that they constantly made mistakes and 
took us out of the direcl: route. At last, just as we 
were beginning to despair,some one arrived who towed 
the ferry-boat over the river, and we set off across some 
ploughed fields towards the foot of the hills. It was 
dusk when we reached a village which our men said 
was the halting-place, and only next day we discovered 
that they had stopped three miles short of the right 
stage. We were shown into a small room about 
twelve feet square, from which the women of the house 
were ejected though their clothing draped the walls, 
and big chests further diminished our space. All 
Korean houses have a small platform outside them, 
either planking or made of dried mud, on which the 
shoes are left before any one enters. The floors are 
heated from below and covered with matting, so that 
chairs are considered unnecessary, and the Koreans 
enjoy the heat which penetrates through the bedding 
on which they lie at nights. We found it decidedly 
trying, despite having the door open and cots to sleep 
on ; but we were delighted to find the houses so much 
cleaner than we expecled. on the whole they look 
unquestionably cleaner in the country villages than 
in the corresponding ones at home. It was a little 
difficult to sleep, what with the heat and the noise, 
for the men require two hours to get up and breakfast, 
and we were off" by 6 o'clock. 


The Face of Korea ch. xii 

The second day we travelled mostly parallel with 
the seashore, and got more accustomed to riding our 
steeds. It was a perfect day with radiant sunshine, 
and one received an impression of universal content 
and comfort. The people looked for the most part 
respectably dressed and housed, and " every prospedt 
pleased." The villages seemed well supplied with 
cattle, pigs, fowls, and firewood, and within the houses 
were goodly array of bowls and brass utensils brilliantly 
polished. When we stopped at midday the horses 
were unloaded and given a hot sort of bran mash. 
The Korean pony is a hardy creature, capable of great 
labour and wonderfully sure-footed, but he requires 
three hot meals per day, that is to say, a large quantity 
of hot water with more or less of boiled beans and rice 
chaff in it. He appears to be eating all night long 
except when he is fighting his next-door neighbour. 
His mapoo or groom brushes him assiduously with a 
little round brush before loading, though it never has 
any visible effect on the beast's coat — a more unkempt- 
looking animal is not to be found anywhere. The 
stable and kitchen of Korean inns seem to consist in 
a single room, one wall having a long row of stoves 
so that various big pans can be cooking at the same 
time. The chimney of a house is generally quite 
detached from the building, for it is connected with 
flues which underlie the whole house, heating every 
room (see illustration, p. 10). At meal-times the men 
each had a little round table, about four inches in 
diameter, on which were a large brass bowl of rice, 


ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

another of water, and two or three small earthenware 
dishes of vegetable, or fish, or other condiments. 
These little tables are very neat, and the food attrac- 
tively served. The Koreans required two hours always 
at midday, for the men lie down and go to sleep 
after they have eaten. 

Our way led us up hill and down dale, and in the 
course of the day we walked down five precipitous 
hills, on two of which there were large gangs of 
navvies making the road. They use a peculiar spade 
with a long handle, partly shod at the spatula-shaped 
end with iron, to which was attached a rope on each 
side worked by separate individuals, so that it required 
three men to wield it. Everywhere the country was 
being prepared for the crops. The rice fields seemed 
to occupy the main part of the land under cultivation, 
and were being ploughed by cattle. None of the 
ground was pasture land — we have not seen a single 
sheep since we came to Korea ; there were some flocks 
of goats to be seen from the railway, but no other 
animals grazing. The cattle are singularly fine, but are 
only used in agriculture and as beasts of burden ; the 
loads of wood that they carry are so large that hardly 
more of the beast is to be seen than the legs. The 
same may be said of the loads carried by men and boys. 

We were delighted by the wild flowers just coming 

into blossom — hepaticas of shades varying from purest 

white to deep blue; large round-faced yellow heartsease; 

various colours of violets, and the sweetest large white 

ones ; deep-red hairy anemones, and white crocus. 


The Face of Korea ch. xii 

As we had only come twelve instead of fifteen 
miles the previous night we decided that we must 
make it up, or the other stages arranged would be 
impossible, but at such a suggestion our men looked 
black and greatly demurred. They said thirty-seven 
miles was too long a journey ; and when we came to 
a village nestling under the slope of a hill covered 
with fine pine-trees in which numbers of herons were 
clamorously preparing to roost, we were obliged to 
admit that it was no wonder the men were anxious 
to stop there. The place was thoroughly picturesque 
and snowed signs of activity ; there was even a police 
officer standing near the invariable notice board 
which adorns every village in Korea since the Japanese 
occupation. We pushed on and only stopped a 
moment to sketch a particularly good specimen of 
devil posts, of which we had seen numbers on the 
road. It is considered meritorious to add a stone to 
one of these wayside heaps, which takes the place of 
shrines. We spent the night at a small village, only 
arriving at dusk after thirteen and a half hours' 
travelling ; and we were not sorry to tumble into our 
cots after a short meal, to put out our lights, and so 
escape the curiosity of the natives, which we find a 
great trial. It is well-nigh impossible to shut the 
doors for more than a few minutes, or you feel 
asphyxiated, and it is only when the light is out that 
the eager villagers cease to gaze. one was reduced 
to the necessity of washing in the dark or getting up 
in the middle of the night to do it. 


ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

The third day's journey began under a grey and 
uncertain-looking sky, but the sun shone out at 
intervals as we made our way along the seashore. 
My guide insisted I should ride with a foot on each 
side of my good beast's neck, but that brought 
disaster, for it meant nothing to cling to, so a sudden 
spring forward of the beast, resultant on an unseen 
prod in the back, landed me promptly in the dust. 
My mapoo tried to break the fall, but only succeeded 
in getting a blow on his mouth. Seeing I was not 
seriously damaged he made a pitiable appeal to my 
sympathy, opening a wide mouth in which I ex- 
pected to see several teeth lying about. There was 
no sign of disaster except a few drops of blood, which 
seemed to distress him acutely, but the other men all 
roared with laughter and told him to wash in the 
stream close by. He didn't cease being sorry for 
himself for quite a long while, and the weird songs 
with which he had previously beguiled the road 
ceased for half a day. We passed many small fishing 
hamlets, and were interested to see what a variety of 
fish the women had in their baskets, of which many 
were unknown to us. Flounders seem quite common, 
and in Seoul we noticed much larger herrings than 
any seen at home ; all fish is much more expensive 
there than in London, owing to the Japanesemonopoly, 
but happilyfor the little villages, they are so far beyond 
the beat of the foreigner that they are left unmolested; 
indeed we saw no Japanese after leaving Wonsan till 
that afternoon, when we were astonished at the sound 


The Face of Korea ch. xii 

of a siren, and turning a corner came into an exquisite 
little land-locked harbour, evidently a naval base, 
and completely concealed from the sea. Numbers 
of sea-gulls and oyster-catchers were disporting them- 
selves in the shallow basin leading from it, but our 
attention was riveted on the boats where gun practice 
was going on, though it sounded muffled. 

The village of Tschagu-Tschiendogu (accordingly 
to the spelling in our German map) boasts of a Japan- 
ese post-office, and a Japanese woman was trotting 
along with a baby on her back. Passing through it 
we plodded through deep silver sand for some distance 
before turning inland, but we had a long way still to 
go to reach the secluded monastery, which was our 
resting-place for the night. We wound in among 
the precipitous mountains of granite formation. The 
rocks stood out like mammoth beasts in all sorts of 
strange shapes, and they looked black and forbidding 
in the gloom. A green serpent mottled with black 
gave our men quite a fright, and they continually 
asked the way, getting not much enlightenment. At 
last we penetrated into an ideal valley with cliffs 
towering steeply upwards to a considerable height, 
and showing the jagged outlines which have given 
the Diamond Mountains their name. The narrow 
track changed into a broad well-kept road, leading 
through a pine forest, and we had not gone more 
than a mile or so when we met a party of monks 
taking their evening stroll. The youthful looking 
abbot wore a chain which distinguished him from 

ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

the rest, and he stepped forward, bowing politely. 
It was rather difficult to know how next to proceed, 
as none of the party seemed to understand English 
or Chinese ; however, Mr. Chiao at once began a 
conversation by writing on the ground and asking if 
we could receive accommodation for the night. The 
request was readily granted, and the party of monks 
escorted us back. 

As we approached the monastery there was a small 
open space by the roadside in which were stone vases 
and tablets, but with the exception of that and the 
avenue there was no sign to mark the neighbourhood 
of the buildings. They were situated up a short path 
at right angles to the road, and were by no means 
impressive. The temple stood slightly to the rear, 
and we were taken to a series of rooms opening on to 
a raised terrace, and ushered into the central one, 
where a Buddha occupied the post of honour. A screen 
was produced to divide off a part of the room for us, 
and the monks arranged themselves all round to watch 
proceedings, namely, the cooking of our supper. one 
of them wrote an inquiry whether we were "Jesus 
missionaries," another brought us a Japanese-English 
primer, and said a few sentences which he had learned 
fairly accurately, but could not understand anything 
we said. 

While we had our supper in one part of the room 
some monks had theirs in another, and it became 
obvious that we should have no privacy, so we had 
our things removed to a small room which had been 

The Face of Korea ch. xii 

allotted to Mr. Chiao, which was very hot but clean, 
and which possessed some rings on the door that we 
could padlock and yet get fresh air. Mr. Chiao was 
kept busy writing for a long time, and we begged 
him to find out what they considered the best route 
to Seoul. However, they said that none of their 
number had ever been there, and that the monastery 
to which we proposed going next day was forty miles 
distant over a lofty pass, so we had to give it up. 
We were glad to have Mr. Chiao sleeping in the 
verandah just outside our door to guard us. They 
showed the rapacity which is said to characterise the 
Buddhist monks in Korea, and we heard none too 
good an account of them. The night stillness was 
only disturbed by the croaking of frogs in quite a 
different tongue from that of European ones, and the 
periodic beating of the fish gong which betokens the 
hour of prayer. 

In the morning we were up betimes and off before 
6 o'clock ; already the monks were busy outside 
spreading great heaps of grain on matting, perhaps in 
preparation for sowing. It was a perfect morning as 
we wended our way down the valley for about three 
miles of the same way we had come the night before, 
and soon we left the lovely valley behind us. Our 
pathway was full of funny little green frogs spotted 
with black, and with their underside brilliant scarlet. 
Heavy clouds hung over the precipitous ravine 
through which lay our way, and we soon outdistanced 
our ponies as we tramped over a rough path sur- 

ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

rounded by most fascinating flowers. Besides those 
mentioned above there were glades full of large 
cyclamen, white crocus and wood anemones, purple 
iris, saxifrage, &c. 

Lilies of the valley and strawberry leaves showed 
promise of future beauty, and many kinds of ferns 
were beginning to unfold their fronds. Pheasants 
and wood-pigeons were calling from the rocks, and 
many birds trying their notes in a tentative way. 
Chipmunks sat up eyeing us with great unconcern, 
and the treasures of the woods seemed limitless. A 
babbling brook kept us in constant temptation as our 
path crossed and recrossed it, and before we reached 
the top we passed through more than one drift of 
snow. The views were wonderful, but we could 
have seen them better by travelling in the opposite 
direction, and one of the great charms in that case is 
the way that the traveller suddenly gets a view of the 
distant sea as he climbs over the summit of the pass. 
We were three hours climbing up, for the ascent is 
very stiff, but the descent is much more gradual, and 
we were glad to be able to mount our beasts, for the 
midday halt only came after a stage of seven hours. 
Brilliant gleams of sunshine occasionally burst forth, 
but the clouds blew up for rain, and we were thankful 
to reach our resting-place at night before the storm 
broke. We only managed 90 li (27 miles) in eleven 
hours, and on our arrival we were surprised and pro- 
voked to find in the little village a Japanese encamp- 
ment, and officers occupying the best inn. After a 


The Face of Korea ch. xii 

slight demur we were taken in, and were soon after 

discussing a light meal, when the door was thrust 

rudely open, and a Japanese soldier prepared to watch 

us have it. As he declined to take our hint to go, it 

became necessary to shut the door in his face. The 

rain fell heavily in the night, and the wind blew, but 

a dark morning was a prelude to a fine day. 

We started late next morning, and only got as far 

as the end of the village when two Japanese officers, 

who seemed to be superintending the building of a 

house, stopped us and inquired our destination. They 

went into long explanations in writing on the ground 

with Mr. Chiao. They said there was a much better 

road than the one we were on, and that by it the 

distance was only 80 li. They spoke a few words of 

English, and we hoped that they had no ulterior object 

in sending us the other way, as it proved an execrable 

road and at least 1 10 li as to distance. We soon found 

ourselves going up another pass, but not nearly so 

long and arduous as the last. The flowers were not 

so numerous, and we found nothing much of fresh 

interest. Swallow-tails and butterflies of various 

colours flitted about the path, and the panoramic view 

as we gained the summit was fine, showing what a 

land of hills this is. As we descended into the valleys 

we found them scantily populated and cultivated, but 

the singular number of streams and brooks kept many 

grinding-mills at work. The commonest kind of mill 

is worked by a runnel of water discharging itself into 

a wooden cradle ; when this is full it descends and 


ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

empties itself, then rises again, bringing down its 
other end, as a hammer on the grain beneath. The 
hammer is inside a little round hut with a pointed 
roof thatched with straw. Others of the mills are 
worked by wheels, and there is a constant sound of 
groaning and hammering in every valley. Ploughing 
and sowing go on simultaneously, and this requires a 
gang of from four to six men ; they work on a co- 
operative system, and one man treads along the newly- 
turned furrow, with bare feet, widening it out, and 
dropping in the grain and fertiliser mixed, while 
another follows to cover it with soil, and it is finally 
stamped down by yet another man. The birds have 
a poor chance of getting any grain. Some fresh 
ground was being brought under cultivation by having 
the brushwood on it burnt and then being ploughed, 
but to judge from appearances there is no little ground 
still left waste, which would be cultivated if, for 
example, it were in Chinese hands. The Koreans take 
life much more easily, and there is none of the elaborate 
care and use of materials which are such a striking 
feature of Chinese industry. 

It was only after a somewhat prolonged midday 
halt that we made the trying discovery that we still 
had fifteen miles to travel to Tschang Do, where we 
joined the main road, and meanwhile it became 
darker and darker. Happily later on the moon shone 
out brightly and illumined us across a barren moor. 
Passengers were few and far between, but a couple of 
men came along silently carrying a white swathed 


The Face of Korea ch. xii 

corpse on a stretcher. Our own party had fallen 
silent, for we were tired and disappointed ; the gloom 
prevented our seeing the steepness of some of the 
descents, but we clung desperately to our steeds, for 
we were too weary to walk. At last we came into 
a high road, which proved to be the main road running 
from Seoul to Wonsan, and on this it was easy travel- 
ling. Few gleams of light were to be seen in the 
village, but the inhabitants had not gone to rest, so 
our men set about finding quarters — a not altogether 
easy matter. While we were discussing it outside an 
inn, the beasts began quarrelling, and a man was sent 
flying headlong into the ditch by the heels of one 
of them. He picked himself up without any ado, 
and as if it were quite a matter of course. Perhaps 
this settled the vexed question, for we were forth- 
with admitted to the house, and the family turned out 
of a room which they allotted to our use. This 
sort of thing happened wherever we stayed, for 
apparently there are no spare rooms for travellers, and 
as there is no furniture in the living rooms it is not 
so objectionable an arrangement as it sounds. The 
best hats of the family are hung on the rafters, a shelf 
runs round the wall about two feet from the ceiling ; 
it is full of miscellaneous objecls, while the clothing of 
the family appears to be stored in boxes piled on one 
another. There is generally a door on each side of 
the room consisting of papered lattice work, and in 
the side a glass peep-hole varying in size from one to 
four inches. 


ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

The night passed all too soon, and we woke to 
the consciousness of a sharp frosty morning. As we 
wended our way down the valley it might easily 
have been midwinter. The brown hill-sides, and 
the brown earth and stubble thick with rime, showed 
no suggestion of spring, though it was nearing the 
end of April. on every side the pheasants were 
calling, and the bold fellows were hardly to be put 
up by a well-aimed stone from my man, but trotted 
unconcernedly away, as though conscious that now 
they are under Japanese protection. We met a man 
with a falcon, but even the falconer's trade is eyed 
with suspicion, lest he use it as a blind. There have 
been several cases of poisoned pheasants noted lately 
in Seoul, so that it is necessary to be careful in buying 
them, to see that they have really been shot. 

Our sixth day was again a thirteen hours' journey, 
and as we sat resting by a rill of water at midday, a 
young mother with a baby on her back came up, 
beaming with eagerness to talk to us. No doubt she 
expected we could understand and answer, and we 
were doubly sorry not to be able to do so when she 
carefully unfolded a handkerchief and showed us her 
Testament and hymn book. The only possibly means 
of sympathy was by dumb show, and by the headings 
of the hymns, which were in English as well as 

That evening we found our innkeeper was a 

Christian, by whom we were received with the utmost 

warm-heartedness, and every request so willingly 


The Face of Korea ch. xii 

granted, that it was quite cheering after a tiring day. 
one of the girls had thoroughly acquired the English 
hand-shake, and when I stretched out a hand to shut 
the door, to my great surprise I found it warmly 
grasped instead. A little clucking on my friend's 
part caused them to go out and fetch us lovely new- 
laid eggs, a great contrast to most of those we had 
been able to buy on the road, and they watched my 
cooking operations with lively interest. We began 
to feel it would be difficult to shut the door at all on 
their friendly faces, when an interruption came and 
rendered it unnecessary ; this was a summons to 
them from the head of the house to come to family 
worship. First they sang a hymn (would that our 
good missionary friends could be content to let them 
sing their own tunes !) — then came Scripture reading, 
prayer, and the Lord's Prayer repeated by all ; I 
imagine that what followed next must have been 
exhortation and a suggestion of another hymn, but 
they decided not to sing it. The utmost devoutness 
characterised their worship, which was carried on in 
the adjoining room, so that we felt we were sharers 
in it, and it was good to be there. 

We parted next morning with hearty hand-shakes, 
and we wished we had met with more Christian inn- 
keepers on our journey, if this were a typical one. 
Just as we were starting a nice-looking young girl 
showed us her Bible with great pride, and I found 
that she could write quite well. Education seems to 
be almost entirely neglected in the country districts, 

ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

and we have only passed one school so far as we know 
during our eight days' journey. The road continued 
excellent, but always winds through narrow valleys 
and over ridges into other valleys, showing how large 
a part of the country is uninhabited. The hill-sides 
are only used as cemeteries and for producing fire- 
wood. Until we reached the high road at the end 
of our fifth day's journey we met no ponies and only 
few pedlars ; after that there were many people and 
animals. The pedlars seem to carry mainly cotton 
goods ("superior sheeting KKK" being much to 
the fore), summer hats, umbrellas, haberdashery, 
mirrors, matches, and cigarettes. The people have 
little money, and the things they use are of the 

Shortly after starting we met three mounted 
soldiers, evidently the military escort of a weary- 
looking Westerner seated in a ricksha, followed by 
another ricksha in which was seated a Korean in pale 
blue attire. This was the only Westerner we met 
during our eight days' journey, and from this time 
onward we occasionally met a ricksha, though on 
some parts of the road it looks quite impossible for 
them to travel. For a distance of perhaps twenty 
miles the road has been planted on both sides with 
twigs at a distance of about a foot from one another. 
They look unpromising, but we were assured that 
they are likely to grow all right, in which case they 
will convert the dull road in the course of a few years 
to a pleasant shady avenue. Towards dusk we came 

129 1 

The Face of Korea ch. xii 

to Po Chan, a Japanese military outpost. It struck 
us that this was probably the last opportunity of 
sending a telegram to announce our return to Seoul, 
so we at once dismounted at the telegraph office. 
Almost everywhere the one notice up in English is 
" Post — Telegraph," but here it was in Japanese. 
When our wishes, however, had been explained by 
Mr. Chiao in writing, a telegraph form entirely made 
out in English was produced and the message written. 
It seemed such a simple matter to send it, that we 
were astonished at the amount of correspondence it 
entailed. Our names, destinations, ages, &c. &c. 
were demanded by the military authorities, and the 
little job took at least twenty minutes. At last we 
got away and it was quite dark before we reached 
our destination. 

We sighed for our friendly hosts of the night 
before, for this time we encountered a horde of in- 
quisitive people, who allowed us no peace ; in vain 
we closed three doors out of the four which led from 
one tiny room eighteen feet square, and the paper on 
them was soon in shreds. At last we were driven 
to distraction, and closed all the peep-holes by curtains, 
preferring to be stifled than to endure the people any 

The eighth and last morning of our journey 

dawned grey and unpromising. How often have we 

sighed for our comfortable Chinese travelling chairs, 

never more than as the weary hours wore slowly 

away under a drizzling rain. For the last few days 


i i * 


ch. xii The Diamond Mountains 

we had seen scarcely a flower and heard few birds ; 
the dear larks were silent, and the passengers hurried 
along under umbrellas, waterproof- covered hats, 
and an occasional grass coat. The villages were 
more numerous, and wonderful groups of devil posts, 
ten or twelve in a row, faced each other at each end 
of them ; many of these looked comparatively new, 
and were painted brick-red and green, with white 
markings. A noticeable feature of Korea is the 
absence of temples, and the disrepair of the shrines ; 
we never saw any sign of worship by the people at 
these wayside shrines. They are, many of them, 
simply empty huts, or have a little writing on the 
walls, and occasionally a picture. on sacred trees 
strips of paper are hung, and the passer-by, if devout, 
adds a stone to the heap round its roots. 

We donned our shilling paper coats and found 
them an admirable protection from the rain, but we 
must have been a funny sight. As we rode along 
we came to a Japanese regiment on the march, headed 
by its officers in military capes. one of the officers, 
despite the rain, threw his cape back in a neglige 
way before he met us, so that a dazzling row of de- 
corations should not pass unobserved. Certainly his 
appearance was in striking contrast to ours. 

We entered the city of Seoul from the north by a 
fine old gateway, the whole scene being most pictur- 
esque. I returned to sketch it the following day. 

The impression of the country people gained by our 
trip was that they were not particularly friendly, but 


The Face of Korea ch. xii 

thoroughly inquisitive ; it looked as if there were little 
extreme poverty, but a general air of comfort seemed 
to prevail everywhere. The village street is swept 
daily, so that in the early morning there is a pleasant 
look of tidiness about it. The cattle are sleek and well 
cared for, and even the dogs have a prosperous air. 

Any one thinking of visiting the Diamond Moun- 
tains would do well to try and secure a competent 
Korean to go with them, who would be able to secure 
the daily fowl for dinner of which we heard, but which 
we never met, and to procure any other requisite. 
We saw no cultivation of vegetables, except small plots 
of onions, so that we had to rely entirely on the stores 
that we took with us for everything except eggs. We 
were told (too late) that a guide may easily be heard 
of at the Y.M.C. A. in Seoul. As to means of transit 
— there are only three ; a pony, but let me add a warn- 
ing on this score, namely, that one gets deadly tired 
of its slow walk ; a native chair, consisting of a square 
box like an Indian dhoolie, with carriers who groan 
all the time ; and shanks f s pony, which in the moun- 
tains is the only pleasant one. Residents in Korea 
have their own carrying chairs, but these are not to 
be hired. As regards the time of year most suitable 
for travelling in Korea, May is the most beautiful, or 
early autumn we were told, but in case of the former, 
mosquito curtains are a necessity. We found winter 
clothing requisite for April ; thick tweeds and fur 
coat were none too warm. 

We had been told that the country districts were 


ch. xii The Diamo?id Mou?t tains 

quite unsafe on account of Japanese vagrants, but 
we saw nothing of them, and as far as we could judge 
there is excellent order everywhere. Although Mr. 
Chiao was unable to communicate direclly with the 
Koreans, his presence was of undoubted value to us 
in more ways than one. It lent prestige to our 
small party, for the Koreans hold the Chinese in 
great respect ; and for them to see such a man 
as Mr. Chiao in a subordinate position to us, was 
equivalent to raising us to high rank. 



Seoul to Dalny 

THE slowness and discomfort of the journey 
from Manchuria by railway to Seoul de- 
termined us to take another route on our 
return, and as there was a boat going from Chemulpo 
to Dalny about the time we wanted to start we de- 
cided to take it. We booked our places in good time, 
paid for tickets, and the agent promised to wire at 
once to Yokohama to have the berths reserved for us. 
on our return to Seoul, however, after our trip across 
the country,we saw that another steamer was advertised 
to sail the day following the one for which we had 
booked. This was not only a larger steamer, but also 
boasted European food, instead of Japanese, no small 
matter when one is sea-sick. We at once decided to 
change our tickets if possible, and went to the agent 
from whom they had been obtained. He said it was 
impossible to make any alteration as the berths had 
been already secured on the other steamer ; however, 
after some demur, he telephoned to the agent at 
Chemulpo to ascertain what answer he had received 
from Yokohama. The agent declared that he had 
never been asked to secure any berths, and that none 


ch. xiii Seoul to Dalny 

had been reserved. This made the way plain for us, 
and we were glad for once of the hopelessly unbusi- 
nesslike habits prevailing in Korea. I have related 
this incident to show how difficult it is to travel 
comfortably ; for our friends said that ours was no 
uncommom experience, and that various of their 
friends, with places already engaged, had gone to take 
their boat at Chemulpo, as we should have done, 
and found that all the berths were full, so that they 
were obliged to return to Seoul and wait for the 
next. As boats only run to Dalny once in three or 
four weeks this is a serious matter. 

We started in the early afternoon and found a < 
large crowd of passengers waiting to go by the train ; 
it duly came into the station, and the luggage was 
put in the van, but the passengers were kept cooped 
up within railings for fifteen minutes, actually to 
within five minutes of the starting of the train. 
When they were at last allowed on the platform there 
was a perfecl: stampede, and the discovery was made 
that there were no first-class carriages, though we 
and other passengers had first-class tickets. The 
officials were applied to, but they said if we wanted 
first-class accommodation we could wait a couple of 
hours and take the next train. We were not sorry 
when our short journey of one and three quarter 
hours came to an end to think that it was our last 
experience of Korean railways. on arrival at 
Chemulpo we passed through a door labelled 
" wicket," which was surely strangely unlike the 


The Face of Korea ch. xiii 

wicket gate with which we are all so familiar by- 
name from the days of our childhood, though we 
certainly felt like pilgrims. 

Chemulpo is a cosmopolitan sort of place and has 
an unenviable reputation, but it has certain charming 
features. The first is that there is always a cool 
breeze ; the second is that it extends up a hill-side, 
and from the British Consulate, perched on the edge 
of the cliff, there is a fine view over the harbour. 
From there a group of thrilled spectators watched 
the dramatic opening of the war between Russia 
and Japan. They saw the two gallant Russian 
warships steam out of the inner bay to meet the 
Japanese fleet and certain destruction. Whatever 
may be thought of the aclion, no one can fail to 
admire the unflinching courage — so characteristic of 
both armies — which dictated it. 

As we climbed up the hill we saw towering above 
us a fine red church belongingto the Roman Catholics, 
and we reached the mission hospital of the Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel. No one who is 
unacquainted with Eastern seaports can understand 
the arduous character of the work carried on by the 
tiny handful of workers stationed at such places ; 
but where could there be a greater need of that 
Christian demonstration which a hospital affords ? 
only once a month an ordained clergyman comes 
down to take the services ; at other times the doclor 
has to conduct them, as well as attend to all the 
medical work. It is difficult for him to get an 


ch. xiii Seoul to Dalny 

occasional holiday of even a couple of days, for at 
the present time the medical work among the 
Koreans has not progressed far in the training of 
assistants. The hospital is small and lacking many 
of the things which our ordinary general practitioners 
would consider essential to a hospital, but the results 
are nevertheless satisfactory. 

As we left the doctor's house we found that a 
boatman had dogged our steps, and been waiting a 
couple of hours to secure possible passengers on the 
way to the S.S. Santo Maru, for he had no doubt seen 
Mr. Chiao taking our luggage from the station to the 
ship. We could not resist such pertinacity, and after 
some half-hour's rowing in his sampan, we reached 
the outer harbour where the Santo Maru lay. 

Next morning at 5 a.m. punctually we started for 
Dalny in heavy rain, which thickened into fog in 
the course of the day. The Nippon Yusen Kaisha 
is at present the best Japanese line of steamers, and 
has ships plying all round the world. The accommo- 
dation was quite comfortable, and the staff, from the 
captain downwards, most kind and polite to the 
passengers. There was an excellent Chinese chef on 
board, and he prepared an elaborate Sunday dinner 
for the thirteen passengers — composed of Americans, 
Spaniards, Australians, and ourselves — such as would 
have been more suitable for Christmas Day ; the 
menu included roast beef, turkey, and plum-pudding. 
Tiny birds kept haunting the ship all day long, so 
tame that they alighted on people's shoulders, and 


The Face of Korea ch. xiii 

sea swallows came darting into the saloon during 

We were grateful for a smooth sea, even though 
the fog delayed our passage somewhat, and we only 
reached Dalny twenty-five hours after leaving Che- 
mulpo. The rain was gone, and was followed by 
" clear shining " as we drew up beside the wharf. The 
agent of the pleasant Yamato hotel took charge of our 
things, and put us into a comfortable little carriage 
with india-rubber tyres in which we drove through 
the town. How delightful it is after roughing it to 
meet once again such simple home comforts (too 
simple even to be noticed at home), and to drive over 
well-made roads ! Dalny, or Dairen as it is called by 
the Japanese, is pre-eminently a new town, full of 
handsome buildings, from the Sailors' Rest to the 
Yokohama Specie Bank, situated in wide, well-made 
roads, and showing plain proof of the nascent pros- 
perity of the place. The shops are not quite up to 
what might be expecled, but that is only a matter of 
time, and well-known firms such as Butterfield and 
Swire, and Samuel Macgregor & Co. are already 
established there. Dalny is an interesting and re- 
markable place. Ten years ago it did not exist, but 
was merely a dream in some Russian brain ; and how 
that brain conceived it, it is hard to imagine. Dalny 
lies at the base of the Liaotong Peninsula, a rocky, 
barren spot without any shelter from the tempests ; 
but having the great advantage over its nearest 
neighbouring seaport, Newchwang, of being open all 


ch. xiii Seoul to Dalny 

the year round, whereas Newchwang is ice-bound 
four months in the winter. This is the reason why 
Russia was willing to pour out money like water to 
convert the wilderness into a great commercial port 
at the southern terminus of the railway line. The 
harbour alone has been an enormous expense, for the 
bank is very shelving, and there are now dry docks, 
moles, breakwaters, and warehouses, with a vast 
amount of space available for the requisites for that 
commerce which Russia expected to obtain. But 
it is not Russia, but Japan, who is now the owner of 
Dalny ; it is Japanese ships that ply between China, 
Korea, and Japan, not to mention the trade with more 
distant countries, which is steadily growing. As it is 
the only port north of Hong Kong where large 
steamers can conveniently discharge their cargoes, it 
ought to have good prospects, and the increasing 
exports from Manchuria are certain to pass through it. 

Not only did Russia expend its money upon making 
Dalny a fine port, but also in making it a fine city 
and pleasant to live in. The residential quarter has 
been hewn out of the hill-side for about a couple of 
miles, and handsomely laid out, while a beautiful shady 
drive of seven or eight miles leads to the seashore 
facing the ocean. 

The town is full of little carriages and rickshas, and 
a network of trams takes the passenger for an hour's 
drive for the lordly sum of twopence, first class, and 
a penny farthing second class. As we drove in a tram 
to Chinatown in order to view the outskirts, we saw 


The Face of Korea ch. xiii 

the beginnings of a park, a golf course, a base-ball 
ground, a chrysanthemum garden, and various other 
things, but more amusing were the little bazaars and 
shops with their English notices — " To sell Flesh," 
" Boots and Shoesmakea," " High Barber," " Royal 
House Hair Cutting," &c. &c. English is the one 
European language which makes its way into every 
corner of the earth, and will with ever-increasing 
rapidity tend to become the universal means of com- 
munication. As an instance of this facl, the Chinese 
Government has just issued an order that henceforth 
English is to be the language in which science shall 
be taught throughout the Chinese Empire. This 
will, I fear, be a severe blow to our German friends, 
who were confidently expecting China to follow the 
example of Japan and take German as the scientific 
medium of instruction. 

We left Dalny by the evening train for Liao Yang, 
en route for Ashiho, which forms the subject of the 
next chapter. 




A S we journeyed northward once more the cold 
/% steadily increased, and a biting wind found 
JL M its way even into the railway carriages. At 
Kharbin a perfect blizzard had been blowing the 
previous day, and as it happened to be the Russian 
Easter, banks were closed and the tickets for the 
Russian State express train were not to be purchased. 
We discovered that the train service was all to be 
changed the next day, May ist, and no time-tables 
were obtainable. The British Consul kindly promised 
to get our tickets on the Monday, and ascertained 
that we could join the express at Ashiho, a few 
stations down the Vladivostock line, where we were 
going to spend the week end. 

We reached Ashiho about 9 o'clock, and set out for 
our destination in a droshky. It was a most perilous 
drive in the dark, for the roads — or what pass muster 
as roads — were in the worst possible condition ; the 
spring thaw had set in, and the surface of the ground 
was a hopeless quagmire destined to last until there 
should be sufficient sunshine to dry it, for the wet 
was unable to penetrate the still frozen earth. Our 


The Face of Korea ch. xiv 

friends at Hulan had set out that morning to meet us 
at Kharbin. After a long weary walk in a snow- 
storm they found the Kharbin steamer on the Sungari 
River crowded with passengers. An hour's wait in a 
piercing wind was followed by the information that 
it was quite uncertain whether the boat would go at 
all that day, so they gave it up in despair and returned 
home. Practically speaking all traffic is stopped on 
the country roads at this time of the year, and those 
who walk must be prepared to wade knee deep in 
black mud to reach their destination. We had no 
catastrophe during our half-hour's drive, but it was 
more by good luck than anything else. 

Ashiho is rather a dull Chinese town with the 
usual Russian settlement round the railway station, 
which is about half a mile outside the gates. The 
Russians have insisted on the town being lighted at 
nights, but there is not more than enough light to 
show the darkness. A red light on the top of a lofty 
pole is the sign of public baths, which seemed to be 
the scene of much activity. The Russian droshky, 
with Chinese drivers, is apparently quite an institution 
there, but one wonders how they can make a living 
in such a locality. The town boasts a sugar factory, 
but owing to a bad beetroot season it was closed. 
A small community of Scotch missionaries is working 
there, and when they have got a new hospital and 
better premises, there is every prospect of greater 
growth in the work. The lady doctor, though only 

recently from home, and still in the first stages of 


ch. xiv As hi ho 

learning the language, had over sixty patients waiting 
to see her, and the people seem more willing here 
than elsewhere to send for her in midwifery cases. 
As she is the only doclor, she has one day a week for 
men patients. The missionary premises are deplor- 
able ; if only some of the home committee could 
have enjoyed our quarters and heard the walls which 
enclose the compound falling down during the night, 
they would see the need for haste in building new 
ones. The girls' school was being carried on under 
difficulties that would daunt any but the most resolute, 
but the workers are Scotch, and have learnt to laugh 
at difficulties. Less than two years ago one of the 
ladies was itinerating in the country, accompanied by 
a Biblewoman, when she was suddenly attacked by 
a party of mounted brigands. They treated her with 
considerable roughness, robbing not only her but also 
the Biblewoman and the carter of all that they con- 
sidered worth stealing — money, watches, clothes, and 
food. Amongst other things they took her eider- 
down — for this took place in the cold weather — but 
the Biblewoman had the happy inspiration to tell 
the robbers that it only contained feathers (which 
they utterly scorned), so they threw it away. They 
only left her one cent in money (evidently they had 
a sense of humour), and decamped somewhat hurriedly 
on seeing a party of horsemen appear in the distance, 
whom they took for soldiers. 

There is plenty of ground belonging to the mission, 
but, as usual, funds for building are not forthcoming. 


The Face of Korea ch. xiv 

It seems a pity that the home churches should keep 
on sending out workers without the requisite equip- 
ment to carry on their work. At home one frequently 
hears of the luxury in which missionaries live, but in 
my fairly considerable experience of mission houses, 
I have never met a single one where this is the case, 
and rarely (except in the case of American missions) 
have I been where the work has not been seriously 
hindered for the lack of funds. Most missionaries 
are driven by the necessities of their work to eke out 
by contributions from their own meagre salaries the 
insufficient funds provided from home. Many are 
consequently unable to afford to have newspapers and 
other literature sent out regularly, and the thoughtless 
kindness of their supporters does not supply them 
with anything beyond religious periodicals and books. 
The postage of papers and books is only the same as 
at home, and parcels weighing not more than 1 1 lb. 
can now be sent to China by post for the small sum 
of 2s. i id., so there is no reason why the missionary's 
life should not be occasionally brightened by a judi- 
cious present from the home country. 

The one drawback to the position of the mission 
premises at Ashiho is that they are so near the wall 
beside the East gate, outside which is the public 
execution ground, and the gruesome procession to it 
passes alongside the mission houses. Shortly before 
our visit there had been executions twice in one 
week — the first time two men, and the second time 

four men were killed by strangulation. 



ch. xiv Ashiho 

Near the mission also there is a pretty Moham- 
medan mosque, built exactly like a Buddhist orTaoist 
temple, which provides schools for boys and girls. 
The girls' school is a recent institution, probably in 
imitation of the mission one, and is evidently at all 
events a numerical success, for a good number of girls 
filed out on Sunday afternoon as we happened to be 
passing. The type of face of many of the boys struck 
us as particularly Semitic, and the Chinese here habitu- 
ally call them Jews. There is a large proportion of 
butchers among the Mohammedans, as is usually the 
case in China, and this is a boon to Europeans, for it 
is only the Mohammedans who kill beef, and they are 
particular about the healthiness of the beasts. The 
Moslems in China do not attempt to proselytise 
openly, and they adhere less rigidly than elsewhere to 
their religious observances. They conform outwardly 
as much as possible to Chinese customs in order to 
escape notice, but they are no negligible quantity 
amongthe myriads of that land, for they number atleast 
twenty millions. The Mohammedans entered China 
in a.d. 755 by the regular trade route through Central 
Asia, and even earlier (in 628) according to Chinese 
Mohammedan tradition they are said to have sent the 
prophet's uncle as envoy to the Chinese court. The 
proselytising of the Chinese was as peaceful as that 
of the Indians was the reverse. It was mainly 
achieved by Moslem traders and artisans, following in 
the wake of Genghiz Khan and Kubla Khan's con- 
quests. They married Chinese women, and their 

145 k 

The Face of Korea ch. xiv 

children all became Moslems ; they adopted large 
numbers of other children in famine times in order to 
bring them up in the Faith, and thus they have 
steadily but unobtrusively grown in numbers. 

In past times there have been terrible massacres of 
the Mohammedans by the Chinese whenever they 
have made any attempt to withstand Chinese customs, 
which is probably the reason one hears so little of 
them nowadays, but they show a quiet tenacity in 
sticking to their religion, which is characteristic of 
Mohammedanism in every land. It was in a vain 
endeavour to reach them that the great Jesuit 
missionary, Francis Xavier, died off the coast of 
China. Up to the present time there has been no 
special mission work amongst the Mohammedans in 

My sketch of the Mohammedan mosque at 
Ashiho was done under considerable difficulties, for 
the boys had just come out of school, and would jostle 
up and down, and round about me on the mound of 
earth where I was sitting, raising such a dust that 
at last I was driven defeated from the field. Though 
it was the first of May the scene was a winter one, 
and we longed and longed for spring to arrive. 

on sending to the station to inquire what time 
our train left in the evening, they declared there was 
no train at all, and that the date of the weekly 
express from Vladivostock had been changed from 
Monday to Sunday. We felt so convinced that this 
was a mistake, having inquired about it at Kharbin 


ch. xiv Ashiho 

only two days previously, that we went down to the 
station in good time for the usual 9 o'clock train, and 
were rewarded by learning that the hour and not the 
date of the train had been altered, and that it would 
pass through Ashiho at 10 o'clock. After waiting 
for an hour in the restaurant, where a party of the 
attendants were playing cards, the ticket office was 
opened, but they absolutely refused to sell tickets to 
us, saying that the express only stopped for half a 
minute, and that we could not get into it. We vainly 
protested that having no registered luggage we would 
take our chance of getting into the train, and that 
we must go by it, as we had the long journey to 
Irkutsk before us. The reiteration of this fact for 
about five minutes without stopping at last began to 
tell, and the official said he must see what small 
luggage we had. After due inspection he agreed to 
let us have tickets, but we had to pay for them 
from a point about fifty miles up the line, which 
meant twenty-one roubles instead of the four and a 
half we had paid on coming. The next difficulty 
was that the ticket office contained no change and 
seemed unable to get any, so we had to borrow the 
requisite amount from our friends. When the train 
did arrive each of our friends stood ready holding an 
article of luggage ready to hurl it into the corridor, 
and of course there was no difficulty in getting both 
our belongings and ourselves into it. We were soon 
comfortably established in the coupe which we were 
to occupy for the next two days, that is, until we 


The Face of Korea ch. xiv 

should reach Irkutsk, where all passengers have to 

At Kharbin there was a hopeless scrimmage for 
places, as those booked in advance for passengers 
from the south had all been appropriated by a large 
party of Americans at Vladivostock, and the ladies 
had discreetly retired to bed. It is always asserted 
that there is plenty of room on the Russian State 
Express in contradistinction to the International 
Sleeping Car, and that it is unnecessary to book places 
in advance. Evidently this was a fallacy, for every 
berth was full, and it was only after long and acri- 
monious arguing that the officials agreed to put on 
an extra carriage, and a very dirty one it proved to be. 
Great dissatisfaction was caused by this arrangement, 
and we were over an hour late in starting. We had 
been frequently assured that we should find the State 
Express more comfortable than the International, but 
such is by no means the case. The only point in which 
it excels is in the smoothness of running, in every 
other respe<5t it is inferior. The carriages are smaller, 
there is no dressing-room in the first-class coupes, 
there are no second-class coupes (only carriages for 
four people), the washing basins would not hold 
water, there was no soap or towel, the restaurant car 
was far too small, and the meals were not to the taste 
of any of the passengers. A piano in the restaurant 
does not compensate for such deficiencies. 

The Face of Russian Turkestan 



Through Siberia 

THE railway from Kharbin passes through 
Manchuria in a north-westerly direction 
till it comes to the town of that name, 
where the customs examination takes place before 
entering Russian territory. In a magazine article 
recently written by a French lady, she complains of 
having been examined at four different places on the 
line, and in a very thorough manner, the sleeves of 
coats being ripped open, and thebeddingof the sleeping 
car being pulled to pieces, but we saw nothing of this 
sort, and I think there must have been some suspicion 
on the part of the police. Registered luggage is a 
much more serious affair, and endless were the stories 
we heard from fellow-passengers of the losses they had 
sustained — one passenger had waited a whole week for 
his at Moscow. For those who like ourselves take 
all their luggage in the railway carriage, the examina- 
tion was a mere farce, consisting of the verbal inquiry, 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xv 

" Have you any spirits, tobacco, or playing cards ?" to 
which is sometimes added a cursory examination of 
the bedding to see if any dutiable article has been 
concealed there. 

It is a great convenience that passengers can take so 
much luggage in the carriage without inconvenience. 
In the Russian State Express there is not nearly so 
much accommodation as in the International Sleeping 
Cars, where there is a large recess over the door, ex- 
tending above the corridor, in which there was ample 
room for two suit cases and two bags of bedding. 
Besides this there were racks for smaller objects in the 
other part of the carriage. The space is so consider- 
able in the first-class carriages that the upper berth is 
at right angles to the lower, which is consequently 
very much pleasanter than when it is immediately 
below the other berth, leaving no space to sit upright. 
There is a nice dressing-room between every two 
coupes, where hot and cold water is laid on, and this 
is really an inestimable boon on a long journey. The 
hot water supply is somewhat variable, so we generally 
supplemented it by buying extra. In some of the 
trains no charge is made for it ; in others it costs 2^d. 
If for no other reason than the dressing-room, I should 
advise all first-class passengers to go by the Inter- 
national rather than by the Russian State Express. 
one is also less worried by the official trio coming to 
inspedt tickets. It seems odd that on all Russian trains 
it requires three men to fulfil so simple a duty, but no 
doubt it is an example of the suspiciousness which 

i5 2 

ch. xv Through Sibe?~ia 

seems to permeate all officialdom in this country. 
There is a comfortable chair and table, so that pas- 
sengers can sit facing one another. This is no small 
convenience on so long a journey, especially when you 
prefer having some meals in your own carriage. 

It is not only pleasanter but wiser not to have more 
than one solid meal a day on the journey, and we could 
not help being amused at the general collapse of a large 
number of passengers on the third day, evidently the 
result of imprudence in this matter. In the restaurant 
book of food (I can call it by no other name) there was 
a page of "fasting dishes" which was, I fear, neglected. 
We found that a judiciously stocked luncheon basket, 
added to the facilities for securing scalded milk, bread, 
excellent butter, and eggs, made it unnecessary to spend 
much time in the restaurant car. This was not so 
important in the International Sleeping Car as in the 
Russian State Express, for although the dining-car 
was atrociously hot and crowded, the meals were 
served promptly, but in the latter we were an hour and 
a half having a lunch of five courses, so we determined 
after that experience to order our meal in advance and 
a la carte. By so doing we saved a great deal of time, 
but we were obliged to have it at an unseasonable hour. 
That did not matter much, as we altered our hours in 
accordance with the " Daylight Saving Bill," and so 
profited in various ways. In order to have comfort- 
able time for washing, without having other people 
hammering on the door, it was most convenient to 
rise at 5 o'clock, and it was equally convenient to go 

J 53 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xv 

to bed as soon as it was dark, because all Russian trains 
economise in light. Even a first-class carriage has 
only a single candle for all illumination, and that is 
placed in a lantern above the door, so that it only- 
serves to reveal the darkness. 

Leaving Manchuria we passed into the Trans- 
Baikal province, at the western side of which lies 
Lake Baikal, and to our no small surprise and dis- 
appointment, winter still reigned supreme. Beautiful 
forests of birch and pine trees broke the monotony 
of the plains, and drifts of snow still lingered in the 
hollows, where sun or wind had failed to chase it. 
It was, of course, very different from when we crossed 
it in February, with the thermometer at thirty degrees 
below zero, but we still found winter clothing neces- 
sary, and were bitterly disappointed to see none of the 
lovely flowers which transform the dreary plains into 
flower gardens. We had been told that the del- 
phiniums were a dream of beauty, but we saw none, 
and I imagine the end of May or beginning of June 
would be a much better time to travel across Siberia, 
in spite of the facl: that the trains are then crowded, 
and it is necessary to secure seats months beforehand, 
or trust to getting one that accidentally falls vacant 
nearer the time. 

Lake Baikal was still completely frost-bound, and 
looked beautiful glittering in the morning sunlight, 
withsnow-capped mountains enclosing it on every side. 
The only disappointment about Lake Baikal is that 
the mountains are too distant to look really grand and 


ch. xv Through Siberia 

awe-inspiring. The steamer which plies on the lake 
during the summer from Baikal station was still lying 
close alongside it. Turning westward almost imme- 
diately after leaving it, the railway line follows the 
course of the river Angara for about one and a half 
hours, till it reaches Irkutsk, the present seat of 

Irkutsk was a trading town founded in 1652, but 
was almost completely destroyed by fire in 1879. It 
is striking in appearance as one approaches it by the 
long railway bridge across the river, and is finely 
situated, with an imposing railway station. As we 
crossed the bridge we saw the fine bridge of boats 
used in summer still lying alongside the bank in its 
winter quarters, for large masses of loose ice floated 
past, blocking the river. But although Irkutsk has 
a certain comeliness of appearance, and is the centre 
of intellectual activity in Siberia, it is not altogether 
a desirable place to live in, for not only is the climate 
trying, but report says that it is imprudent for any 
one to go about unarmed. The great prisons in the 
neighbourhood of Irkutsk have for generations been 
the place where the worst criminals of the Empire, 
as well as political exiles have been sent, and when 
their term of service has expired they are let loose 
on the community, the only regulation being that 
they shall remain there. The result is that the present 
population contains not only the present released 
convicls, but also a considerable number of the de- 
scendents of former convi6ts of the worst type. 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xv 

Irkutsk, is in the centre of the gold district, which 
attracts also a somewhat undesirable class of people. 
It is not, I think, generally known what a large 
quantity of gold is found in Siberia, but about five 
millions worth is annually sent into Russia. This by 
no means represents all that is found, although the 
Government requires that it should all pass through 
Irkutsk, and thence be forwarded to Russia. 
Smuggling is reported to be extensively carried on, 
and a considerable Chinese population are credited 
with the bulk of it. The working of the gold 
diggings is said by experts to be amazingly primitive. 
Large fortunes are both made and squandered in 
Irkutsk. Not only gold but tea is a great source 
of wealth, although the trade in the latter is by no 
means so great as it used to be in the old caravan 
days. At the present time by far the largest quantity 
of it is sent round by sea ; but there are still many 
Russians who believe that the flavour of the tea is 
spoilt by sea air, so that the demand for caravan tea 
continues. It is said that wealth in Irkutsk is esti- 
mated by a man's furs and by a woman's furs and 
jewels. Curiously enough Sunday labour is entirely 
prohibited in this town, and fine and imprisonment 
may follow the breaking of the law with regard to 
buying and selling. Trade is greatly hampered 
throughout the Russian Empire by the corruption of 
officials, of whom there are an incalculable number ; 
and it is the Jews who form the most successful part 
of the trading community. There is always a long 


ch. xv Through Siberia 

halt at Irkutsk station, varying from one and a half 
to two and a half hours, for passengers have to change 
trains on account of the difference of the line in 
gauge, and when travelling by the Russian State 
Express it is necessary to have tickets vise-ed and 
fresh places allotted. on the International you are 
saved this because the places are numbered and 
passengers are required to keep the same number in 
both trains, so there is no confusion in having the 
luggage transferred from one to the other. Having 
to get fresh ones was decidedly tiresome, as there 
seemed to be no method in the madness of the officials, 
their knowledge of other languages than their own 
was almost nil, and their slowness phenomenal. one 
of our English fellow-passengers seemed to have a 
great deal to say, and knew no Russian, so he had 
secured the services of a Chinese waiter from the 
restaurant car who acled as interpreter with complete 
success. I do not think I am wrong in saying that 
the issuing of fresh tickets took more than three- 
quarters of an hour, and confusion reigned in the 
train for more than double the time. 

During the first two days of our return journey 
we had suffered from continual snow-storms and a 
leaden sky, but after leaving Irkutsk the weather 
improved, and the sun shone most of the time. The 
land is sparsely inhabited ; at the close of the last 
century the density of population was given in the 
official census as two to the square mile in the 
province of Irkutsk. If Siberia be taken as an 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xv 

example of the effects of land nationalisation, few 
people, I think, will be attracted by it ; out of an 
area of 3,240,000,000 square miles no less than 
3,104,000,000 belong to the State. There is only 
one province, the Amur region, in which land can 
be purchased. It is the Russian village communities 
who hold the land when it has been allotted for 
industrial enterprises. All along the line we were 
interested in seeing the colonists travelling to their 
various destinations ; they were taken in slow trains 
densely packed, and when they came to the stations 
where they had to change they and their belongings 
were dumped down for an apparently indefinite 
number of hours on the station, and there they 
remained, eating and sleeping in the midst of their 
baggage till it was time to start afresh. There 
are sheds for them to be housed in when the weather 
prevents their being out of doors. They seemed to 
have practically no furniture with them, and some of 
them were remarkably well dressed in comparison 
with what one would have expected. They are all 
obliged to have passports just like foreigners. 

Up to the year 1901 there was an average of 
nearly 20,000 exiles sent yearly to Siberia ; many of 
these exiles settled down and helped to civilise the 
land. They founded twelve Natural History and 
Ethnological Museums, besides starting scientific 
societies. Now the Government has altered the 
system, and great efforts are being made to send 
another class of colonists, the political exiles being 


ch. xv Through Siberia 

driven to more uninhabitable regions. It seems a 
pity that the Russian Empire, which extends over 
an area of no less than one-sixth of the territorial 
globe, should leave this fertile land of Siberia, much 
of it the finest grazing ground in the world, and 
other parts excellent wheat-growing land, so sparsely 
inhabited, while it stretches envious hands into 
Manchuria, the land which China imperatively 
requires as the natural outlet for her surplus popula- 

At the railway stations all sorts of queer people are 
to be seen, the men mostly wearing bright-coloured 
shirts, and tall red leather, or felt boots ; but the 
nomadic tribes of Buriats, who cultivate parts of the 
country with great industry and success, are not often 
to be seen near the railway. The Buriats on the 
eastern side of Lake Baikal are Buddhists, but those on 
the west still cling to their original religion — Shaman- 
ism. This mainly consists in the worship of gods, 
called " ongons," supposed to protect both house 
and property. The former are hung up in a box 
inside the house ; the latter, along with the skins of 
squirrels and other small animals are in a box 
fastened to the top of a pole, with a little roof over 
it in the fields. Every man has his own ongon as 
soon as he marries, and when he dies it is taken down 
from the pole and hung up in the woods, where it 
eventually rots to pieces. 

In a most interesting volume the American linguist 
and ethnologist, Jeremiah Curtin, describes these 


The Face of Russia?! Turkestan ch. xv 

strange tribes. He tells how he witnessed the Horse 
Sacrifice, one of the most ancient of Mongol cere- 
monials, and which is still perpetuated among Buriat 
clans. He saw it performed in 1900 on a hill called 
Uher, about seven miles from Usturdi, which is some 
forty miles from Irkutsk. There are fifteen large 
altars on the hill, on which the sacrifices are offered to 
the Burkans (namely the gods) of the hill. These gods 
include " The Lofty Clear Heaven," " The Revered 
Pure Earth," " Bull Prince Father," " Blessed Mother 
Mist," "The Creating Great one" (the hedgehog, 
who is considered by the Buriats to be the wisest 
of all deities), " Grandfather Bald Head," " Creator 
of Cattle," "Crooked Back," &c. The different 
families of the first and second divisions of the clan 
Ashekhabat have each their own place near one 
or other of the altars. The leaders of the ceremony 
invoke all the different deities by name and in turn, 
while the people pray either aloud or in silence for 
what they want. Then the horses are killed, and 
after that they are rapidly skinned and dismembered, 
the bones being burnt in roaring fires on the fifteen 
altars. The flesh is boiled in iron kettles, and when 
it is cooked all the people stand in groups by the 
altars, receding and advancing towards them at 
intervals, and reciting the following invocation to the 
deities, together with any special petitions of their 

" We pray that we may receive from you a blessing. 
From among fat cattle we have chosen out meat for 


ch. xv Through Siberia 

you. We have made strong tarasun (a liquor dis- 
tilled from milk) for you. Let our ulus (villages) be 
one verst longer. Create cattle in our enclosures ; 
under our blankets create a son ; send down rain 
from high heaven to us ; cause much grass to grow ; 
create so much grain that sickle cannot rase it, and 
so much grass that scythe cannot cut it. Let no 
wolves out unless wolves that are toothless ; and no 
stones unless stones without sharp corners or edges. 
Hover above our foreheads. Hover behind our 
heads. Look on us without anger. Help those of 
us who forget what we know. Rouse those of us 
who are sleeping (in spirit). In a harsh year (a year 
of trouble) be compassion. In a difficult year (a year 
of want) be kindness (in sense of help). Black spirits 
lead farther away from us ; bright spirits lead hither, 
nearer ; grey spirits lead farther away from us. 
Burkans lead hither to us. Green grass give in the 
mouths (of cattle). Let me walk over the first snow. 
If I am timid be my courage. If I am ashamed, be 
a proper face to me. Above be as a coverlid, below 
be as a felt bed to me." — (" A Journey in Southern 
Siberia," page 47.) After this prayer the worshippers 
all sat down in groups to eat the horse-flesh and 
drink tarasun, while many vultures hovered round to 
share the flesh. After this strange sacrifice is ended 
the Buriats indulge in wrestling. 

At Usturdi there is a Russian Orthodox Mission 
Church, and the Bible Society has undertaken to 
publish the Gospel of St. Matthew in the Buriat 

161 L 

The Face of Russian Turkesta?i ch. xv 

language. It seems strange that such uncivilised 
beings as those who would take part in the ceremonial 
described above, should be sufficiently literate to have 
a use for the Gospel ; but it is estimated that all the 
Buriats in the north, and nearly all those in the south, 
will be able to read it. The population is about 
290,000. The translation has been made by the 
Irkutsk Translation Committee, and is to be printed in 
Russ characters, as most of the Buriats are able to 
understand them. Mr. Curtin mentions a young 
Buriat whom he met as having studied six years at 
the Irkutsk gymnasium, and possessing a knowledge 
of history and science, besides being a considerable 
reader, so that evidently they are not uninfluenced 
by education. 

The next province through which the railway 
passes is the Yenisei, which stretches right away up 
to the Arctic Ocean, and which at once conjures up 
in one's mind visions of Merriman's novels : it is one 
of the largest provinces in the empire, consisting of 
987,186 square miles, but has only an average of one 
person to the square mile. The city of Krasnojarsk is 
the largest and most interesting on the railway ; there 
are about 30,000 foreigners living in this district, 
most of them Tartars ; it is the principal seat of 
Government, and lies just half-way between Moscow 
and Vladivostock on this wonderful railway. The 
whole length of the railway is 5449 miles, and with 
the exception of the 193 miles round Lake Baikal, 
it was completed in an extraordinarily short space 


ch. xv Through Siberia 

of time, between eight and nine years, at a cost of, 
roughly speaking, £85,000,000. It is fairly correct 
to say that it was built at the rate of about a mile 
a day. At the distance of one verst (namely, two- 
thirds of a mile) apart, there are guard houses all along 
the line, each under the care of an ex-convict, who 
comes out of his house to wave a green flag when the 
train passes, or more frequently it is a barefooted wife 
or daughter who does it for him. There is a fine 
view of Krasnoyarsk from the train as you approach it, 
for the line makes a wide circular sweep before cross- 
ing the River Yenisei, on which it is situated. Of all 
the noble rivers which flow through Siberia, the 
Yenisei is the greatest ; it rises in the mountains of 
the distant Chinese province of Kobdo in Mongolia, 
over 3000 miles from the Arctic Sea, and makes its 
impetuous way through the mountains of Sagansk, 
then through the strange, tundra region, with its 
countless islands and trackless wastes — the great nesting 
place of myriads of migratory birds, who come there 
led by some marvellous instinct at the exact time of 
year when the snow melts, uncovering the berries 
which form the requisite food for the nestlings. The 
Yenisei is only navigable for a little over six months 
of the year, and the ceremony of cutting the ice, 
which closes its mouth on the Arctic Sea, takes place 
always on June 10th. 

The next province on the route is that of Tomsk, 
but the principal town, which has the same name, 

lies to the north of the Trans-Siberian Railway, and is 


The Face of Russian Turkesta7i ch. xv 

only connected with it by a branch line from Taiga, 
thenearest point to it on the main line, which is eighty- 
two versts or, roughly speaking, 54 miles distant. The 
reason why Tomsk is not on the main line is that the 
city refused to bribe the surveyors and engineers who 
planned the route. This accounts for the fact that 
so many places, which might quite easily have been 
on the line, are more or less distant from the railway, 
according to their willingness to pay. It takes four 
hours by rail from Taiga to Tomsk. It must be most 
injurious to trade to have such difficulties as these, 
and such unnecessary ones. Tomsk boasts the only 
university in Siberia, but this is still incomplete, 
and has only about 500 students. Education has 
been discouraged in this as in every part of the 
Russian Empire, and although the money required 
for a university at Irkutsk was offered, the Government 
refused to grant permission for it to be established. 
The number of schools in 1901 was only 3909 for 
the whole of Siberia, and the scholars attending them 
115,407, while the population was estimated at 
5,727,090 ; these figures need no comment, and my 
authority for them is Prince Krapotkin. 

The only important town in the province on the 
railway line is Omsk, where we learnt (by telegram) 
the death of the King. The news came like a thunder- 
clap, and cast a gloom over every English person on 
the train. What made it doubly trying was the 
impossibility for weeks to come of getting any further 
news. The town of Omsk is on the River Irtish. 


ch. xv Through Siberia 

The number of rivers in the country adds greatly to 
the charm of the journey, and they have been the 
chief highways of the empire in the past ; the bridges 
over them are remarkably fine. We began to re- 
joice in the sight of wild flowers once more, and 
children brought bunches of marigolds and anemones 
to the stations for sale, but generally they were tied 
up into tight little bunches without any leaves, and 
were quite wilted. The main occupation of some of 
the passengers seemed to be that of putting on fresh 
clothes, and showing them off at the stations where 
we had an opportunity at least half-a-dozen times 
every day of getting a brief constitutional. We learnt 
that passengers were allowed to visit the luggage 
van, as on board ship, and get out fresh supplies of 
dresses, but it did seem rather unnecessary, consider- 
ing the amount of luggage taken in the carriages. 

The next province through which the railway 
passes is that of Tobolsk, but it only skirts its southern 
border, which adjoins the steppes inhabited by Cossacks 
and nomadic tribes, whose caravans may be seen in 
the busy markets of Petropavlosk, which was founded 
in 1752 as a protection against the Kirghiz Cossacks. 
About one-third of its population is Mohammedan, 
and the Greek Orthodox Church has a mission in the 
province for them : the present staff of the mission 
consists of thirteen priests, twelve assistants, two 
deacons, and one Psalm reader. Last year they 
baptized eight Mohammedans. They have a very 

small educational work. The Greek Orthodox Church 


The Face of Russian Tu?~kestan ch. xv 

has various missions scattered through Siberia, and the 
Russian Government does not allow any foreign ones, 
which seems the greater pity when it is considered 
how inadequate in every respect are those of the Greek 
Church — they only number nine. Everywhere 
in the cities we saw the beautiful green domes and 
spires of the churches, but very little is done for the 
religious welfare of the people in the country districts, 
and for the most part they are in a state of profound 
ignorance ; religion is summed up in (a) the worship 
paid to the ikon, (a little coloured print of our Lord, 
or of the Virgin, or of a saint), which is to be found, 
not only in all private houses, but in every waiting- 
room or restaurant on the railway, and in (/3) certain 
religious ceremonies at special times of the year, and 
on special occasions. 

After leaving Tobolsk, the next important station 
passed on the line is Cheliabinsk, in the province of 
Orenbourg, the first town over the border into Europe. 
The frontier between Asiatic and European Russia is 
crossed about 104 miles to the east of it, and is 
marked by an obelisk on the left hand side of the 
line at its highest point, which may be seen soon 
after leaving Kurgan. Cheliabinsk is a cosmopolitan 
centre ; it is the real starting-point of the Trans- 
Siberian line, and is the jun6tion where the line 
divides, the one going north to St. Petersburg, and 
the other west to Moscow. The Russian State 
Express runs once a week from each of these cities to 
Vladivostock, and also in the opposite direction. 


ch. xv Through Siberia 

We were much pleased with the way our carriages 
and corridors were cleaned out daily while we were 
stopping at stations. A little army of women 
swarmed into the train directly it stopped, provided 
with buckets of hot water, and they washed out the 
whole place quite efficaciously and with great rapidity. 
It is really much better to have oilcloth on the floors 
rather than carpet, for the sake of cleanliness. The 
dusting of the carriages was done every morning by 
the attendant after he had made the beds, and he 
kept them quite nice and tidy. The one thing that 
provoked me through all our travelling in Russia, 
however, was the fact that the attendants had keys 
which opened all the bolts, so that they could come 
in whenever they choose, and the art of knocking 
before entering was unknown to most of them. They 
generally seemed to select the most inappropriate 
moment for coming in, when one was either dressing 
or undressing ; but fortunately all travelling tends to 
blunt one's susceptibilities on such points. 

The ninth day after leaving Kharbin we reached 
Kinel, the next station before reaching Samara, the 
real junction for the Turkestan line. There was only 
a small margin of time allowed for changing train 
there, so we decided it was better to have to wait 
unduly long at Kinel, rather than run the risk of 
missing our train and waiting twenty-four hours for 
the next one. We got out at a most dreary hour, 
which seems to be rather frequently the case on 
Russian railways, considering how few are the trains ; 


The Face of Russian Turkesta?i ch. xv 

it was between one and two o'clock in the morning, 
and our baggage was deposited in the ladies' waiting- 
room, where we found the only sofa filled with babies. 
A considerable number of passengers had their lug- 
gage in the adjoining restaurant, where they slept or 
smoked. The atmosphere was decidedly trying, so I 
spent most of the time pacing up and down the plat- 
form, watching the dawn grow, for even at that 
early hour there was a broad belt of orange light lying 
along the horizon. At fitful intervals one and another 
of the passengers would come out for a breath of fresh 
air, or order drinks from the somnolent attendants. 
It appeared to be the natural thing for people to be 
spending the night at the station, though no train 
disturbed the peace of the place for several hours. 
Not one of the officials seemed able to speak or under- 
stand any language but Russian, so I addressed a 
young German tourist to ask for information. He 
told me that there were no sleeping berths on the 
summer trains for Tashkent, the " wagon lits " service 
being suspended on the first of May, but that we 
should find the ordinary carriages thoroughly comfort- 
able, the second class quite as good as the first (in 
which we proved him to be correct), for all the trains 
are arranged with a view to night travelling. He 
also told us that instead of the journey taking five 
days (as we had been informed when we made inquiries 
at Peking), it would only take three. Later on we 
discovered there was a wagon lits carriage at the 
rear of the train (without a single passenger in it), 

1 68 

ch. xv Through Siberia 

but no restaurant car. Encouraged, I suppose, by 
the pleasure which he saw depicled on my face at 
such pleasant news, he went on to give us particulars 
of our route, by which he said he had just come from 
Turkestan. He advised us to go by the Black Sea 
instead of through the Caucasus, saying that the 
journey from Tashkent to Vienna by that route took 
not more than yfw days ; the minimum time in reality 
is seven. He had a Russian time-table, quite a thick 
volume, which he advised us to purchase ; we suc- 
ceeded in buying one later in the day when the book- 
stall opened, and although the names were quite a 
puzzle in Russian characters, it provided us with 
constant occupation, both in deciphering them, and 
in fitting together the bits of the route, scattered on 
at least a dozen different pages. In the station at 
Kinel they had rather a good sort of map in a large 
frame on the wall opposite the ticket-office, arranged 
as under. As there are so few trains it is easier than 


I ' f 50(1. 

2 J 

— ( KAZAN \- 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xv 

it would be on our lines, but such a map would be 
much more intelligible for cheap-trippers than our 
time-tables. These maps we saw in various places 
later on. 

Four hours wore slowly away, and at last the ticket- 
office opened, and I presented a paper with " Tash- 
kent — 2 klacce," and held up two fingers. Travel- 
ing is very cheap here ; from Tashkent to Kinel, a 
distance of 13 14 miles, the tickets are approximately 
first class, £4, 5s. od., second class, £2, 10s. 3d., third 
class, jTi 9 9s. od., fourth class, 14s., but then the train 
goes like a snail, and stops perpetually. The third and 
fourth class carriages always seemed to be packed with 
humanity, and the passengers lie all day, as well as all 
night long, on shelves one above the other. The fuel 
used both on this line and on the Trans-Siberian is 
entirely wood, so they have to be continually taking 
in a fresh stock, and each carriage has a little room 
for its own special heating apparatus. The funnels 
of the engines have large bulbs at the top to prevent 
the escape of sparks. 



Into Turkestan 

THE first day we travelled through a vast culti- 
vated plain, and the landscape was dotted 
over with a sprinkling of houses and many 
trees. The children brought forget-me-nots and ane- 
mones to sell at the wayside stations ; but on this 
line the towns and hamlets are fewer than on the one 
we had just left. Though the land seemed so 
uninhabited the train always seemed full, and the 
passengers made themselves thoroughly at home. 
The second-class travellers, who were going any dis- 
tance, put on fresh clothes, the ladies dressed in 
neglige costumes like tea-gowns. one amazingly 
stout lady put on a muslin gown over a pink slip, and 
looked just like an animated pin-cushion. These 
people seem to wear all their jewels too, when travel- 
ling, Often it was difficult to imagine where the few 
peoplevisible at the stations had sprung from, especially 
to the south of Orenburg. This is one of the only 
two important places between Kinel and Tashkent, 
and is the principal town of the province of the same 
name. There are four mission stations in the Oren- 
burg diocese, and twenty-seven Mohammedans were 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xvi 

baptized last year. To the south of Orenburg the 
land becomes more and more desolate-looking, and 
the vegetation is so sparse that one can hardly believe 
it is possible for anything to subsist upon it. Perhaps 
that is the reason why the Kirghiz nomadic tribes, 
who inhabit this territory, known as the Kirghiz 
Steppes, cultivate a peculiar kind of sheep called 
" steatopyge " by the French traveller Capus. This 
sheep has a singularly fat tail, sometimes so long and 
heavy that it has to go on a little wheeled cart, and 
it is this tail which suffices to nourish the sheep in 
time of scarcity of herbage, in the same way that the 
camel is said to live on his hump ; at the end of the 
winter the tail has dwindled to quite ordinary propor- 
tions. Unfortunately we did not see any of these 
interesting animals (though I once met one at Dehli), 
but during the following days we saw hardly any 
living things but camels, much used also by the 
Kirghiz. The earth seemed utterly barren, and exuded 
nothing but salt ; hour by hour elapsed, only varied 
by the interest of stopping at some wayside station, 
standing alone in the desert, where samovars full of 
boiling water were eagerly sought by the passengers 
with their various pots and kettles ; the ordinary 
charge for a potful is three farthings, and one wonders 
how the poor creatures who supply it are able to 
make any living out of so poor a harvest. Their 
only other wares are eggs (generally hard boiled), 
bottles of milk, and baskets of oranges and lemons. 
The latter are always in request for Russian tea, and 


ch. xvi Into Turkestan 

fetch a better price than most things. The peasants 
look most amiable, good-natured creatures, and are 
eminently picturesque in their embroidered blouses 
of blue, green, scarlet, or white, fastened in at the 
waist with a leathern belt. For the last half century 
the Russians have been gradually colonising the 
steppes. Some people labour under the impression 
that the agricultural classes are not only happier 
but also more successful when they are ignorant, but 
this has certainly not proved the case in the Russian 
Empire. The colonists have considerable advantages 
offered to them by the Government in the way of 
cheap grain and agricultural implements, but their 
ignorance of the rotation of crops and the necessity 
of feeding the land cause them to exhaust it in a few 
years' time. The contrast between the Russian 
peasant and his German neighbour when you cross 
the frontier is extraordinary, and it is deplorable to 
consider the latent wealth of Siberia in conjunction 
with the present condition of its peasant popula- 

Both on the Turkestan and on the Trans-Siberian 
Railway we met agents of the British and Foreign 
Bible Society selling Gospels, Bibles, and Testaments 
in various languages, of which they had a good assort- 
ment in attractive bindings and extremely cheap. 
These agents are allowed free passes on all the lines in 
Russia. Ten of these passes are granted annually, and 
the colporteurs are able to carry on what may well 
be called a mission work among the immigrants and 


The Face of Russian Turkesta?i ch. xvi 

others. The number of immigrants into Siberia in 
1908 reached the astonishing figure of 760,000 
persons. A Russian red cross nurse told me that she 
had travelled in charge of a train full of such immi- 
grants, and the description of the horrors of the journey 
are only to be equalled by Zola's tale of the pilgrims 
to Lourdes. To these immigrants many free copies 
of the Gospels are given, and the value of such a gift 
in that land must be very great. Books must be 
scarce in the greater part of the country, though, 
thanks to the generosity of a Russian there is a village 
libraries' organisation in the province of Tomsk, by 
means of which fifty villages have been supplied 
with libraries. The generosity of the state railways 
department is not confined to the gifts of free passes 
for the colporteurs, but also the free carriage of all their 
books from the moment they enter Russian territory, 
and the remitting of all duty upon them. All the 
employes, too, of the Bible Society are exempt from 
the Trade and Industrial Tax. 

The excellent example of the railway companies 
has been followed by many of the shipping companies 
on the Black Sea, the White Sea, and the Dnieper, 
Don, and Volga rivers. The companies, where there 
is a foreign element present, are much less willing to 
grant these facilities. Even the tramway companies 
in many towns give free tickets to colporteurs. 

The second day we reached the little town of 
Aral at the head of the Aral Sea, after passing 
through the most desolate country : it could not have 


ch. xvi Into Turkestci7i 

been more accurately described than in the words of 
Browning : 

" I think I never saw 
Such starved ignoble nature ; nothing throve : 
For flowers — as well expe<ft a cedar grove ! 
But cockle, spurge, according to their law 
Might propagate their kind, with none to awe, 
You'd think : a burr had been a treasure-trove. 
No ! penury, inertness, and grimace, 
In some strange sort, were the land's portion. ' See 
Or shut your eyes ' — said Nature peevishly — 
' It nothing skills : I cannot help my case : 
The Judgment's fire alone can cure this place, 
Calcine its clods and set my prisoners free.' " 

Lake Aral, like the Caspian Sea, is salt : at present it 
covers more than 26,000 square miles, but it is always 
shrinking. There is a considerable fishing industry 
on it, and freshwater fish are found, but its shores 
are so barren that they are practically uninhabited. 
The Steppes which bound it on the north are inhabited 
by a nomad population of Kirghiz and Uzbegs living 
in felt tents (called kibitkas), whose main occupation 
is breeding cattle, horses, camels, and sheep. In the 
winter time they go to the more sheltered regions of 
Syr Daria, the province through which the line next 

We crossed the Syr Daria River, better known as 
the classic Jaxartes, and the only town of any size 
that lay on the route was Turkestan or Hazret. It 
still possesses one superb monument of the past, the 
mosque of Hazreti-Timur, built in 1404 by order of 
Tamerlane, which is said to be one of the finest 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xvi 

monuments of that epoch, and is visited by many- 

As we neared Tashkent we felt a certain amount 
of anxiety lest we should only have reached the goal 
to be ignominiously turned back by the police, despite 
our special permit ; but apparently our appearance 
was disarming, and at Tashkent they did not even 
inquire for any thing beyond our passports. At 
Samarkand we handed them over as usual on arrival 
to the proprietor of the hotel, and the next day he 
said the police wished to know if we had the proper 
authorisation to visit Turkestan. We produced our 
note verbale, which evidently they were unable to 
read, as it was in French ; they looked us up and down, 
from head to toe, asked if we had nothing more to 
show, and on being assured that we had not, and that 
the note verbale gave full permission for travel, they 
somewhat reluctantly took their departure. At Kazan 
(Bokhara) they got a Russian lady to look at our 
permit, who was able to assure them it was quite en 
regie, for they admitted they could not read it them- 
selves. We heard that had we wished to go anywhere 
off the railway line we should not have been allowed 
to do so. 

The district round Tashkent was a wonderful 

contrast to the dreary desert through which we had 

come, and prepared us in some measure for the wealth 

of foliage in which that town is embowered. Along 

the line were trees all decked in the vivid colouring 

of early spring ; the air was filled with the fragrance 


ch. xvi Into Turkesta7i 

of their blossoms, and the sound of running water 
and rustling leaves whenever we halted, made a 
happy change from the monotonous harshness of 
railway noises. The afforestation work of the Russian 
authorities has already produced a marked difference 
in the rainfall, and they are keeping a much needed 
check on the cutting down of trees for firewood 
throughout the province. 

177 M 



JUST ten days after leaving Kharbin we got out 
of the train at the handsome station of Tashkent, 
which seemed ablaze with light in comparison 
with the dimness to which we had been recently- 
accustomed. We inquired for the porter of the 
Hotel de France to which we had been recommended 
by an acquaintance at Moscow, but there was none 
at the station. A friendly official said that other 
hotels were better, and their porters eagerly urged us 
to go with them. We thought it best, however, to 
stick to what we had been advised, especially as our 
letters had been directed to the Hotel de France ; so we 
got into a droshky and drove away into the darkness. 
What a heavenly drive it seemed after the long days 
in the train. Our horses were all too nimble as we 
drove on and on through the warm and scented air, 
under apparently never ending avenues of tall poplars 
and bushy elms. A crescent moon shone amongst 
myriads of stars, and we wondered how long this 
mysterious drive would last, as after a time the driver 
appeared to have lost his bearings and turned to us 
for instructions. Naturally we were utterly unable 


ch. xvii Tashkent 

to direct him, but after half-an-hour, by the aid of 
local advice, we drew up beside the open doorway of 
a house surrounded by trees. There was not even 
" hotel " written up, and instead of a Frenchman 
coming at our summons, a person appeared who 
seemed unable even to recognise the name " Hotel 
de France," though he gave a voluble but quite un- 
intelligible answer in Russian. However, we crossed 
the murmuring rivulet which characterises most of 
the roads here, and entered the house. We found 
that it certainly was an hotel, though there was no 
one who spoke any language but Russian, and in the 
letter case there were no letters for us. 

We were shown into a nice large bedroom, and then 
began the pantomime. We were extremely hungry, 
but disinclined to try the fancy dishes which we feared 
would be served to us if we failed to be explicit in 
our orders. We had not yet learnt the names of many 
things in Russian, and we totally disagreed with the 
one universal sentiment, expressed in the word 
" nitchevo = it doesn't matter," which met us at every 
turn, so I betook myself to my pencil and drew — or 
tried to draw — a chicken au plat. Not having 
sufficiently studied the works of art which adorn 
cookery books, I failed ignominiously to convey 
any meaning to mine host. I next attempted to 
draw the creature au naturel^ and the attempt was 
crowned with success ; but alas, mine host soon 
returned with graphic gestures to acquaint us that 

chicken was not to be had. I then drew chicken in 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xvii 

embryo, which was instantly recognised with an em- 
phatic nod which heralded success. 

The next matter to be dealt with was bed and 
bedding, but that was more easily accomplished, and 
we found the people thoroughly pleasant and obliging, 
anxious to get all we wanted and make us comfort- 
able ; they brought an extra bedstead, sheets, and 
pillows, all thoroughly clean. In facl: our quarters 
were so comfortable that we rather regretted that we 
were only going to spend twenty-four hours there. 

Next morning we were awakened by the familiar 
sound of growling camels and screeching peacocks in 
a neighbouring garden. We were soon abroad and 
found the pleasant impression gained by our drive of 
the night before fully justified, for every road is 
bordered with trees, and the poplars are the most 
beautiful and lofty I have ever seen ; their silver 
stems stretch up erecl: as darts into the clear blue sky. 
There are shady public gardens where the ash tree 
and the acacia were in full blossom, filling the air with 
their fragrance ; on the roofs of the smaller houses 
poppies and grass made a brave show of colour against 
the sky. All the houses were well shaded by trees 
except in the centre of the town, where fashionable 
shops displayed the latest novelties in hats and other 
things dear to the fashionable world of Tashkent. 
We made our way to the post-office, where most 
of the officials were women, and found quite a large 
budget of letters. Evidently there is no regular 
delivery, as they were all addressed to the hotel, and 

ch. xvii Tashkent 

some of them had been lying there at least a week. 
Later in the day we returned to inquire for a book, 
which from my letters I learnt had been forwarded 
there, and after some searching it was duly produced, 
but I afterwards found that difficulty had attended its 
despatch as well as its delivery ; the London post- 
office at first declined to send it on the score of not 
knowing where Turkestan was. 

Tashkent was conquered by the Russians in 1863, 
and it is only since then that the Russian town has 
grown up at a short distance from the old city ; it 
boasts over 50,000 inhabitants, and has a considerable 
trade. At this time of year the climate is delicious, 
but in the summer it is said to be intensely hot, and 
in the rainy season the mud is so deep that the streets 
become almost impassable, and the men have to go 
about in what we should call wading boots. It is on 
this account that the natives have such peculiar carts, 
with spidery wheels about eight or ten feet in diameter. 
The driver sits on a saddle on the horse, with a foot 
resting on each shaft. Many of the tall, lean beasts, 
have handsomely embroidered horse cloths of blue 
and scarlet ; they also wear broad scarlet or orange 
neck cloths, and beaded trappings hang from their 
manes and over their hind quarters ; altogether they 
are most attractive. 

We were delighted with the beautiful oriental 
colours of the clothing of the natives, as they rode 
about on handsome Arab steeds, looking the embodi- 
ment of pride amongst their prosaic conquerors. 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xvii 

Turbaned servants might be seen holding the horses 
outside houses while their masters were within, or 
the horses might be attached to rings in beams fastened 
in the roadway outside shops and offices for the 
purpose. Ladies, fashionably dressed, were driving 
about in troikas, with three horses harnessed abreast. 
The centre horse has to trot, and the side ones canter 
with their heads turned away, so that they look all 
the time as if they were trying to pull away from 
the horse in the middle. It my opinion it has a 
most unnatural and unpleasant appearance to have one 
horse trotting while the others canter, and I cannot 
understand how they manage to drive so swiftly 
under such adverse circumstances. The Siberian 
horses are capable of doing twenty versts (about 
thirteen miles) an hour, says Capus. Travellers going 
any distance by carriage continue day and night 
without stopping longer than for meals and to change 
horses, but it must require an iron constitution to do 
this. Nearly every one at Tashkent seemed to ride or 
drive ; in fact we learnt that it was considered quite 
infra dig to go on foot anywhere in Turkestan. 

The town boasts two good new hotels ; a fine 
public library, especially rich in works on Central 
Asia ; an observatory ; a museum ; two large public 
schools ; an experimental agricultural station and 
school ; a seminary ; a bank, and various public 
buildings. There is also a park containing a bicycle 
track, where they have races ; at the entrance we saw 
a large monument commemorating the conquests of 

ch. xvii Tashkent 

the Russians in different parts of Turkestan. They 
first invaded it in 1863, and took this city and also 
Chemkend ; in 1 866 they took Khojend and Kokand, 
and completely destroyed the power of the latter, 
this proving the beginning of Turkestan as a Russian 
province. In the next two years they pushed their 
conquests further westward, and defeated the troops 
of the Emir of Bokhara and entered Samarkand. In 
1873 Khiva was invaded and navigation rights ob- 
tained over the whole of the Oxus River, now known 
as the Amu Daria. Russia decided to leave Bokhara 
under the rule of the Emir, merely maintaining a 
protectorate, but the remainder of Turkestan has 
since that time been under Russian rule. 

We called at the office of the Wagons Lits Company 
for information about our journey to Samarkand, and 
the manager obligingly got a young Russian, attached 
to the newspaper staff, to act as our guide for the 
afternoon. He spoke English with a strong American 
accent, and was extremely garrulous, having attained 
a thoroughly journalistic style of conversation. We 
took a carriage and drove to the old city, of which 
the walls, alas, have completely disappeared. It is 
buried in the midst of trees and gardens, for there is 
a fine system of irrigation there. All through both 
the Russian and also the native town we saw streams 
flowing ; the watering is done by a simple process ; 
a man goes down each side of the road simultaneously, 
armed with a long wooden scoop, with which he 
sweeps the water out of the little canals as far as the 

The Face of Russia?! Turkestan ch. xvii 

centre, even on a wide road. This takes place at 
intervals during the day. Here and there in the 
native city is a good pond surrounded by trees. The 
houses are low and made of sun-dried bricks, looking 
more ruinous than the other cities we visited. 
Tashkent, it seems, is subject to earthquakes, which 
probably accounts for its dishevelled appearance, and 
it is difficult to believe that the population in- 
habiting it is both large and growing. According 
to the latest census the inhabitants number over 
100,000, so evidently its decadent look is entirely 

We first visited the old tombs of Sheikh Zenedjin- 
baba and Zenghiata, saints who flourished some cen- 
turies ago, and whose tombs are visited by thousands 
of pilgrims every year. The graveyard was pictur- 
esque ; a dead tree was still standing among the tombs, 
which a stork had selected to crown with her nest. 
A little alley led us to the tomb, in which a 
devout worshipper was rocking himself to and fro, 
while he recited his prayers. I ventured to sketch 
him, as he was evidently oblivious (or pretended to 
be so) of observers. 

It was somewhat difficult for our carriage to make 
its way through the narrow, tortuous lanes, but we 
were in no hurry to go fast for the people were so 
pidturesque. They are mostly Sarts, " a name," says 
Prince Krapotkin, "which has reference more to 
manner of life than to anthropological classification, 
although a much stronger admixture of Iranian blood 


;,i w /J. 


ch. xvii "Tashkent 

is evident in the Sarts, who also speak Persian at 
Khojend and Samarkand." They are noted for their 
honesty and independence. There are also Persians 
and Uzbegs, the latter speaking a pure Jagatai dialecl:, 
and various other tribes are found among the bazaars 
of Tashkent. These bazaars are most fascinating, 
but as it was Friday there were but few merchants 
willing to do business, and the whole place had a 
deserted air. The bazaars are roofed in at the top, 
which makes them dark and stuffy, but they are suf- 
ficiently wide for carriages as well as foot-passengers 
to go through them. Our guide bargained for some 
silk scarves, which we thought rather attractive, but 
as the merchants refused to come down to what he 
thought a reasonable price, we did not buy more than 
a couple. The different trades occupy different parts 
of the bazaar, and one of the most important was the 
grain and another the tobacco market. Tashkent is 
also noted for its boots and harness. 

In one way it was fortunate that our visit happened 
to be on a Friday, for we saw the people at prayer. 
We visited several of the mosques, but they have 
little artistic merit, and the oldest one has been so 
hideously redecorated with metal work and the 
crudest painting, that its 700 years of existence have 
been entirely obliterated, both within and without. 
The chief mosque was crowded with men herded 
within a rather small sort of verandah, where they 
stood while service was conducted in a loud discordant 
series of shrieks. A crowd of veiled women and 


The Face of Russici7i Turkestan ch. xvii 

children pressed against the bars of the enclosure, but 
Mohammedanism has no place for women within her 
gates. once for all Mohammed made the position 
of the women in the Moslem world unspeakably low 
and degraded : he said, " Woman was made from a 
crooked rib, and if you try to bend it straight it will 
break." A woman, according to the universal 
Mohammedan belief, has no soul. Years ago I saw 
the Sultan going to the weekly worship one Friday at 
Constantinople, and it was part of the programme for 
his principal wife to see him go there from a certain 
spot ; that she should ever have accompanied him 
was unthinkable. Another large party of women 
and children we saw gathered on a neighbouring roof 
like Peris outside Paradise. But we were not allowed 
to remain long ; we were almost thrust out of the 
precincts of the mosque, for they have the greatest 
aversion, we were told, to Russians looking on at 
their worship. As our guide was Russian, I suppose 
they imagined us to be the same ; elsewhere they 
treated us with great civility. 

The children amused us much by their quaint 
costumes, and some of them were extremely pretty. 
The caps, ornaments, and embroideries they wear are 
charming, and a bizarre effect is produced by a bunch 
of feathers stuck upright in their caps and attached to 
their shoulders from the back like incipient wings. 

The houses usually have verandahs outside them, 
where groups of men were reclining. They were 
highly picturesque, red being the predominating 


ch. xvii Tashkent 

colour of their clothes, heightened by the contrast of 
their white turbans. They were mostly smoking, 
gossiping, and drinking, and for all these pursuits they 
seem to have an untiring capacity. 

There is only one Madressah (Mohammedan school) 
now left at Tashkent, which used to be a seat of learn- 
ing, and it has few students, and is in a state of decay. 

After dinner we regretfully set out for the station 
to pursue our way to the still more attractive city of 
Samarkand. The train was crowded, but as we arrived 
in good time we secured a coupe to ourselves, a 
most important matter with a journey of some four- 
teen hours before us. During the night we heard a 
crash of glass in the adjoining carriage ; evidently it 
was merely accidental, for we heard nothing further; 
but it accounted for the rigid scrutiny to which the 
railway carriages are continually submitted in the 
course of every journey by the conductors, who keep 
the compartments always locked when unoccupied. 
one is never allowed to forget the hateful system 
of espionage, that has been brought to a rare per- 
fection throughout the Russian Empire. 



The Home of Tamerlane 

WE awoke next morning to find ourselves in 
a grey desolate wilderness, known as the 
Hunger Desert. The lovely gardens full 
of fruit-trees characterising Tashkent extend for 
some distance round the city, and then comes a dull 
expanse of desert which, when seen through sheets 
of rain, is the acme of dreariness. When we reached 
the end of our railway journey we found, as usual, 
that the station was some miles away from our 
destination, Samarkand, and we drove through oceans 
of mud under a pelting rain to the Grand Hotel, 
a nice new house where the rooms looked out on to 
a little garden. To our relief our host and hostess 
had a limited acquaintance with the German language, 
so that we were able to make our wishes known, the 
main one being for thorough washing accommo- 
dation. We were taken to see a fine bath-room, and 
arranged to have the stove at once lighted, for it is 
something of a function to have a bath in Russia, 
and cannot be achieved under a couple of hours ; our 
host was evidently very proud of possessing a bath- 
room, and we spent a happy afternoon getting rid 
of all traces of our eleven days and nights of travel. 

on p. 188, line 2 of text,/or known as, read as bare as. 



sonic uiocc — 

expanse of desert which, when seen lh^^-- 
of rain, is the acme of dreariness. When we reached 
the end of our railway journey we found, as usual, 
that the station was some miles away from our 
destination, Samarkand, and we drove through oceans 
of mud under a pelting rain to the Grand Hotel, 
a nice new house where the rooms looked out on to 
a little garden. To our relief our host and hostess 
had a limited acquaintance with the German language, 
so that we were able to make our wishes known, the 
main one being for thorough washing accommo- 
dation. We were taken to see a fine bath-room, and 
arranged to have the stove at once lighted, for it is 
something of a function to have a bath in Russia, 
and cannot be achieved under a couple of hours ; our 
host was evidently very proud of possessing a bath- 
room, and we spent a happy afternoon getting rid 
of all traces of our eleven days and nights of travel. 

ch. xviii The Home of Tamerlane 

Next morning a radiant sun following the rain 
showed us Samarkand in its most attractive guise. 
We drove through shady avenues, past fashionable 
shops towards the real city, and suddenly there burst 
upon our view a wonderful dome and lofty archway, 
jewelled with tiles of dazzling blue. It is the Gur 
Amir, the tomb of Tamerlane, the great Conqueror, 
the forerunner of the Mogul Emperors. In the midst 
of a thick cluster of trees the tomb rises erect, so that 
only the cupola is visible until you come close to it. 
It is enclosed by the care of the Russian authorities 
with an inconspicuous little wall, finished off with a 
metal coping along the top. Formerly the tomb was 
entered (according to regulation) from the south side, 
but most of the outer buildings have already fallen 
to pieces. The present entrance is on the north, and 
the facade is completely covered with tiles ; it is a 
marvellous blaze of colour, composed of various 
shades of blue, varied with white and a little yellow, 
the whole effect being that of a blue mosaic. The 
decorations are varied ; there are a large number of 
inscriptions, many of them from the Koran, in Persian 
characters of the fifteenth century. They certainly 
add rather than detract from the decorative character 
of the design. Passing through the entrance gate 
one comes into a grassy courtyard paved with black 
marble, in which are ancient mulberry trees, and the 
central building rises beyond them. The whole of 
this inner facade is also tiled. Among the inscrip- 
tions one was deciphered by Vambery, which proved 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xviii 

to be the architect's signature : " This is the work 
of poor Abdullah, son of Mohammed, native of 

In the days of his glory Tamerlane determined to 
have erecled for himself a mausoleum excelling in 
magnificence all the other buildings at Samarkand. 
For this purpose he selected the Persian architect, 
Abdullah, charging him to build a tomb worthy to 
enshrine his remains. The two original towers 
which flanked the cupola are both gone, one of them 
quite recently, and the great western archway is 
falling to pieces, but the immense Kufic l characters 
(white on a blue ground) which form the frieze 
immediately below the cupola are still almost perfecl. 
The style is not entirely Persian, but was probably 
modified by the influence of the architecture which 
the Persians found in Samarkand. on each side of 
the main building is a small chapel containing tombs 
of minor importance. Entering the tomb by a beauti- 
fully carved and inlaid door, we found ourselves in a 
little sanctuary, where the faithful come to pray, 
laying their foreheads against the walls. The height 
of the dome (measured from within) is about 74 feet. 
Despite a small window at each end containing 
alabaster tracery, the light is dim, and a religious 
hush seems to pervade the building. Not only 
Tamerlane but others also are buried here. Shortly 
after the building of the mausoleum, his teacher, 

1 Kufic is the name given to the characters in which the Koran was 
originally written ; it ceased to be used after the tenth century. 


' * * " — watamaiij" « * « « 


ch. xviii The Home of Tamerlane 

Said Mir Berke, a venerable mullah (holy man), died, 
so Tamerlane showed his supreme reverence for him 
by having him buried in the Gur Amir, ordering 
that his own body should be placed (when he died) 
at the mullah's feet. There are in addition several 
small tombstones surrounding the special slab (said to 
be of green jade) which marks Tamerlane's resting- 
place. This precious monolith was sent for this 
purpose by a Mongolian princess ten years after his 
death to his successor, Nadir Shah, but was unfortu- 
nately broken in the transport. The two pieces have 
been fastened together, and it has been elaborately 
carved with Tamerlane's name, titles, and ancestry, 
interspersed with passages from the Koran. Copies 
of these are for sale at the tomb. Monsieur Edouard 
Blanc, in an interesting article in the '^{eviie des Deux 
Mondes (Feb. 15, 1893), says he examined this stone 
very carefully from the mineralogist's point of view, 
and has no hesitation in declaring that it is not jade. 
Certainly there is no other known specimen of this 
stone anything like the size, for jade is only found in 
small pieces ; but there are other stones frequently 
mistaken for jade, such as jadeite (hence its name), 
which is not nearly so valuable. Tamerlane's known 
desire to have a tomb of jade is probably the reason 
why it is so called. The jade mines of Turkestan 
have been celebrated in China for at least 2000 years. 
Above the mullah's tomb are two crossed bamboo 
poles bearing the Prophet's green flag,and the standard, 
which consists of a horse's mane and a gold button. 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xviii 

The tombs are enclosed by a low alabaster-work 
balustrade, as seen on the left hand in the sketch. 

But Tamerlane was so afraid lest cupidity should 
cause his tomb to be rifled that he ordered his body to 
be buried in a crypt below the other tomb, theexistence 
of which was until quite recently unknown, except 
to a few initiated persons. The entrance, which was 
concealed by a paving stone, is now open to the gaze 
of all. We went down into it by a flight of steep 
stone steps and found a number of tombs, one of which 
was the hero's, made of specially finely carved marble. 
We were invited to pay a small sum in order to place 
candles on it, so I presume our respectful attitude 
had won us the reputation of being good Moslems. 
The vaulted roof of this crypt was admirably designed 
brickwork, of which the rough sketch opposite may 
give an idea. It was a twelve-sided figure, and the 
whole of the interior was in excellent repair. It 
was dimly lighted by a torch, which our guide pro- 
duced, and we were glad to escape promptly back to 
the upper air, where I sat down to sketch. Various 
worshippers came in and out to say their prayers, for 
the worship of saints is a marked characteristic of 
Mohammedanism, and there are many shrines in 
Samarkand. Every one seemed friendly and devout, 
except an obvious tourist with his guide, who certainly 
disturbed the serenity of the atmosphere. 

Another day I sketched the outside of that wonder- 
ful mausoleum, and day by day as we studied the 
monuments which time has defaced, but which even 


ch. xviii The Home of Tamerlane 

in decay surpass all others in their potent effecl upon 
the imagination, I dreamed of the genius which had 
left such an imperishable memory. Surely none of 
the other conquerors of the world was ever so strange 

a mixture as the great Mogul, compounded of am- 
bition, lust of power, love of beauty, relentless cruelty, 
domestic affection, and zeal for " the Faith." 

Timur i Leng, the lame Timur, or Tamerlane (to 
use the vulgarised form of his name), was born at 
Shahr-i-Sabz, " the green city," about fifty miles south 

of Samarkand, in 1336. His father, Teragai, had been 

193 N 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xviii 

the first ruler in the country converted to Islamism, 
and he brought up his son Tamerlane in the studious 
retirement which he himself loved. The young man 
was well versed in the knowledge of the Koran, but 
he was noted also for his good horsemanship and other 
manly pursuits. Tamerlane soon abandoned his 
father's way of life and reverted to the earlier type of 
Genghiz Khan and Kubla Khan. The accounts of 
the Mongol raids sound like visions of the lowest hell, 
beside which Dante's descriptions are colourless ; these 
raids are inconceivable to the modern mind, and yet 
history shows that they were not the work of mad- 
men, but that they are due to a strain of ferocious 
brutality in the Mongol blood. Where this happens 
to be combined with great power or genius, as in the 
case of Ivan the Terrible, or Tamerlane, the result is 

At the age of twenty-two Tamerlane was sent at 
the head of a thousand horse to invade Khorasan, but 
it was not the first time he had been in the field, and 
he was subsequently employed in fighting for his own 
throne after his father's death. In 1369 he had 
conquered his opponents, and he mounted the throne 
at Samarkand. It would be monotonous and vain to 
recapitulate the history of the incessant wars which 
Tamerlane waged during the next thirty years in 
order to extend his dominions in Central Asia, but it 
was when he was over sixty years of age that he 
undertook the greatest of his expeditions, the con- 
quest of India (as it has been erroneously called). 


ch. xviii The Home of Tamerlane 

He ravaged the north and sacked its principal city, 
Delhi, returning to Samarkand with great spoil. 
Clavigo, the historian, says that he brought back 
ninety captured elephants to carry stone for the build- 
ing of a new mosque at Samarkand. It was Baber, 
his descendant of the fifth generation, who founded 
the Mongol Empire in India in 1525, more than a 
century and a quarter later than Tamerlane. 

During this campaign Tamerlane became embar- 
rassed by the number of his Hindu prisoners, no less 
than 100,000 at a single time, so his counsellors urged 
him to have them slain. The historian remarks : 
" He listened to this considerate and wise advice, and 
gave orders to that effect "; so that they were all slain 
" with the sword of holy war." In order to accom- 
plish the frightful task the soldiery was not sufficient, 
and " one of the chief ecclesiastics, who in all his life 
had never even slaughtered a sheep, put fifteen Hindus 
to the sword." (Holden's " Mogul Emperors of 
Hindustan," p. 27.) on another occasion he slew 
no less than 70,000, and had the heads piled into a 
pyramid and plastered over with mud. In this grue- 
some conception he was following the example of his 
ancestor Genghiz Khan, who had devised the idea of 
having the thousands of corpses which were slain on 
various occasions built into architectural designs. 
At the taking of Bagdad the number of slaughtered 
enemies was 80,000. 

Tamerlane was in the habit of taking his wives 
with him on his campaigns, as well as learned men, 


The Face of Russia?i Turkestan ch. xviii 

and it is related that when in India he had the latter 
placed behind the women, and the women behind the 
army during the battles. The fear of him was so 
great that even after he had left Delhi prayers were 
said in his name in the mosque there until his death ; 
afterwards in the name of his son. Tamerlane's 
religiosity (for it can really be called by no other 
name) is shown in the account which he caused to 
be written in his Memoirs giving his reasons for the 
invasion of India. " My principal objecl in coming 
to Hindostan and in undergoing all this toil and 
hardship was to accomplish two things. The first 
was to war with infidels, the enemies of the Moham- 
medan religion ; and by this religious warfare to 
acquire some claim to reward in the life to come. 
The other was a worldly objecl, that the army of 
Islam might gain something by plundering the wealth 
of the infidels ; plunder in war is as lawful as their 
mother's milk to Mussulmans who fight for their 
faith, and the consuming of that which is lawful is a 
means of grace." The necessity for keeping his 
troops in good humour can be readily understood, 
but that the awful atrocities and unmentionable crimes 
committed by them, which are veiled in that last 
sentence, should be characterised as " a means of 
grace," sounds like an unholy jest. It is impossible 
to ascertain with any accuracy the numbers of 
Tamerlane's troops, but not only were there picked 
troops of some 200,000 men, but also vast numbers 

of irregulars, who flocked to his standard in the hope 


ch. xviii The Home of Tamerlane 

of plunder. But besides Tamerlane's hosts of soldiers, 
who are said by his biographer to have idolised him, 
he had also hosts of artificers and workmen, for he 
built many palaces, mosques, and houses, of which 
only a comparatively small number survive the ravages 
of time. Clavijo describes the building of a street 
full of shops, which was to extend from one end of 
Samarkand to the other. No heed was taken of the 
claims of those who already were in possession ; their 
houses were torn down, while the inmates fled with 
such things as they were able to snatch up and take 
with them. As fast as the houses were demolished 
others rose upon the ruins, as by enchantment, and 
at the end of twenty days and nights of uninterrupted 
labour the street was complete, and Tamerlane had it 
occupied forthwith by shopkeepers. 

The various trades were formed into guilds as in 
western lands apparently, and at one of the feasts 
given during the visit of the Spanish embassy we are 
told that " an amphitheatre was covered with carpets, 
where there were masquerades. The women were 
dressed like goats, others like sheep and fairies, and 
they ran after each other. The skinners and butchers 
appeared like lions and foxes, and all other tradesmen 
contributed specimens of their skill." 

The Conte de Rubruquis, who was sent by St. Louis 

of France from the Holy Land to visit the Court of 

Tamerlane, gives a similar impression of the way in 

which building operations were carried on by that 

autocratic monarch, all of whose operations seem to 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xviii 

have been executed in desperate haste. He says of 
the building of one of the great mosques : " The archi- 
tects chose a happy moment to begin it, namely, on 
the fourth of Ramadam, 801 (May 28, 1399), which 
answers to the year of the Hare, the Moon being then 
in Leo, going out of the sextile aspect, of Venus. 
The masons, brought from foreign countries, as men- 
tioned before, gave the greatest proofs of their art and 
skill, as well in the solidity and beauty of the angles, 
as in the strength of the foundations of this noble 
edifice. In the inside of the mosque were employed 
two hundred masons from Azerbijana, Persia, and 
India ; five hundred men likewise worked in the 
mountains in the cutting and hewing of stones, which 
were sent into the city. Several other artisans of 
different trades performed their parts with the utmost 
application. Ninety-five chains of elephants were 
made use of in drawing large stones with wheels 
and machines according to the laws of mechanics. 
The princes of the blood and Emirs were appointed 
to oversee the workmen, that not one moment might 
be lost in finishing this stupendous building." The 
event was celebrated with sumptuous banquets, ac- 
companied by all sorts of plays and diversions. " The 
Empress Rokia Canica on this occasion gave a noble 
entertainment, accompanied with concerts of music 
and fine dancing." 1 The descriptions of Clavijo, the 
Spanish envoy, are equally vivid and interesting, giving 

1 Hakluyt Society's Publications, " The Voyage of Friar William de 
Rubruquis," p. 166. 


ch. xviii The Home of Tamerlane 

a thoroughly complete picture of life at the Court of 
the great Khan. Referring to the Empress Cano (as 
Clavijo calls her), he says that after she had approached 
the Emperor, attended by her 300 ladies and eunuchs, 
and had taken her seat, the second wife or "little Cano" 
came out and took up her position, followed in turns 
by his seven other wives. The tents and pavilions 
on such occasions were of the utmost magnificence, 
scarlet cloth embroidered with gold and silks, white 
satin and different coloured silks, with silken cords 
and tassels. The tables were of gold, and the orna- 
ments of gold and precious stones. Drinking formed 
an important part of the ceremony, and the Empress 
was greatly displeased when the monk de Rubruquis 
refused to drink at her invitation ; he narrates that 
many of the guests became quite drunk and even fell 
down before her, which added to the amusement. 
There was also a popular and less harmful beverage 
of cream and sugar. The meats consisted of sheep 
and oxen, roasted whole, and served on dishes of thick 
stamped leather. No less than three hundred men 
were requisite to bring them in, and camels were used 
to bring them to the place. This part of the feast 
sounds quite unrefined, for the food is said to have 
been placed in heaps on the ground, and there is no 
mention of any utensils. 

At another great festival to which the Spanish 
envoys were summoned, they were forced to pay 
elaborate homage to one of the Khan's grandsons 
newly come from India, kneeling time after time 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xviii 

before him. Doubtless they felt there was no choice 
as to obeying any such order of Tamerlane, for had 
they not seen plenty of instances of his summary 
methods of so-called "justice." At the marriage 
festival of two of his grandsons Tamerlane said he 
" knew how to be merciful and kind to some, and how 
to be severe to others," so a number of gallows were 
set up at the place of entertainment. When the 
games were over he meted out "justice" to various 
people who had incurred his displeasure, and they 
were instantly put to death ; hanging was the more 
aristocratic punishment, and execution was the fate of 
the poorer classes. 

Tamerlane's most pleasing characteristic is the deep 
affedtion he entertained for his Chinese wife and for 
his sons, whose death caused him deep and passionate 
grief. There is a legend that he caused his daughters 
to be taught magic in order to help him in his 
'conquests, but that sounds wholly at variance with 
his character. He was extremely energetic and am- 
bitious, and brooked no interference. The portraits 
of his personal appearance are far from pleasing ; he 
was not only lame, but also blind in one eye. Tamer- 
lane's last campaign was against the Turks, and he 
pushed as far as to Damascus, taking prisoner the 
Sultan Bajazet. on his return he projected another 
distant campaign against China, but he fell ill of ague 
and fever, and died in Syr Daria in 1405. His body 
was embalmed and carried for burial to Samarkand. 



TAMERLANE'S tomb is on the threshold of 
Samarkand, and is but the prelude which 
introduces the travellers to wonder upon 
wonder. The whole of the first day we devoted to 
it, so as to come with a prepared mind and yet quite 
fresh to the wealth of beauty that lies within the 
city. A fine avenue of poplars leads from the tomb 
to the imposing citadel, dipping into a deep ravine 
(where a wood market is always going on) ; as one 
mounts the hill the citadel seems to tower above the 
city. Its one relic of interest is the Keuk-Tash, a 
grey stone, ten feet long and four feet broad, said to 
have been originally brought from Broussa. This 
formed the seat from which Tamerlane dispensed 
judgment — one cannot say "justice" — and which in 
later days was used by the Amirs of Bokhara for 
the same purpose. A number of bazaars line the 
road, giving the impression of a busy, flourishing 
town, and the road is thronged with carriages, men 
on horseback, and carts. What a fascinating crowd it 
was. I must briefly describe its chief elements. The 
population is principally Sart, but there are Persians, 

The Face of Russia?i Turkestan ch. xix 

Afghans, Kirghiz, and others. Some of their horses 
are splendid proudly-stepping creatures, and it is a 
marvel to see their trappings, handsomely embroidered 
cloths on which the equally handsomely decorated 
antique saddles rest. These are either painted or 
inlaid wood, and have a high peak in front ; the stirrups 
are equally decorative, but fastened so short that the 
knees are always bent. The Sarts invariably ride 
unless extremely poor, and it is astonishing to see how 
fine some of them are, who yet have to carry home 
their purchases from the market, a somewhat incon- 
gruous effect being produced by these gorgeous 
creatures having an armful of vegetables. If too 
poor to ride a horse, the Sart may at least be able to 
afford a donkey. Some of them have a closely veiled 
woman riding pillion ; others will have their young 
sons riding before and behind them on the same 
horse. The Sarts wear long flowing cotton or silk 
robes of brilliant colours, especially affecling stripes, 
and high leather boots. on their heads they wear 
little gaily-embroidered caps, surrounded by a turban 
of dazzling whiteness, with ends coquettishly hanging 
down by the left ear on to the shoulder. A poor 
man may be only able to afford two or three yards of 
coarse white cotton for the purpose, but the rich 
man will have twenty or thirty yards of the finest 
muslin. Round the waist the men wear ornate belts, 
into which are stuck the knife with gold or silver 
jewelled handle in its sheath of leather, and in 
another case a comb, toothpick, and other et ceteras. 

ch. xix Samarkand 

Among the foot-passengers are a certain number of 
women dressed in long, grey-blue cloaks from head 
to foot, only just showing the wide trousers fastened 
in at the ankle ; there is but the smallest peephole 
through a horse-hair veil like a meat sieve. They 
are mere chattels, and are kept striclly secluded. The 
children in their gay clothes form a delicious contrast, 
and are as bright and merry as birds, full of mischief 
and fun ; we had a good opportunity of watching 
them while sketching, and they were delightful 
neighbours for the most part, despite being rather 

The first building that arrests the attention at the 
entrance to the town is the citadel, but it has been 
transformed into Russian barracks, so that the exterior 
is the main thing of interest. It boasts in modern 
times of having been the scene of a stirring episode 
when the Russians first took possession in 1868. A 
small garrison having been left there while the main 
army went in pursuit of the Amir of Bokhara, found 
itself surrounded by 20,000 men, and for five days 
succeeded in holding the position until relieved by 
the timely arrival of a corps from Tashkent. Then a 
terrible vengeance fell upon the doomed city, which 
was given over for three days to pillage as in the 
days of Tamerlane. What grim irony to call Samar- 
kand la bien gardee, when through all the centuries 
it has been desolated, beginning from the conquest of 
Alexander the Great, more than twenty-two centuries 
ago, down to the present time. Under the Arab 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

Samanids in the eighth century it became a great 
centre of learning, and was renowned throughout the 
world ; then Genghiz Khan fell upon it in 1219, and 
although it is said to have been defended by 1 10,000 
men, he took the city and let loose his ferocious 
hordes upon it. When they left the city the popula- 
lation had been reduced to one-fourth of the size 
it had been, but even then it was said to boast 
25,000 families. In the days of Tamerlane it rose 
again to 150,000, and at the present day the native 
city covers a great area, being enclosed within a low 
wall of nine miles in extent. 

The next group of ancient buildings which meets 
the eye is the great market square, the Righistan, 
three sides of which are surrounded by madressahs or 
colleges, the fourth side being bounded by a row of 
small native shops. The four sides are quite separate 
from one another, a street passing along the north 
side of the square in front of the Tilla-Kari Madressah. 
It would be impossible to describe the magnificent 
effecl: of these buildings due to their great height, 
simplicity of design, brilliancy of colour, and the 
noble space which they enclose. The square is more 
than two centuries later in date than the days of 
Tamerlane, but it is the harmonious continuation 
and completion of his work. The eastern building 
is the oldest of the madressahs, called after its builder, 
Uleg Beg (a.d. 1420 approximately) ; he was the 
grandson of Timur, a great patron of art and science. 
He made a table of the fixed stars, agreeing pretty 


ch. xix Samarkand 

closely with that made by the celebrated Danish 
astronomer, Tycho-Brahe, more than a century later. 
It is the smallest of the three madressahs, contain- 
ing accommodation for only fifty students, but attached 
to it was the world-renowned observatory and school 
of mathematics. Uleg Beg used the quadrant, the 
radius of which, says d'Herbelot, equalled the height 
of St. Sophia. A description of one madressah will 
suffice for the three, as they are all built on the 
same plan. The front of the quadrilateral building 
is about ioo to 150 feet in height, with an immense 
porch nearly extending to the top of it ; the porch is 
mostly filled in with beautiful tiles, but contains a 
small window in the upper part and a wide door 
below, with smaller ones on either side. The broad 
spaces of masonry flanking the porch are subdivided 
into three sections, which are all differently and 
richly decorated with tiles, in which blue is the pre- 
dominating colour. The two small doorways lead 
into a paved court surrounded by buildings, in the 
centre of each of which is a pointed porch called 
" pichtack," similar to that of the facade, but on a 
much smaller scale, and generally of finer workman- 
ship. This is surrounded by arcades, the central one 
being a hall for prayer, decorated with suitable in- 
scriptions cut in hard stone or marble slabs in the 
walls. The courtyard corresponds to our cloister of 
the West, and trees cast a pleasant shade in it where 
the studious Mohammedans spend so many weary 
hours, for the university training lasts from twenty 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

to twenty-seven years. one of the students showed 
us his tiny cell with its store of books — a very limited 
one. As we entered another student or Mullah stood 
praying just within the porch at the top of his voice, 
and in shrill and dolorous accents : the Sunnites 
adopt this tone in order that there may be no suspicion 
of tune or melody. The studies are by no means 
confined to religion, however, for they embrace all 
the faculties, and men are here trained to fill every 
office of Church and State. The Koran and its com- 
mentaries are considered fundamentals, and when one 
reflects that Mohammedanism owes its widespread 
success no less to the proselytising spirit of its mer- 
chants and soldiers than of its religious teachers, one 
is forced to admire the wisdom which requires that 
such thorough teaching be given to the educated 
classes. We were told that the students have to 
observe striclly certain rules throughout the whole 
course of their university career ; married men are 
allowed to spend two nights a week in their own 
homes, but the remaining five must be spent in the 
madressah. The length of the course is a heavy 
strain on the resources of a family, but many of these 
people, living in mean surroundings and with no 
outward pomp, are possessors of considerable wealth. 
In Tashkent the Government is offering free education 
for boys in the Russian schools, in order to attract 
the Sarts to send their sons to them, and the lessons 
are given both in Russian and in Sart, half and half. 

This is done for political purposes, and with a view 


ch. xix Samarkand 

to getting more into touch with the native population : 
at present there is a great gulf fixed between them. 

To return to our subject — the architecture of the 
schools. on the right and left of the central facade 
there are side wings, originally covered with tiles, 
but now somewhat injured by time, and at their outer 
end rise lofty cylindrical towers of great height and 
entirely covered with tiles ; they are now quite out 
of the perpendicular, and it is impossible to do any- 
thing to preserve them from the effects of the violent 
earthquakes which are continually destroying the 
priceless monuments of Samarkand. 

The madressah of Shir Dar (" the lion bearing "), 
built in 1 60 1, faces that of Uleg Beg, and the only 
difference of importance between the two is that the 
former has two domes rising from the side wings of 
the facade, namely, between the porch and the towers. 
It is the largest of the three madressahs, and contains 
rooms for one hundred and twenty students. Its 
name is due to the heraldic figures of lions (only 
they are more like tigers) on the facade. Most of 
the designs on all the architecture at Samarkand are 
arabesques, inscriptions, or geometrical figures, but 
there are occasionally animals introduced, such as 
lions, griffons, and dragons. As regards colour, in 
the later architecture, black, green, and gold are added 
to the blues and yellow characterising the earlier 
tiles, but there is comparatively so little other colouring 
than blue, that it passes unnoticed without close 



The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

From the summit of the northernmost tower 
criminals used to be hurled, we were informed, in 
the " good old days," into the square below called 
" the Gluttonous Place " ; this was the case at 
Bokhara only last century : they were trussed up like 
fowls. Visitors are usually taken by the professional 
guide up this madressah to look over the city, from 
the platform upon which the cupolas rest. It is 
perhaps desirable to warn ladies visiting Samarkand 
to beware of this guide, as he bears an unsatisfactory 
character. Our unofficial guide took us to the top 
of the Tilla Kari (" dressed in gold ") facade, which 
is much loftier, and from which a fine view of the 
mountains is to be obtained. The ascent was steep, 
rough, and perilous, but well worth not only the 
effort, but also the resultant stiffness of many days. 
The vision that burst upon our view as we emerged 
from the dark staircase was that of a city gleaming 
among a wealth of trees, stretching far across the 
plain to the distant, snow-capped mountains. Far 
below the motley crowd looked like ants ; the vivid 
colouring of their robes was almost indistinguishable, 
and only a hushed murmur rose to our ears from the 
busy throng. 

In the Tilla-Kari Madressah (built in 1 6 1 8) there 
is room for fifty-six students. It has an important 
mosque, of which the inside walls were not only 
decorated with blue tiles, but also with fine marble 
slabs handsomely cut and bearing gilded inscriptions, 
but the gilding was somewhat dimmed by time. 


ch. xix Samarkand 

Evidently there was a large and costly carpet on the 
floor, for our feet sank noiselessly into the soft pile, 
but it was covered with a drugget, and we were only 
allowed to see a small corner. This madressah has 
no flanking towers, and a less ornate facade, which 
probably gave rise to the idea that it was the oldest, 
whereas it is the most recent of the three. 

Our evident delight in the beauty of the place was 
obviously a source of no little gratification to the 
people ; our only regret was that we were unable to 
talk to them. Few people know the Sart language, 
or even know of its existence, but in the mosques and 
bazaars Persian as well as Arabic is current. The 
people to whom the glories of the place are like a 
twice-told tale, watched our expression with some 
wonder, but keen appreciation ; when they had 
further inquired as to our nationality, it seemed as if 
we were admitted into a sort of friendly intimacy. 

We started one day from our hotel with a pleasant 
old man as droshky driver ; to him our host gave 
elaborate instructions as to where we should go and 
what we should see ; but in the old city he picked 
up a picturesque native in white turban and wine- 
coloured robe, who forthwith constituted himself our 
guide. Our inability to talk or even to understand 
his language was a slight bar to our enjoyment, yet 
in the course of the morning we gathered a certain 
amount of information about the city, and felt that 
we had missed seeing nothing of real importance. 

one of the finest ruins is the madressah of Bibi 

209 o 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

Khanum, the daughter of the Chinese Emperor, and 
favourite wife of Tamerlane. She is said to have 
built this not only as a school, but also as a mausoleum 
for her remains ; its greatness and beauty, however, 
were such that she offered it instead to her lord and 
master (no doubt a wise policy on her part), and built 
instead for her tomb what is known as the little Bibi 
Khanum, an unimposing structure overlooking the 
grain market. 

The Spanish historian, Clavijo, gives a vivid piclure 
of the lady taking part at a great feast in honour of 
the wedding of Tamerlane's grandsons. He says : 
" When the people were all arranged in order round 
the wall which encircled the pavilion, Cano, the chief 
wife of this lord, came forth to be present at the feast. 
She had on a robe of red silk, trimmed with gold 
lace, long and flowing. It had no waist, and fifteen 
ladies held up the skirt of it to enable her to walk. 
She wore a crested head-dress of red cloth, very high, 
covered with large pearls, rubies, emeralds, and other 
precious stones, and embroidered with gold lace. on 
the top of all there was a little castle, on which were 
three large and brilliant rubies, surmounted by a tall 
plume of feathers. . . . Her hair, which was very 
black, hung down over her shoulders, and they value 
black hair much more than any other colour. She 
was accompanied by 300 ladies, of whom three held 
her head-dress when she sat down, lest it should tilt 
over. She had so much white lead on her face 
that it looked like paper, and this is put on to protecf 


ch. xix Samarkand 

it from the sun, for when they travel (evidently Clavijo 
suffered in the same way as modern travellers when 
seeking information) in winter or in summer all great 
ladies put this on." The palace one may very well 
believe, from what we can see of its remains, was a 
fitting background to such a gorgeous company. Its 
vast height and the brilliancy of the tiles make it one 
of the most impressive sights in Samarkand. The 
magnificent cupola is sadly broken, but the remains 
show that it is different from other cupolas in Samar- 
kand, which were fluted and ovoid in shape, with blue 
tiles decorating them in fine contrast to the pearly 
whiteness of the remainder of the structure. The 
Bibi Khanum cupola is dome-shaped and entirely 
covered with the turquoise blue tiles so characteristic 
of Chinese architecture (in Shansi especially), and one 
likes to fancy it as a reminiscence of the princess's 
native land. It is the most glorious note of colour, 
and at a distance, where the other tiles lose all their 
effect, it glows with undimmed beauty. It added value 
and charm to the various shades of blue in the great 
archway below it. In my sketch of the city I have 
tried to give this effect. The walls of the palace are 
sadly ruined, and it is to be feared that soon little will 
remain ; the majestic archways can still be traced, and 
some fluted twisted columns of vivid blue are almost 
perfect, terminating below in an elegant design some 
feet above the ground. Hard by, but outside the 
precincts of the palace, another lofty tower stands 
erect, entirely covered with blue arabesques. Surely 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

such a wealth of beauty can be found nowhere else 
in the world. 

In the centre of the main courtyard, under the 
shade of the trees, is a great marble lectern, richly 
carved, on which the gigantic Koran of Othman was 
placed, which, it was alleged, the Chinese princess 
used to read from a neighbouring window. It is 
certainly difficult to see how it could be read other- 
wise than from some elevation, except by a giant. 
The natives believe in its miraculous efficacy in cases 
of spinal diseases, if the patient can bend sufficiently 
to creep underneath it. 

There is still one oclagonal tower covered with 
tiles which is fairly complete, and also a portion of 
one of the immense round towers similar to those in 
the Rigistan. In the interesting volume of Messrs. 
Durrieux and Fauvelle, called Samarkande la bien 
gardee, there is a true and suggestive comparison of 
these buildings, the Rigistan still comparatively com- 
plete and perfect, but degraded from its former great- 
ness by its present inhabitants, the Bibi Khanum an 
absolute ruin, but glorious with the imperishable 
beauty of the past. The Chinese lady founded the 
largest of any of the schools of Samarkand. 

As I was trying somewhat hurriedly to sketch a 
few architectural details, the whole being far too 
vast to attempt, except from a considerable distance, 
a lamentable whining arose almost at my feet, and 
a litter of puppies crawled out from some brushwood. 
Our guide began looking about, and soon discovered 

ch. xix Samarkand 

an empty old tin, which he got a lad to fill with 

water. He next hailed a man in the bazaar and 

bought bread ; when he had crumbled it up the 

puppies fell upon it like starvelings. The buying of 

the bread brought to light the fadt that a different 

coinage is current here from that used in the Russian 

city, and explained why our tips were looked on with 

evident suspicion. 

From the palace we went to the grain market 

close by, and found a scene, the picluresqueness of 

which beggars description. Indeed an apology is 

due to the reader for the number of adjectives and 

superlatives used in this chapter (I believe these are 

quite antiquated grammatical terms, but I am ignorant 

of the new names which are later than my day) ; the 

fa6t is that this is the most wonderful city I have 

yet come across in my wanderings, and no words seem 

adequate, so I trust to be forgiven. Here one could 

escape from European anachronisms, and the place 

was filled with a gay, bustling throng of men and 

beasts. The water-carrier was busy quenching man's 

thirst from an unappetising-looking skin slung over 

his shoulder, which still retained the shape of the 

animal to whom it originally belonged. Another 

man provides the smoker with a whiff of tobacco 

from a general pipe. We pushed our way gently 

through the throng, treated with utmost courtesy by 

young and old. We climbed up to Bibi Khanum's 

tomb, an excellent point of vantage from which to 

look down on the busy scene. Immediately below 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

us was the grain market, to the right a busy traffic 
in green grass used for fodder ; beyond that was a 
space specially devoted to camels, where the beasts 
knelt in long rows, tranquilly surveying the scene. 
Further away was a large enclosure full of horses, and 
another space devoted to the sale of fuel. All round 
the market were low buildings, or booths, for all sorts 
of things, and a row of busy blacksmiths and harness 
makers. Blocks of rock-salt from Hissar, sweetmeats, 
tobacco, and green snuff found plenty of purchasers, 
while itinerant vendors plied a busy trade in all 
directions. Every day that we were there seemed 
equally busy, and in the bazaars they sell not only 
native goods, but large quantities of Russian silks, 
especially those made in Moscow. Cotton goods 
from Manchester were not lacking, and it is to be 
feared that competition is killing to a large extent the 
native industries. They no longer make the wonder- 
ful carpets of ancient times, and we were warned 
that it is risky to buy old ones on account of infection. 
Some of the silks are attractive, but majenta is a 
favourite colour, and the curious designs would not 
look well transplanted from their local setting. 

Leaving the market we passed through a little 
valley on the eastern side, and to our surprise a pic- 
turesque native suddenly stepped into the carriage 
and sat down opposite to us. Our self-constituted 
guide was seated on the box, so he turned round to 
explain that it was quite right, for we should require 
the man's services directly. In point of fact we stopped 



ch. xix Samarkand 

in less than two minutes in front of a gateway, the 
entrance to which was blocked by a pole placed 
across it. We passed through a side gate on foot 
into a shady park, where numbers of people were 
seated in parties under the trees, and sweetmeat sellers 
were plying a brisk trade. There are many different 
trees at Samarkand, but the chief of them are the white 
poplars and the black Turkestan elms ; the latter are 
the national sacred tree — the karagatch. The people 
are great gardeners, and the water-supply is excellent ; 
indeed it is being drawn increasingly from the river 
which supplies Bokhara, to the detriment of that city. 
As we strolled along the shady paths veiled women 
eyed us furtively. A few minutes' walk brought us 
to a short flight of steps leading down to a fine blue- 
tiled gateway. As we entered it a vista of great 
beauty, a masterpiece of art, was revealed, which had 
previously been completely hidden from view. Forty 
gleaming marble steps lead upward to a fine gateway, 
surmounted by domes. A flowering shrub hung 
over the wall on the right, and a cluster of scarlet 
poppies had forced their way between the slabs of 
marble. In the porch sat a typical group of natives, 
and our guide presented us with some ceremony to 
the Mullah, who was apparently in charge of the 
buildings — the Hazreti Shah Zindeh, or summer 
palace of Tamerlane. The palace is called after a 
saint, Shah Zindeh, whose tomb is one of the buildings ; 
in fact it would never occur to any one that this was 
a palace, but rather a collection of shrines and tombs. 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

The saint is expected to rise again some day. on 
reaching the top of the steps we came into a little 
flagged lane, with the most brilliant archway standing 
up against the sky (the one in the sketch), such a 
blaze of scintillating colour that the blue heaven 
looked dull and opaque in comparison. Here the 
tiles are finer than any of the others ; they are modelled 
in relief and in open work, unlike any that we saw 
elsewhere. The designs were of an infinite variety, 
and it seemed a grievous pity that the little hall 
within was dirty and befouled by birds nesting there ; 
all the walls within, as well as without, were covered 
with various kindsiof tiles. Opposite this was another 
hall, quite different in its decoration. A little further 
down the winding lane were another pair of halls, 
also surmounted by domes, and with yet other designs 
on the walls ; there are altogether seven of them, 
the remaining three being grouped together at the 
extreme end of the lane, and forming the termination 
of it. The innermost shrine is a little mosque, con- 
sisting of two rooms, a sort of holy of holies. on 
the wall I noticed a rough colour print of the Kaaba, 
and named it to our guide. He was greatly interested, 
and asked if I had ever been to Mecca, and I fancy 
reckoned me at once one of the faithful. 

We were shown the great Koran, a gigantic volume 
to suit the size of the lectern in Bibi Khanum's 
madressah. The famous original was carried to St. 
Petersburg after the taking of Samarkand by the 
Russians, but this is said to be a fine sixteenth-century 


ch. xix Samarkand 

copy of it. There were relics of the saint pointed 
out to us behind a screen, but we could not make out 
what they were, and we were shown the beautiful 
carpet, a fine specimen of those made in Turkestan. 
Banners of red, blue, and green hang over these 
treasures, and under them the guardian of the shrine 
sat down, intimating that he was now prepared to 
receive a gift. To judge by his attitude he thought 
it would be a lordly one, but there is always a strange 
discrepancy in the East between the magnitude of 
the gift and the air with which it is received. In 
various nooks and corners people lay curled up asleep, 
or were drowsily repeating their prayers. While I 
sketched our two guides were evidently discussing 
our merits, and at last one inquired if we were Russians, 
and on hearing that we were not they wanted to 
know whether we liked the Russians, making it 
abundantly plain that they did not. Nevertheless they 
acquiesce without much apparent feeling to the yoke 
of the foreigner, no doubt accepting it as " Fate." 

one of the interesting points to visit outside Samar- 
kand is the tomb of the prophet Daniel, whom the 
people insist on considering to be the hero of Scrip- 
ture history. We drove to it through the town, 
passing out of the market up a steep dusty road. A 
mosque dominates the city from the brow of the hill, 
and around it is a large cemetery of dreary, neglecled 
graves. It was from this point that I sketched the 
city, and while doing so was somewhat startled by 

finding a large tortoise at my side, which had crawled 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xix 

out of the grass. The road is primitive, but no one 
experts anything else, and constant carriage exercise 
no doubt is good for the inhabitants in lieu of any- 
other kind. The way leads through sandy, hillocky 
ground (suggestive of dunes by the seashore) for 
about a couple of miles, and then the road abruptly 
ends. We got out of the carriage and the driver led 
us on foot down a ravine to the tomb. It is the 
longest tomb one would suppose that could be found 
anywhere, being about 25 yards in length (Edouard 
Blanc says), and is finely situated on a rock terrace, 
with crags rising above it and plenty of trees below 
it down to the edge of a river. The legend which 
accounts for the extraordinary length of the tomb is 
that, owing to some miraculous quality, it grows a 
few inches every year, and that by the time it has 
stretched round the earth Islamism will dominate the 
whole world. 1 However, the Russian governor 
decided the miracle should cease, and ordered a 
building to be placed over it, an inconspicuous 
erection with five little cupolas along the top and 
surmounted by the usual standard, tuft of hair 
and rams' horns ; this last is the usual offering made 
by Sarts at a saint's shrine, and which we saw again 
on the tombs outside Bokhara. 

Strolling down the steep hill-side into a grove of 
trees below, we came to a busy scene. The trees rise 
out of a large terrace, where handsome carpets were 
spread on the ground, on which were seated parties 

1 Samarkande la bien gardee, by Durrieux and Fauvelle, p. 183. 


ch. xix Samarkand 

of devotees engaged in conversation or in prayer, 
while their horses were tethered hard by in the shade. 
Close at hand servants were busily preparing food at 
various fires under a shed, and it looked as if it were 
some picnic instead of a religious exercise. Evidently 
the worshippers were going to make a day of it, and 
they looked highly picturesque with their many- 
coloured robes and white turbans. 

The valley was a charming one, full of lofty poplars 
and elms. A mill was built over the river lower down, 
and there were many houses nestling among the trees. 
The yellow soil, called toprach, is extremely fertile 
when sufficiently watered, and the Sarts have a saying, 
" Plant a stick in the toprach, give it a trickle of 
water, and next year you will have a tree." 

There are other excursions worth making in the 
neighbourhood, and we greatly regretted that lack of 
time prevented our doing them. one in particular 
we thought would have been attractive, namely, a ride 
to the snow-covered mountains, whence there is a 
fine view over the plain to the city. There are ruins 
called Aphrosiab all round the city, and interesting 
coins of the Graeco-Bactrian period have been found 
there. Till within the last few years the madressah 
of Timur Malik, ten kilometres distant, was still 
standing, but it has been laid in ruins by an earth- 
quake. There are other mosques in the city worth 
visiting, especially that of Zemreh Khodja, the 
mausoleum of Khodja ben Khaddra, and the mad- 
ressahs of Ishrak Khaneh and Khodja Akhrar. 




THEjourney from Samarkand to Bokhara only 
takes about six and a half hours by rail,across a 
dull monotonous plain as far as Kazan (pro- 
nounced Kaghan), thence on alittle branch line through 
green fields for the last half-hour. We stopped at 
the Russian settlement of Kazan, an absolutely un- 
interesting place. We were informed that the Hotel 
d'Europe was comfortable, and we drove to it from 
the station, only to find every room engaged. The 
German proprietress told us they were always busy, 
but recommended us to the only other hotel, the 
Commercial. Here we found a thoroughly clean 
room, and the pleasantest of Russian hostesses. As 
usual, we were expected to have brought our bed 
clothes,butnot having done so the hostess fetched some 
out of her private store, and she was quite gratified 
by our admiration of her handiwork on the sheets : 
"Made when I was unmarried," she said, with a weary 

Next morning we intended taking an early train 
on the little branch line to Bokhara, but the heat 
was oppressive, so we delayed till the afternoon when 

ch. xx Bokhara 

the air was somewhat cooled by thunder rain. 
Bokhara is said to be intolerably hot, quite different 
from Kazan, though only eight miles distant. The 
fields of grain looked green and fresh, and already the 
crops were beginning to be cut, the deep blue of the 
cornflowers glinting among them. The train runs 
between Kazan and Bokhara half-a-dozen times per 

on our arrival there we saw the truth of what we 
had been told, that Bokhara was not a place where 
Europeans could stay, for there are only small 
caravanserais and no hotel, but there are some Russian 
buildings outside the city walls, including a fine 
bank. The old walls enclose a large city, but as we 
made our way through its narrow streets we were 
struck with the absence of population, such a striking 
contrast from Samarkand. At the gate were Sart 
guards and a row of fixed bayonets hung on the wall 
of the guard house. Here we were no longer in 
Russian territory, for the province of Bokhara, 100,000 
square miles in extent, cuts like a wedge through 
Turkestan, and is a vassal state of the Russian Empire. 
It only boasts two cities of importance, Bokhara 
and Khiva, and is ruled by the Amir. The Govern- 
ment is a hereditary despotism, with absolute power 
of life and death. Russia, however, keeps a jealous 
eye upon its affairs, and when two native missionaries 
(under the auspices of the Swedish Mission) had been 
working there some time ago, the Russian authori- 
ties insisted upon their being sent out of the country. 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xx 

Since then no mission work is allowed to exist, for it 
is hardly possible to call by such a name what is 
being done by the Orthodox Church, its work aiming 
rather at political than spiritual results ; at least so 
we were told by a Russian lady. It has no definite 
mission as in Siberia for the Mohammedans. I met 
this lady in the street, and she stopped me to inquire 
if I happened to be Miss C. ; she had been asked to 
look out for her, the only address furnished being 
" Central Asia." She proved to be a Red Cross 
nurse, travelling in Central Asia with the objecl: of 
doing work for the Bible Society, and ascertaining 
what opening there was for mission work. Her 
nationality and right of entrance into all Government 
hospitals gave her special facility for doing this, and 
she found the people quite friendly and inclined to 
talk on religious topics, but the officials stood in the 
way. The Russian Consul told her frankly he didn't 
like missionaries, but he admitted that he knew none 
and could give no grounds for his objection. 

Bokhara " the Noble " has always been the centre 
of religious influence since Islam first conquered it 
about a.d. 709 (Arabian invasion), and to-day it 
boasts a rigid adherence to the letter of the Koran, 
surpassing that of any other place. Before the 
Arabian invasion Central Asia was Christian. The 
Nestorian Church had established episcopal sees in 
Merv and Samarkand as early as the fifth century, and 
the whole country had practically adopted Christi- 
anity. After it had become Moslem the Mongols 

ch. xx Bokhara 

swept down upon it in the thirteenth century. " In 
Bokhara, so famed for its men of piety and learning, 
the Mongols stabled their horses in the sacred pre- 
cincts of the mosques, and tore up the Korans to 
serve as litter ; those of the inhabitants who were 
not butchered were carried away into captivity, and 
their city reduced to ashes. Such, too, was the fate of 
Samarkand, Balkh, and many another city of Central 
Asia." x The Moslem faith, however, survived the 
storm. When the Arabian Mohammedan leadership 
had becomeweakened about the middle of the eleventh 
century it passed into the hands of the Turanians, and 
they now showed their power by winning their con- 
querors over to Islamism in a singularly short space 
of time. 

As one strolls through the streets of Bokhara to- 
day, one sees and hears nothing but Mohammedanism. 
The civil administration is entirely in the hands of 
the religious orders, and the madressahs, with the 
exception of El Azhar at Cairo, are the most import- 
ant in the world. There are said to be 365 
madressahs, but in reality there is not a third of that 
number. The dates of some of these are 1372 
(Abdullah's), 1426, 1529, 1582; and the Empress 
Catherine of Russia founded one in the eighteenth 
century. Vambery says that nowhere in the East 
had he found the Moslems so punctilious about the 
externals of religion, even to repeating their prayers 
stark-naked for fear their clothes should have been 

1 Arnold's " Preaching of Islam," p. 185. 

The Face of Russian Turkesta?i ch. xx 

defiled in any way without their being aware of it. 
Their ruling principle is " man must make a figure ; 
no one cares for what he thinks!" We saw the 
shockingly dirty tanks where so much religious 
washing goes on, and they were revolting beyond 
words. The text of Islam says that where there are 
more than 120 pints of water it is "blind," that is 
to say the dirt gets lost in it. Consequently you see 
people washing out their ears, noses, and mouths in 
the filthiest tanks adjoining mosques before reciting 
their prayers, which they do at least five times a day. 
The consequence of this is that the inhabitants con- 
stantly suffer from tapeworn, which the French call 
by the more pleasing name " solitare." 

A large part of the population of Bokhara belongs 
to the religious orders, and are known as Ishans, 
Mullahs, and Reis. They belong to the Sunnite 
faction, and have an utter abhorrence of Persian 
Moslems, who do not belong to that seel: ; they 
maintain the same standard of religious asceticism as 
that of the Middle Ages, and are prepared to fight 
just as in those days. It is hard to realise that they 
are utterly untouched by modernism, and the barbar- 
ism of Bokhara is unspeakable. Needless to say, we 
did not visit the prison — descriptions of it can be 
read in every book dealing with the place, but it does 
not bear thinking of when we remember that English- 
men were literally rotting away there, " masses of 
their flesh having been gnawn off their bones by 

vermin in 1843" (Wolff). The citadel has no less 


ch. xx Bokhara 

hideous tales to tell : indeed Bokhara is one of the 
most degraded places on the face of the earth accord- 
ing to all accounts. 

" Thou wilt to Bokhara ? O fool for thy pains, 
Thither thou goest to be put into chains." 


Vambery's description of what he saw only half a 
century ago leaves no room for doubt on this subject. 
He heard the robes which were to be awarded to 
successful soldiers described as " four-head," " ten- 
head," or " twenty-head " robes, and seeing no 
such design on them inquired the meaning of the 
term. For all answer he was taken to see the arrival 
of the conquerors ; they had women captives tied to 
their saddle bows as well as great sacks. These were 
filled with human heads, and each man in turn had 
these hideous trophies counted, and the number placed 
upon the official list to be the measure of the reward 
he should receive. The lot of the slaves is a terrible 
one, and slavery still exists, being a thing wholly 
approved and sanctioned by the Koran. The law of 
Harem is observed with the utmost stringency, and 
women of the upper class are kept closely secluded. 
If a girl is allowed to go out at all, she must not only 
be veiled, but must put on the appearance of age and 
decrepitude, walking with a stick on tottering foot- 
steps. Although not compelled to do so as in the 
case of women, the men also cultivate assiduously 
the art of a special step, which is known as the 
" Reftari khiraman " : their poets describe it as the 

225 P 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xx 

swaying of a cypress in the wind, but to us it appears 
as an ungainly waddle. David Cox was clever 
enough to make the dogs bark in his sketches, but 
I, alas, cannot make my man waddle ! 

The law of Islam prohibits drunkenness, but "the 
number of beng eaters (beng is a drug made from 
cannabis Indica) is greatest in Bokhara and Khokand, 
and it is no exaggeration to say that three-fourths of 
the learned and official world, or in other words the 
whole intelligent class, are victims to this vice. The 
Government looks on with perfect indifference while 
hundreds, nay thousands,commit suicide. . . . Thefew 
hints we have thrown out are sufficient to show the 
abyss of crime to which an exaggerated fanaticism 
degrades mankind " (Vambery's " Travels in Central 
Asia"). Bokhara is still the same to-day, the most 
fanatical and the most corrupt city in Asia, though 
outwardly to the eye of the casual stranger clothed 
with the respectability that its European masters 

We penetrated into the bazaars, but they offered 
no special features of interest, Bokhara having like 
the other cities of Central Asia to a large extent lost 
its ancient skill in art. The silks sold in it are made in 
Moscow mainly, and the cottons are also European. 
The railway and the protective tariff have combined 
to kill the old trade that used to exist between Bokhara 
and India, passing over the trade route through 
Afghanistan. The fine architecture all belongs to 
the past. one of the mosques was ornamented with 



ch. xx Bokhara 

beautiful designs in brickwork, enhanced by a fine 
note of colour near the top of the minarets in green 
tiles. The colour ornamentation of the mosques is 
for the most part much more restrained than that of 
Samarkand, but seen in the midst of the uniform dust 
colour of its sun-dried bricks it is the more effective. 
There are not nearly so many trees as at Samarkand, 
though outside one of the city gates we found a 
shady road, and there are twelve large canals in the 
neighbourhood to supply the gardens as well as the 
ordinary drinking supply. A crowd of camels was 
waiting hard by ; presumably they remain outside the 
city because the streets are too narrow and tortuous 
to be blocked by such unwieldly beasts. There was 
an elevated booth on the other side of the gate where 
the gay throng seemed to be engaged in the acl: of 
worship and pleasure simultaneously ; but the fore- 
ground of the picture was filled up with a compact 
mass of graves, looking as if they were centuries old. 

The largest building in the city is the mosque of 
Kelan, built by Tamerlane, and there are many other 
mosques varying in size and interest. We climbed 
up to the roof of one for the sake of the view, but it 
was not much, and we were told that we should have 
gone up a tower for the purpose. Almost every 
minaret is surmounted by a stork's nest, for Bokhara 
is noted for its storks. 

As we came away we saw a string of covered carts 

with gay carpets over them making their way to the 

station. They were backed up to a siding, where 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xx 

the veiled beauties within them were rapidly trans- 
ferred to second-class carriages away from the public 
gaze. Then the gay coverings were folded up and 
put in the luggage van, and the carriages were brought 
round and attached to our train ; evidently they con- 
tained people of importance, for there was a large 
crowd of natives to see them off, and on reaching 
Kazan their carriages were again detached prepara- 
tory to being joined to the express as soon as it 
arrived. Many Persians are to be found throughout 
Turkestan ; the railway stations are crowded with 
them, and our Russian Red Cross nurse told us a 
charming idyllic story which I cannot forbear repeat- 
ing, of one of their veiled beauties with whom she 
had talked on her journey. The Persian lady was a 
princess travelling with her husband on their honey- 
moon. The husband said they had seen one another 
seven years ago in a garden, and had fallen deeply in 
love. Owing to his inferior rank the princess's 
father would not hear of their marriage, and it was 
only after seven years that his consent was at last 
obtained. " She is not beautiful as she was then," he 
continued, but there was a look of great tenderness on 
both their faces, showing that the love at all events 
had not diminished, and they further explained that 
they had determined to have a European honeymoon, 
and were now on their travels. Another happy 
couple whom our friend met was guarded by the 
wife's stalwart brothers. The husband and wife had 

been married nine years and were still deeply in love, 


ch. xx Bokhara 

but they were very sad because the wife (aged twenty- 
one) had as yet no son. They were now on a pilgrim- 
age to pray for one, as the husband said he had not 
taken a second wife, nor did he wish to do so, " but, 

of course, if Providence did not send a son ." He 

repudiated the idea that as a Mohammedan he might 
be expecled to have four wives if he chose, and said 
he was very fond of his present wife. Certainly the 
position of women is the worst evil of Mohammed- 
anism, taken in connection with Mohammed's own 
history, and in the light of the teaching of the 

It might have been hoped that Russian influence 
would have had some effect in ameliorating things ; 
but even the Russophile Skrine * admits that it has had 
no civilizing influence on the Khanate of Bokhara. 
Slavery, tyranny, and barbarism are still allowed free 
scope, in order that theirdisintegrating effect may the 
more readily place it under Russian dominion. 

1 See "The Heart of Asia : a History of Russian Turkestan and the 
Central Asian Khanates from the Earliest Times," by;F. H. Skrine and 
E. D. Ross. 



Through the Caucasus 

WE left Kazan for the homeward journey, 
intending only to stop at Vienna on the 
way, but fate decreed otherwise. The 
train started in the evening, and we travelled two 
nights and a day through flat country to the Caspian 
Sea. The railway through Turkestan runs parallel 
first with the Afghan frontier — across which no 
Russian dare step on pain of his life — and then parallel 
with the Persian border. The mountains of Persia 
formed a beautiful outline against the stormy sky as 
we passed through Askabad, the southernmost point 
of the line, and when the rain came down in blinding 
torrents we watched the patient camels and their 
drivers on the plain, behaving as if completely ob- 
livious of the storm. Not so the Cossack on his 
fiery steed ; he looked as if possessed by the storm 
demon, tearing across the plain as if the furies were 
behind him. A land of strange contrasts — the im- 
movable calm of the East, and, vainly beating against 
it, the restless West. The question forces itself 
irresistibly upon the mind — which will conquer ? 
The sun shone brightly next morning as we woke 


-VL. t gi ! 


f-; ■!?,=! 


1 i - -■!■ 1 - \\ 

■ - r-^i 

ch. xxi Through the Caucasus 

on the shores of the Caspian Sea, and it looked calm 
and inviting, so different from the description of his 
stormy journey given by Anthony Jenkinson in the 
sixteenth century. He says : " This sea is freshwater 
in many places, and in other places as salt as our great 
Ocean. It hath many goodly Rivers falling into it, 
and it avoideth not itselfe except it be underground. 
During the time of our Navigation wee set up the 
redde crosse of S. George in our flagges, for honour of 
the Christians, which I suppose was never seen in the 
Caspian Sea before." The terminus of the railway line 
is a miserable little sun-baked village called Krasno- 
vodsk, with only one imposing edifice, the railway 
station. We took our things at once to the boat, 
through a maze of railway trucks and carriages, and 
were delighted to find it a comfortable little steamer, 
with a Finnish captain who had served long on English 
ships and looked like a Scotchman. There was a 
gigantic sturgeon lying on the landing-stage, and he 
told us some have been caught in the Caspian Sea 
weighing two tons. Our voyage only lasted about 
thirteen hours, but none of the passengers save myself 
faced dinner, and I was surprised to see next morning 
that there had been some eight or nine on board. 
During the night a little child died, so there was a 
delay while the health officer made his inquiry, and 
we were all duly inspected. 

The view of Baku, although seen through driving 
rain, was eminently picturesque, and the old ruined 
maiden's tower (in the centre of my sketch) which 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xxi 

is close to the wharf stands up boldly from amongst 
the modern buildings. Forty years ago Baku was a 
small town with its picturesque eastern quarter, but 
now it is a city boasting more than a quarter of a 
million inhabitants, as cosmopolitan as a seaport on 
the Mediterranean. The extraordinary change is of 
course due to the discovery of oil, which has brought 
wealth, ugliness, and other undesirable things to the 
surrounding country. 

The country round Baku is hideous, a sort of 
eruption of oil derricks covers miles of it. These are 
pyramidal buildings like square mill chimneys, only 
considerably thicker at the base, and there are no 
less than 2000 at Balakhani closely packed together. 
There is such an abundance of oil that in many parts 
it is only necessary to make a hole in the ground 
with a stick and a jet of flame will rise in the air. 
on still nights it is possible to set light to the oil 
which gathers on the surface of the sea. No wonder 
that the Parsees worshipped the strange fire, and 
there still exists a curious temple at a place called 
Surakhany, about half a day's journey from Baku, 
where the so-called "eternal fires" burn, though the 
last worshippers left it some quarter of a century 
ago. The modern spirit has changed it into a profit- 
able petroleum factory. 

The town is evidently well worth seeing, but the 
pitiless rain drove us to the Hotel d'Europe, and we 
were glad to resume our journey, deciding to go 

round by Tiflis instead of direct from Baku to Vienna. 




ch. xxi Through the Caucasus 

There is a through train to the frontier, Volochisk, 
which takes four nights and three days, and from 
thence it is another day and night journey to Vienna. 
We were told that it would be only a difference of 
hours if we took the other route, and that by so 
doing we could see the magnificent pass through the 
Caucasus, travelling from Tirlis to Vladi-Kavkaz by 
public automobile. It was impossible in Baku to 
ascertain anything definite as to the hours of starting 
or arriving of the automobile, but as our train was 
due at 6.30 a.m. we fondly imagined we should be 
in time to catch it. Nothing of the sort. With 
Russian perversity it started in connection with no 
train, but at 6 a.m. We could hardly regret the 
delay, however, for we found ourselves in such com- 
fortable quarters at the quiet Hotel de Londres, which 
had been recommended to us, and we should have 
appreciated it the more had we known then that 
they were the last beds we should occupy till we 
reached London a week later. 

Tirlis is well worth a visit : it is situated on the lofty 
banks of a tumultuous river, and its green and red roofs, 
varied by the gleaming domes of the churches, are most 
picturesque. There is a large number of these, and 
Tirlis has become the home of many religious refugees, 
for in order to stamp out heresy, orthodox Russia exiles 
her Baptists, Stundists, &c, to the outlying parts of the 
empire, such as Siberia and the Caucasus. It boasts 
a fine German church, also a Swedish mission, and 
a depot of the Bible Society. The Swedish mission- 


The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xxi 

aries have been working there for twenty-two years, 
but are not allowed by the Government to have any 
medical or educational work, which greatly limits their 
usefulness. It is hard work, but bravely done. 

Tirlis is noted for its sulphur baths, and attracts many 
visitors from different parts of Russia on that account. 
After a drive round the town we went up the funicular 
railway, and from the summit a magnificent panoramic 
view is to be had, for Tirlis is in the heart of the moun- 
tains. The ruins of the old walls can be traced on the 
north side of the river, and the old Georgian fortress, 
now included in the botanical garden. Tirlis was 
founded in the fifth century, and became the capital of 
the Georgian kingdom in the beginning of the sixth 
century. It fell into the hands of Russia in I 80 1 , and 
the feelings of the Georgians are still intensely bitter 
after a century of foreign rule. It is a cosmopolitan 
city, and Professor Brugsch estimates that seventy lan- 
guages may be heard in it. one unusual feature of 
the population is that the men are double the number 
of the women. 

At 5.30 next morning we set out for the automobile 
and secured our seats ; it was a covered car to seat nine 
passengers, but we were only six, which certainly seemed 
a sufficient load for the road we had to cover. The 
earlier part of the way we sped through pretty wooded 
country, with picturesque villages and ruined fortresses 
dotted among the crags on either side of the road. 
They were not so numerous as to punctuate the scenery 
in the way they do on the Rhine, but just to remind 


ch. xxi "Through the Caucasus 

one that this was the Georgian military road in the old 
days. Our chauffeur was a good one, but unfortu- 
nately his hooter was as hoarse as a raven and not even 
as loud, so that there was no means of warning the 
vehicles ahead, which caused constant delay on the 
narrow road. Before we had proceeded far we saw a 
comical accident owing to the soft condition of the 
road ; a private motor car on one side and a cart on the 
other had each sunk deep into the soil in trying to 
avoid one another. Fortunately there was plenty of 
assistance at hand, for the cart belonged to a party of 
emigrants, and soon both vehicles were dug out and 
pushed on to solid ground. 

The day was beautiful, and the scent of hawthorn, 
wild roses and thyme, yellow azalea and lime-trees 
filled the air, and the scenery became increasingly wild 
and beautiful. After three hours' drive we halted for 
half-an-hour near a town on the outskirts of which 
musketry practice was going on, then we began 
the main ascent of the pass. The road became very 
steep, and the air cold and damp as we zigzagged up 
the mountain. There were brilliant patches of king- 
cups, and amongst them beautiful tall snowdrops in 
great profusion. Instead of cultivated land there were 
pastures full of flocks of sheep and goats, shepherded 
by bright-looking boys. Of all the passes I have seen 
in Europe this is certainly the finest. one seems to 
be right amongst the snow fields, and the road some- 
times passes between high walls of snow or through 
sheds built with great solidity. We stopped one hour 

2 35 

The Face of Russian Turkestan ch. xxi 

for lunch at the village where we met the automobile 
going the reverse way, and again later at the foot of 
Mt. Kasbec for another half-hour. Kasbec is 16,546 
feet in height, namely, 100 feet higher than Mont 
Blanc. on its slope there is a typical Caucasian 
village, as seen in the sketch. From the time when 
we started on the down-hill road, however, we lost all 
pleasure in the scenery. Our driver suddenly became 
utterly reckless under the influence (as we learnt later 
on) of pressure brought to bear on him by one of the 
passengers, who wanted to arrive early at Vladikavkaz. 
We simply dashed down the road and round corners, 
at the imminent peril of our necks, scattering horses 
and carts in wild confusion into the ditch or up banks 
to what seemed to be certain destruction. only once 
did the chauffeur stop, on the demand of a man with a 
rifle ; he admitted that he was frightened, for not 
long ago the auto had been held up by brigands. It 
was a momentary pause, however, and we dashed on 
as recklessly as before. Finally on entering the town 
a horse took fright and dragged its cart into the ditch, 
overturning it completely, but the chauffeur merely 
smiled and drove on. How thankful we were to draw 
up safely at last at the Grand Hotel at Vladikavkaz at 
6 p.m. We had some hours to spare before our train 
started, so we made our way to the telegraph office in 
order to wire home. The polite clerk, in answer to our 
inquiry, said that it took much less time to telegraph 
to England than to any place in Russia, and that it 
would probably be delivered in London in an hour's 



■<' : ' : 



ch. xxi Through the Caucasus 

time ; in point of facl, the telegram was never delivered 
at all. German we found the foreign language best 
understood in Russia, and for the benefit of inexperi- 
enced travellers I will conclude my volume with a 
brief account of our crossing the frontier. 

At Tiflis we gave up our passports (according to 
regulation) to the hotel-keeper, stating where we had 
come from and our next halting place, namely Vienna. 
The police have to put their official signatures on the 
passport wherever you stop on Russian soil, but also in 
addition something further when you wish to leave the 
country, and every time the passport is vise-ed the 
traveller has to pay. We presumed that this had been 
properly done at Tiflis, having paid for it, but when 
we reached Volochisk and the officials came for all the 
passengers' passports, they looked at ours and returned 
them to us in a rough, surly way, saying something that 
we could not understand, instead of carrying them off 
with the others. Every one was locked up in the train, 
and in due course of time the officials returned with 
the passports and gave them back to their owners. 
They pointed us to the door, and proceeded to put our 
luggage out. A lady from an adjoining carriage came 
and explained the situation ; the passports had not been 
properly signed for leaving the country, and we should 
have to telegraph to the police at Tiflis before we 
should be allowed to leave. " How long will it take ? " 
we asked in dismay. " Oh ! not more than three or 
four days ! " We inquired if there was no method of 
tipping by which we could escape such a dismal pros- 


The Face of Russian Turkesta7i ch. xxi 

peel, but she was emphatic in denying it. She sug- 
gested, however, that by treble payment we could send 
a quick telegram instead of a slow one, and she got her 
husband to go and explain our sad condition to the 
officer in charge of the station. He was fortunately 
able to speak a little German, and he ordered an un- 
derling to go and write the necessary telegram to the 
police at Tiflis. The little colonel was in full regi- 
mentals, and wore spurs, and the station had a military 
guard ; he had to be there on arrival of every train 
apparently, and acted as stationmaster. He reassured 
us by saying that we might hope for an answer in the 
course of the afternoon (it was now about ten in the 
morning), in which case we could take the evening 
train to Vienna. We had the melancholy satisfaction 
of finding that we were not the only people whose 
passports were unsatisfactory ; in fact no one seemed 
surprised about it except ourselves. We tried to 
beguile the weary hours by watching the custom-house 
officials enjoying themselves over the parcel post ; a 
number of muslin dress lengths were unpacked and 
inspected, as well as sundry other things. The 
restaurant was a source of amusement as well as com- 
fort to us, and was far superior to an English one at 
a similar station. At long intervals trains arrived, and 
we visited the telegraph office from time to time. 

We studied the " toilette " that went on in the 
ladies' waiting-room, and when night came and still 
no answer, we debated what to do next. At 9.30 

we saw our hopes of a comfortable bed next night 


ch. xxi Through the Caucasus 

disappear, but we still felt it would be well to leave 
at 2.30 a.m. if fate permitted. The " hotel," a small 
cottage within sight of the station, we did not fancy, 
so we resigned ourselves to the small rest obtainable 
on a wooden bench and the window ledge. Every 
time a train arrived the colonel appeared also, and I 
fear he got rather tired of our polite request for in- 
formation ; the importunate widow would have had 
no chance with him. What an extraordinary occu- 
pation for an officer ; but he sought to beguile the 
time by hob-nobbing with the large staff of employees 
who, doubtless for an absurdly small wage, spend 
most of the twenty-four hours loafing about the 

At last the night ended, and we saw with pity a 
group of emigrants trying to breakfast under a dull 
drizzling sky opposite the station. A friendly porter 
gave us the news we were longing for — a telegram had 
arrived. No words can express our delight, for we 
seemed to know every stone of that railway platform, 
and we rushed to the office to demand our passports, 
of which the officials had taken possession. Our de- 
tention had lasted twenty-four hours, and as we shook 
the dust from our feet we failed not to be thankful for 
the Providence which caused us to be citizens of 
a land of liberty instead of tyranny. It is only in 
Russia that one thoroughly realises it ; and the irk- 
someness of it becomes intolerable. " Implicit obedi- 
ence, silent subjection, and the irresistible power of 
despotism are here brought home effectively to the 


The Face of Russian Turkestati ch. xxi 

stranger. But this impression remains with the 
traveller throughout the entire journey — 

1 Be silent ; keep yourselves in curb — 
We are watched in look and word.' 

An Empire of one hundred and thirty millions of 
prisoners and of one million gaolers — such is Russia." 



^BDULLAH, 190 
Afforestation, 177 
Afghanistan, 226, 230 
Agriculture in Korea, 125 

in Siberia, 173 
Alexander the Great, 203 
American Missions, 68, 80 
Amir of Bokhara, 201, 203, 221 
Amu Daria, 183 
Amur region, 158 
Ancestor worship, 70, 86 
Angara River, 155 
An-san, 103 
Antung, 58, 61, 73 
Aphrosiab, 219 
Arabian Invasion, Turkestan, 223 

Mohammedanism, 223 
Aral Sea, 174, 175 
Arctic Ocean, 162, 163 
Arithmetic, 38 
Arnold, 223 

Asceticism, Mohammedan, 224 
Ashekhabat, 160 
Ashiho, Ch. xiii. 
Askabad, 230 

Astor House, Moukden, 3 1 
Australasia, 38 

Australian Presbyterians, 79, 108 
Azerbijana, 198 

gABER, 195 

Baghdad, 195 
Baikal, Lake, 154, 159, 162 
Bajazet, Sultan, 200 


Baku, 231-233 
Balak Nani, 223 
Balkh, 223 
Baltic fleet, 1 12 
Baptists, 233 
Baths, Chinese, 142 

Sulphur, 234 
Bazaars, 185, 214, 226 
Behren, 22 
Beng, 226 
Bibi Khanum, 209-213 

Little, 210, 213 
Bible Society, B. and F., 161, 
173, 174,222,233 

Study, 38, 75, 77, 82 

Women, 77, 143 
Black Sea, 169, 174 
Blanc, Edouard, 191, 218 
Blanc, Mont, 236 
Blind, 49, 81 
Bokhara, Ch. xx., 176, 183, 

201, 208, 215, 218 
Boxers, 22, 23 
Braille, 81 
Bronzes, 21, 22 
Broussa, 201 
Browning, 175 

Brugniere, Monseigneur, 89, 90 
Brugsch, 234 
Buddhism, 45, 70 
Buddhists, 48, 49, 57, 159 
Buriats, 159-162 
Burkans, 160 
Bushnell, 21 
1 Q 


QAMELS, 214, 227 

Cano, Empress, 198, 
Capus, 172, 182 
Carpets, 209, 217 
Carts in Turkestan, 18 1 
Caspian Sea, 175, 231 
Catherine of Russia, 223 
Caucasus, Ch. xxi. 
Chang Chun, 8 
Chang Shan, 47, 51 
Cheliabinsk, 166 
Chemkend, 183 
Chemulpo, 134-137 
Chiao, Mr., 67, 114, 122, 

. J 33, /77 

Child burial, 42, 43 

"Chinese Art," 21 

generosity, 25, 27 

industry, 125 

windows, 10 1 

writing, 63, 68, 121, 124 
Ching dynasty, 18 
Christie, Dr., 23, 26 
Church, Chemulpo, 136 

Liao Yang, 40, Ch. 

Moukden, 22 

Pyong Yang, 74-77 

Tiflis, 233 
Citadel of Samarkand, 201, 
Clavijo, 195, 197, 199, 210 
College, Union, 78, 79 
Colonisation, Manchuria, 6, 

Siberia, 158 
Colporteurs, 173, 174 
Commercial college, 55 
Concessions, timber, 73 

mining, 61 
Confucianism, 70, 77 






Conference, Edinburgh World 

Missionary, 50, 80 
Constantinople, 186 
Consul, English, 17, 20, 141 
Convicts, 155, 158 
Cossacks, 165, 230 
Court life, Korea, 96-101 
Crops in Manchuria, 7, 45 

Korea, 107 
Crown Prince, Korea, 98-99 

Princess, 99 
Crypt, Tamerlane's Tomb, 192 
Currency, 33, 40, 213 
Custom-house, 151, 152, 238 
Curtin, Jeremiah, 1 59-162 

£)ALLET, Pere, 92 
Dalny, 1 3 8- 1 40 
Steamer to, 134, 135 
Damascus, 200 
Danish Lutheran Mission, 27 
Daveluy, 91 
" Deer's horns," 22, 29 
Delhi, 195, 196 
Diamond Mountains, Ch. xii. 
Dnieper River, 174 
Don River, 174 
Doolittle, 31 
Durrieux, 212 

J? ARMUFFS, 5, 26 

Education, Korea, 53, 61, 
79, 81, 128, 129 
Manchuria, 28, 37, 38 
Medical, 27 
Moslem, 145, 204-208, 223, 

Russian, 164, 165, 182, 206 
Siberia, 162, 164 
Theological, Korea, 79 



Elephants, 198 
Elms, 178, 215 
Emperor, late Chinese, 23 

Korean, 73, 96-100, 102 
Empress Cano, 1 98-200, 209-2 1 3 

late Dowager, China, 23 

Min, Korea, 98-102 
Emigrants, Chinese, 34 
English language, 140 
Eunuchs, 97, 99, 101 
Execution, 144, 208 
Exiles, 233 

" pACE of Korea," 65-148 

Fauvelle, 212 
Flowers, Caucasus, 235 

Korea, 107, 117, 123 

Manchuria, 52 
Foo Ling tombs, 12, 16-19 
Fox temples, 31, 32, 45 
Fusan, Ch. xi. 

QALE, Dr., 103 

Genghiz Khan, 145, 194, 
195, 204 
Geography, 38 
Georgians, 234, 235 
German Church, 233 

language, 140, 188, 237 
Giggies, 67 

" Gluttonous Place," 208 
Gold mining, 63, 156 
Grain market, 213 
Gur Amir, 189-192 

J-JAZRET, 175 

Hazreti Shah Zindch, 215- 
Hazreti Timur mosque, 175 
" Heart of Asia," 229 

Hell, Temple of, 32, 48 

Herbelot, 205 

Hingking, 12 

Hissar, 214 

Histoire de T ' Eglise de Koree^ 84 

Holden, 195 

"Home of Tamerlane," Ch.xviii. 

Horse sacrifice, 160 

Hospitals : Hsin Muntun, 34, 35 

Chemulpo, 136, 137 

Liao Yang, 48 

Moukden, 23-28 
Hotels : Astor House, Moukden, 

3 1 

Commercial, Kazan, 220 

d'Europe, Kazan, 220 
Baku, 232 

de France, Tashkent, 178 

Grand, Samarkand, 188 
Vladikavkaz, 236 

Londres, Tiflis, 233 

Russian, Kharbin, 3 

Yamato, Kwan-cheng-tze, 8 
Hsin Muntun, 25, Ch. hi. 
Hulan, Ch. i., 142 
"Hunger Desert," 188 


India, 194-196, 198, 226 
International Sleeping Car, 148, 

Invocation, Buriat, 160, 161 
Iranian, 184 
Irish Presbyterian, 27 
Irkutsk, 155-157, 164 
Irtish River, 164 
Ishan, 224 

Islam, 194, 196,218,222,224,226 
Ito, Prince, 106 
Ivan the Terrible, 194 

2 43 


JADE, 21, 191 
Jagatai, 185 
Japanese banks, 104, 105, 138 
inns, 60, 61 
occupation of Korea, 105 

of Dalny, 138, 139 
officers, 59, 107, 131 
steamers, in, 134, 137 
trade, 139 
traveller, 59, 60 
war, Korea, 85 
Russia, 42, 43, 73 
Jaxartes, 175 
Jenkinson, 231 
Jesuits, 85, 146 
Jews, 145, I5 6 

"Journey in Southern Siberia," 

J^AABA, 216 

Karagatch, 215 
Kasbec, Mount, 236 
Katholische Missions Statistik^ 92 
Kazan, 176, 220, 221, 228 
Kelan, 227 
Keuk Tash, 201 
Kharbin, 3,4,57, 141, 148, 167, 

Khiva, 122, 183 
Khojend, 183, 185 
Khokand, 183, 226 
Khorasan, 194 
Ki Cha, 68, 71, 72 
Kil Moksa, 77, 78 
Kim, Andre, 91 
Kinel, 167-169 
Kirghiz, 165, 172, 175 

Steppes, 172 
Kitchener, 45 
Kite-flying, 46 


Kobdo, 163 

Koran, 189, 206, 212, 216, 225, 

Korea, history, 72, 73 

population, 62, 63 

size, 62 

war with China, 73 
Japan, 85 
Korean education, 63, 79, 81, 
128, 129 

dress, 71, 76, 94, 96, IOO 

gate, Liao Yang, 42, 43 

generosity, 80, 83 

hats, 69 

official life, 96, 97 

products, 63, 107 

script, 63 

shops, 68 

"Sketches," 103 

water-carriers, 69 
Krasnojarsk, 162 
Krasnovodsk, 231 
Kropatkin, 164, 184 
Krose, 92 
Kufic, 190 
Kurgan, 166 
" Kuropatkin's Eye," 44 
Kwan-cheng-tze, 6, 40 

[" AND nationalisation, 157,158 

Li Dsuchung, 13 
Liao Tong, 42, 138 
Liao Yang, 12, 40, Ch. iv. 
Lobanoff, 73 

Long White Mountains, 23 
Louis, Saint, 197 

JyfADRESSAH, 187, 223 

Bibi Khanum, 209-213, 



El Azhar, 223 

Ishrak Khaneh, 219 

Khodja Akhrar, 219 

Shir Dar, 207 

Tilla Kari, 204, 208, 209 

Timur Malik, 219 

Uleg Beg, 204-207 
Manchester, 214 
Manchus, The, 1 1 — 1 5, 42 
Manchu dress, 14, 36 

dynasty, 11, 12, 14, 43 

history, 1 1— 1 5 

inns, 52 

marriage, 15 

policy, 1 3 
Manchuria town, 3 
" Manchuria's Strategic Rail- 
way," 59 
Medical Missions, 23-28, 48, 

142, 143 
assistants, 26, 48, 137 
training college, 26, 27 

Medicines, Chinese, 46, 47 

Merv, 222 

Mesnevi, 245 

Methodist Episcopal, 80 

Ming dynasty, 13, 20 
tombs, 19, 20 

Mining concessions, 63 

Mission, American Methodist 
Episcopal, 80, 81 
American Presbyterian, 79 
Australian Presbyterian, 7 9, 1 08 
Canadian Presbyterian, 79 
Danish Lutheran, 27 
Greek Orthodox Church, 161, 

165, 222 
Irish Presbyterian, 29, 36-39 
Scotch Presbyterian 7, 27, 48, 

Roman Catholic, 64, Ch. x., 

104, 136 
Salvation Army, 104 
Swedish Mission, 221, 233 
Society for the Propagation 

of the Gospel, 89, 136, 

l V 
" Missions Etrangeres," 89 

Mistletoe, 18, 19 

Moffett, Dr., 79 

"MogulEmperors of Hindustan," 

Mohammedan mosques, 145, 
185, 186, 219, 226, 227 
schools, 145, 187, 204-208 
Mohammedanism, China, 145, 
Bokhara, 223, 224, 229 
Siberia, 165, 166, 171 
Turkestan, 185, 186, 206, 
225, 226, 229 
Monasteries, 52, 53, 57, 121 
Mongol customs, 160 
empire, 195 
raids, 194, 223 
Monks, 53, 56, 57, 120-122 
Moscow, 214, 226 
Moukden, Ch. ii., 58 
Mullah, 191, 206, 215, 224 
Museums, 22, 60 

JsJADIR Shah, 191 

Naval commission, 26 
battle, 112, 136 
Nestorian Church, 222 
Newchwang, 25, 55 
New Hebrides, 109 
Nippon Yusen Kaisha, 137 
Noorhachu, 11, 12, 18 



QFFICERS, Japanese, 59, 107, 
123, 124, 131 
Russian, 238, 239 
Oil fields, 232 
Omsk, 164 
ongons, 159 
Orenburg 166, 171 
Orthodox Church, 161, 165, 222 
Othman, 212 
Oxus River, 183 
Oyama, General, 25 


Palace, Moukden, 20-22 

Samarkand, 211-213,215, 216 

Seoul, 93-102 
Parsees, 232 
Passports, 237, 239 
Peasants, Russian, 172, 173 
Pedlars, Korean, 129 
Peking, 13-15, 19, 43> l68 
Permits, 176 
Persians, 185, 201, 209, 228 

architecture, 189, 1 90, 198 
Petropavlosk, 165 
Pichtack, 205 
Piek-i, 85, 86 
Pioneer Point, 71 
Police, Russian, 176, 237-239 
Poplars, 178, 215 
Population, Korea, 62, 63 

Siberia, 157, 158 

Tashkent, 181 

Tiflis, 234 
Porcelain, 21, 22 
Port Nicolas, 73 
"Preaching of Islam," 223 
Presbyterians, 7, 27, 34-37, 79, 

Prisons, 88, 155, 224 


Protestant Missions, 64, 73 

Psalm reader, 165 

Pyong Yang, 62, Ch. vii., viii. 

RALEIGH, Sir Walter, 21 
Railway, Japanese, 8, 40, 51, 
Ch. vi., 105, 107, 108, 

Russian, 8, 167, 173, 174, 220 

South Manchurian, 34, 35 

Trans-Siberian, Ch. xv. 

International Sleeping Car 
Co., 152, 153, 157 

Russian State Express, 152, 

153. T 57> l66 
Red Cross, 25, 174, 222 
Reftari khiraman, 225 
Refugees, Moukden, 24 
Reis, 224 

Remedios, Jean dos, 87 
Righistan, 204, 212 
Ritual worship, 21 
Roman Catholics, 64, Ch. ix., 

Ross, Dr., 13 
Rubruquis, de, 1 97-199 
Russians, 203, 217, 221, 229, 

occupation (Moukden), 23 
police, 176, 237-239 
Russo-Japanese war, 42, 73, 136 

CACRF.E Congregation de la 

Propagande, 89 
Said, Mir Berke, 191 
Samanids, 204 
Samara, 167 
Samarkand, 183, 187, Ch. xix., 

la blen gar die, 212, 2l8 



Sarts, 184, 202, 203, 206, 218 
Schools, 37, 38, 81, 129, 145, 

164, 187, 204-208 
Seminary, Paris, 92 
Senghouni, 85, 86 
Seoul, Ch. x., 131, 132, 134, 135 
"Seven Hates," 11,12 
Shahr-i-Sabz, 193 
Shamanism, 70, 159 
Sheep, Kirghiz Steppes, 172 
Shimonoseki, no 
Shinto, no 

Shops, 16, 68, 69, 180, 214 
Siberia, 154-170 

climate, 154 

crops, 159 

land tenure, 158 

missions, 165 

native inhabitants, 159, 165 

population, 157, 158, 162 

size, 158 

trade, 156 
Silks, 210, 214 
Skrine, 229 
Slavery, 225, 229 
Smith, Dr. Arthur, 43 note 
" Social Life of the Chinese," 

. 3 1 

Society for the Propagation of 

the Gospel, 104, 136, 137 
Songdo, 81 

South Kensington Museum, 22 
Storks, 184, 227 
Stundists, 233 
Sulphur baths, 234 
Sungari River, 3, 5 
Sunnites, 224 
Surakhany, 232 
Swedish Mission, 221, 233 
Syr Daria, 175, 200 

"pAIDSOO, 12 
Taiga, 164 

Tamerlane, 175, Ch. xviii., 201, 

Tang Shan, 25 

Taoist temple, 54 

Tartars, 162 

Tashkent, 168, 170, 176, Ch. 
xvii., 203, 206 

Ta-tsing, 13 

" Ten Parts Imperfect one," 48 

Teragai, 193 

Tide, Korea, 1 12 

Tientsin, 91 

Tiflis, 232-234 

Time-table, 169 

Tobolsk, 165 

Tombs, Daniel's, 217, 218 
Korean, 71, 102-104 
Ming, 13, 19, 20 
Moukden, 12, 16-19, 28-30 
Shah Zindeh's, 215, 216 
Tamerlane's, 189-193 

Tomsk, 163, 164, 174 

Tonghak, 73 

Toprach, 219 

Tortoise, 19 

Trans-Baikal, 154 

Translation Society, 162 

Trans-Siberian Railway, Ch. xv. 

Travel hints, 132, 133, 152, 153, 

2 37 . 
'• Travels in Central Asia," 226 

Tschagu Tschiendogu, 120 

Tschang Do, 125 

Tsiou, 87, 88 

Turanians, 223 

"Turkestan, Into," Ch. xvi. 

history, 183 

town, 175 



Turks, 200 
Tycho Brahe, 205 
Tyenaga, 57 

•[JHER, 160 

Uleg Beg, 204, 205 
Union Medical College, Mouk- 

den, 27 
Union Theological Seminary, 

. 7 8 > 79 
United Free Church of Scotland, 

Un Mun, 61 
Usturdi, 160, 161 
Uzbegs, 175, 185 

yAMBERY, 190, 223, 225 
Vienna, 169, 232, 233 

Vladivostock, 146, 162, 166 

Volga, 174 

Volochisk, 233, 237-239 

" Voyage of Friar William de 
Rubruq uis," 198 

^yAGONSLits, 183 

War god, 70 
Water carriers, 70 
Watering roads, 183, 184 

Waterproofs, 131 

Waterworks, Japanese, 70 

Westwater, Dr., 46 

White Sea, 174 

Wiju, 59 

Wolff, 224 

Woman, 186 

Women's Mission Work, 27, 28, 

77, H2-I44, 222 
Wonsan, 108, 1 11 

X-RAYS, 25 

Xavier, Francis, 146 

yALU River, 59 
Yamaga, 73 

Yamato Hotel, Dalny, 138 
Kwan-cheng-tze, 6 

Yenisei River, 162, 163 

Young, Dr., 17 

Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, 104, 132 

Yun, Hon. T. H., 61 

^ENEDJIN'S Tomb, 184 
Zenghiata's Tomb, 184 
Zoological Gardens, 104 

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