좋은 밀가루, 나쁜 밀가루, Flour to avoid
밀가루는 모두 같은것으로 아는 사람들이 많다.
한국어 인터넽에는 아래 1, 2, 3, 세가지만 나오고,
나쁜 밀가루 정보는 매우 적다.
1. Bread Flour, 강력분 [Protein-Gluten 12-14%]
2. All-Purpose Flour, 중력분 [Protein-Gluten 10-12%]
3. Cake Flour, 박력분 [Protein-Gluten 5-8%]
위 3가지만 있고 피해야하는 밀가루종류는 없거나 찾기가 어렵다.
인색해서 제공을 안하기 때문이다.
그러나 영어로 flour to avoid, harmful flour 찾으면 정보들이 나온다.
좋은 밀가루 healthy flour 는
whole grain flour, unbleached, unrefined flour 이다.
아래 몇가지는 피해야하는 밀가루이다.
All purpose flour, 표백한 밀가루 ; 다목적 밀가루 , 중력분 (밀에서 기울과 배아를 제거한 후 만든 밀가루) 그러나 해로운 내용은 한국어 인터넽으로는 찾기 어렵다.
Bleached flour ; 표백 밀가루, 흰밀가루,
Enriched flour ; 강화 밀가루, [ 화학물질을 넣어 영양을 강화했다 ]
Refined flour ; 정제밀가루,
해로운 밀가루 내용들
* Bleached flour =
▶ 유해성 Side Effect
Potassium Bromate ; Classified as a complete carcinogen, causing tumors to form and grow in the kidneys, thyroid and mesothelium of all mice when tested at various level of drinking water. Lesions were found when the potassium bromate levels were as low as 1.5mg per day. Potassium bromate is nephrotoxic in humans, meaning it has a poisonous effect on the kidneys when it’s taken orally. It’s banned from being used in food in the European Union, Canada, Nigeria, Brazil, Peru, Sri Lanka and China. In the U.S., bromate was approved to be used before 1958, when law was created to ban potentially carcinogenic substances, so the FDA now urges bakers to voluntarily stop using it.
Benzoyl Peroxide ; During processing, benzoyl peroxide is almost always converted to benzoic acid, which in most cases isn’t harmful. However, it could be unpleasant for those who have a digestive system that isn’t in good working order. When the stomach is more base than acidic (leaning towards black coffee instead of lemon juice), absorption of benzoic acid decreased the natural breakdown and fermentation of glucose (the sugars that our bodies need to function properly) is decreased by 95%. Researchers have also speculated that benzoyl peroxide may interfere with how the body converts linoleic (omega-6) and linolenic (omega-3) acids. How the addition of this chemical effects other essential nutrients found in flour, i.e. vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin,etc. is still not known.
Azodicarbonamide ; Scientists in the U.K. believe that azodicarbonamide is a possible cause of asthma and have banned its use. It’s also banned in the European Union and Australia, and Singapore has penalties of 15 years in prison and a $450,000 fine for using it. The U.S. hasn’t banned its use because the FDA doesn’t believe anyone is currently using it… although many fast food chains use it in their breads.
Calcium Peroxide ; I wasn’t able to find much on calcium peroxide, but it is listed on an Australian food additives guide with the following next to it: synthetic, bread enhancer, bleaching agent for flour, asthmatics and people with a history of allergies BEWARE. Yes, “beware” is in all capitals on the list. Maybe that’s why it’s banned in the European Union, Australia and New Zealand? It’s on Whole Foods’s “unacceptable ingredient” list (bromated flour is listed too), and it’s listed as an ingredient in the world’s oldest hamburger. Even without additional research, that seals the deal for me!
Chlorine Dioxide ; This chemical completely destroys any vitamin E that remained after the milling process and slowed growth rates over multiple generations. (source) The FDA lists chlorine dioxide as a toxic substance, although it must be proven that it is harmful before it can officially be banned.
The problem with bleached flour is that during the bleaching process, a byproduct called alloxan[알록산 (동물 실험에서 당뇨병을 유발시키는 데 씀)] is produced.
Alloxan is used to produce diabetes in lab animals (rat and mice) so they can study diabetes treatments. FDA still allows chemical processes to be used without food that produces alloxan. Also, as with any refined foods, A LOT of nutrients are lost in the process.
in bleached flour, too many lost nutrients ;;
- Half of the beneficial unsaturated fatty acids
- Virtually all of the vitamin E
- Fifty percent of the calcium
- Seventy percent of the phosphorus
- Eighty percent of the iron
- Ninety eight percent of the magnesium
- Fifty to 80 percent of the B vitamins,
* Differences, Bleached and Unbleached flour ;
Bleached and unbleached flour differ in certain ways, including processing, taste, texture, and appearance.
Bleached flour is typically refined, meaning that the nutrient-rich bran and germ of the wheat kernel have been removed, stripping the grain of many of its valuable vitamins and minerals and leaving only the endosperm.
▶ Side Effect ; Bleached flour is treated with chemical agents like benzoyl peroxide, potassium bromate, or chlorine, which helps speed up the aging of the flour. Flour is aged to improve certain qualities for baking.
This chemical process significantly changes the taste, texture, and appearance of the final product, as well as its nutritional profile and potential uses in baking.
Unbleached flour is aged naturally after the milling process is completed. Natural aging takes significantly longer than the bleaching process, which is why bleached flour was created.
Unbleached flour is used in certain recipes due to its distinct texture.
▶ Side Effect ; The chemicals used to speed up the aging process in bleached flour cause it to have a whiter color, finer grain, and softer texture.
Conversely, unbleached flour has a denser grain and tougher texture.
It also tends to have an off-white color, which fades naturally as it ages.
Though there are minimal differences in taste between the two varieties, people with a very sensitive palate may notice a slightly bitter taste in bleached flour.
Bleached flour has a whiter color, finer grain, and softer texture, while unbleached flour has a denser grain and tougher texture. Bleached flour is treated with chemical agents to speed up the aging process.
▶ Side Effect ; The bleaching process may decrease the vitamin E content slightly,
but unbleached flour still contains only minimal amounts, with less than 2% of the Daily Value per cup (125 grams)
However, unbleached, unrefined, whole-wheat varieties may be richer in several important nutrients.
In particular, whole-wheat flour packs more fiber, vitamin E, manganese, copper, and antioxidants.
Both bleached and unbleached flours are also often enriched with B vitamins like folate, niacin, vitamin B6, and thiamine.
* Enriched Flour, Refined Flour =
Uses ; Bread, Cake, Cookies, Brownies, Pretzels, Donuts, Pie crust, Crackers, Pasta, Chicken nuggets-breaded, Pizza,
▶ Side Effect ; Enriched white flour is not absorbed into the body like whole grains.
When you eat Refined Flour, your digestive system quickly and easily breaks down and absorbs it like pure sugar. This causes your blood sugar to spike, which activates insulin, a hormone that herds all those free sugar molecules into cells, causing your blood sugar to drop.
A drop in blood sugar is actually the best case scenario.
Over time, these cycles can lead to weight gain and insulin resistance.
During this time, you still produce insulin, but it’s no longer able to send sugar into your cells. You’re left with dangerously high blood sugar, which leads to blood vessel damage, increased oxidative stress, and depleted antioxidant activity, while contributing to high blood pressure.
Why Whole Grains Are Better?
On the other end of the spectrum, whole grains are absorbed from the digestive tract slowly because they contain both types of fiber and a wide range of phytonutrients.
The fiber and nutrients help maintain your blood sugar, help you feel full for longer, preserve your insulin sensitivity, and protect you from a slew of diet-related diseases.
Refined flour does the opposite. It increases the risk and incidence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain cancers.
Benefits of Whole Grain Flour ;;
- higher in fiber because the wheat germ and bran are still included.
- are digested more slowly, leaving you feeling fuller for a longer.
- have more nutrients than "enriched" foods.
- are not absorbed like pure sugar, so they won’t spike your blood sugar.
* Gluten-Free Flour Can be Refined, Too
Gluten-free doesn’t always mean healthy. Some gluten-free flours are refined too, including:
- White rice flour, Potato starch, Corn starch, Arrowroot flour, Tapioca starch,
* Refined Flour =
▶ 유해성 Side Effect ; The consumption of refined flour raises blood sugar and insulin, causing metabolic dysfunction.
; Refined flour is depleted in nutrients and contains harmful additives.;
- The high starch content of refined grain and lack of fiber due to the removal of the bran and germ produces a rapid increase in blood sugar when consumed.
- Potassium bromate strengthens gluten development; “bromate” is derived from bromine, a chemical that displaces iodine from tissues throughout the body and may have especially harmful effects on the thyroid.
- Chlorine gas is also used as a bleaching agent and weakens gluten development, making a thicker batter and stiffer dough. Chlorine gas undergoes oxidation reactions with proteins in flour, creating alloxan, a toxic byproduct that induces diabetes in animal models.
- Benzoyl peroxide is a bleaching agent used to impart a “pure” white hue to refined flour. This is the same industrial chemical used in some acne medications.
; Refined flour displaces healthier foods from the diet ;
The refining process results in a substantial loss of dietary fiber, B vitamins, iron, magnesium, and vitamin E.
[Refined Flour] 10 Harmful Health Effects;
1. Weight Gain and Obesity ;
Refined flour may also promote an inflammatory gut microbiota, or inflammation caused by bacteria in the gut, a condition that fosters metabolic dysfunction and weight gain,
2. Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes ;
Refined carbohydrate intake is an established risk factor for insulin resistance, the most powerful predictor of metabolic syndrome and diabetes.
3. Hypertension ;
The consumption of refined carbohydrates—which behave like sugar in the body—can disrupt the relationship between glucose and insulin and ultimately could lead to the development of high blood pressure or worsen existing hypertension.
4. Cardiovascular Disease
Unfortunately, we now understand that these guidelines, which led Americans to consume more refined carbohydrates, may have exacerbated the cardiovascular disease epidemic.
5. Cancer ;
A high intake of refined carbohydrates is associated with a moderate, but statistically significant, increased risk of breast, colon, and endometrial cancers
6. Cognitive Impairment ;
insulin resistance and chronic elevated blood sugar are major risk factors for cognitive impairment, Alzheimer’s disease, and Parkinson’s disease.
Insulin resistance promotes brain dysfunction by impairing glucose transport to the brain, inducing neuroinflammation, altering synaptic plasticity (which harms the brain’s ability to learn and memorize), and stimulating the production of harmful compounds called advanced-glycation end products in the brain.
7. Food Addiction ;
Refined carbohydrates are known to trigger food addiction, a condition in which certain foods-including refined flour products loaded with excess salt or sugar and bad fats (think doughnuts or pretzels.
8. Depression ;
A diet high in refined carbohydrates is associated with an increased risk of depression.
9. Acne ;
The consumption of refined carbohydrates triggers excessive insulin secretion; elevated insulin increases sebum production in skin follicles, leading to obstruction of the follicles and the development of inflamed skin lesions, i.e., pimples.
10. Gluten : only for Celiac Disease,
* 조작된 Whole Grain Flour 도 있다.
If refined flour is so terrible, then whole-grain flour must be better? Not exactly.
Most of the whole-grain flour used to make whole-grain bread and bread products, cereal, and pasta has been milled to a fine particle size, with just some germ and bran added back. This flour may be labeled “whole grain,” but it is still relatively depleted in nutrients and has a higher glycemic index and glycemic load than intact whole-grain kernels such as oats and quinoa.