건강 health

진보통일꿈 2020. 7. 9. 23:10

Sunscreen Sun Cream threatens Aquatic Organisms, Ecotoxin.

Sunscreen, ingredients Side Effects,  UV-blocking ingredients

 

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SunScre S.E, 한글.docx
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Aquatic Organisms ; 수생 생물 (水生生物)

Ecotoxin ; 생태 독소

 

** 한국에서는 자외선 차단제를 sun cream 이라고하지만

영어에서는 sunscreen 을 사용한다.

이게 수생 생물 Aquatic Organisms을 위협하고

생태계 독소 Ecotoxin 가 된다.

 

사람도 발라서는 안되는게

암의원인, 홀몬 교란, 정자 난자 생식계 reproductive system 을 망친다.

 

자외선 [ Ultraviolet Ray, Ultraviolet Light]

UVA (longest wavelength) 피부를 그을리게 하고, 쭈글쭈글 노화현상을 일으키는 자외선-> PA로 표시.

 

UVB (medium wavelength) 소독 역할도 있지만 과도하게 노출되었을 때 피부암 유발 자외선 -> SPF로 표시.

 

UVC (shortest wavelength)

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자외선 차단제 성분들

 

1. Tinosorb S and M, [Found in chemical sunscreens]

2. Mexoryl SX [Found in chemical sunscreens]

3. Oxybenzone, [Benzophenone-3] [Found in physical sunscreens]

4. Octinoxate / Octyl methoxycinnamate [Found in chemical sunscreens]

5. Octocrylene

6. Avobenzone [replace of Oxybenzone] [Found in chemical sunscreens]

7. Titanium dioxide [Found in physical sunscreens]

8. Zinc oxide [found in physical sunscreens]

9. and 10. PABA [Para-Aminobenzoic] and Trolamine salicylate PABA

11. Cylcopentasiloxane / Cyclomethicone.

12. Formaldehyde, Diazolidinyl urea, Quaternium-15, DMDM Hydantoin and Hydroxymethylglycinate.

13. Homosalate

14. Methylisothiazolinone

15. Sodium lauryl and laureth sulfate (SLS/SLES)

16. Zinc Oxide [Nano particles]

17. Retinyl Palmitate

18. Phthalates

19. Synthetic musks

 

1. Tinosorb S and M, [Found in chemical sunscreens] = One of the more popular European ingredients, Tinosorb S can protect against UVB and UVA rays, long and short, making it one of the most ideal ingredients for sun damage prevention. Tinosorb also helps stabilize other sunscreen filters and is allowed in concentrations of up to 10 percent.

However, the FDA hasn’t approved this ingredient for several reasons, citing, according to Newsweek, a “lack of information” and only being asked for “a decision, not an approval.”

 

The ingredient is often added to sunscreen to boost its efficiency and has yet to be connected to any high risk factors.

* Fast facts ;;

- Approved in: Australia, Japan, Europe,

- Banned in : United States

- Best for: Antioxidant benefits and sun damage prevention

- Coral safe ? ; Unknown?

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2. Mexoryl SX [Found in chemical sunscreens]

= Mexoryl SX is a UV filter used in sunscreens and lotions across the globe. It has abilities to block UVA1 rays, which are the long wave rays that spur skin aging.

 

2008 review-Trusted Source showed it’s an effective UV absorber and ideal for preventing sun damage.

While this ingredient has been in European circulation since 1993, the FDA didn’t approve this ingredient for L’Oréal until 2006. Medically, it’s been approved for adults and children over 6 months of age.

Look for it with: Avobenzone. When combined with avobenzone, UVA protection of both ingredients are enhanced and stabilized-Trusted Source.

* Fast facts

- Approved in : United States, Australia, Europe, Japan

- Banned in : None

- Best for : Sun damage prevention

- Coral safe? Yes,

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3. Oxybenzone [Benzophenone-3] [Found in physical sunscreens]

= Oxybenzone, often found in broad-spectrum sunscreens, helps filter both UVB and UVA rays (specifically short UVA). It’s also one of the most popular ingredients, found in the majority of sunscreens in the U.S. market and can make up to 6 percent of the bottle.

 

However, Hawaii has banned this ingredient after a study, created by the Haereticus Environmental lab, found that the ingredient contributed to bleaching and poisoning coral reefs. For environmental reasons, you’ll want to avoid this ingredient and look for “green” sunscreens.

Most recently, a study-Trusted Source found that our skin absorbs sunscreen ingredients like oxybenzone. This caused a spike of interest in “safe” sunscreens, despite the study reporting no harm found and concluding that “these results do not indicate that individuals should refrain from the use of sunscreen.”

Other studies-Trusted Source also confirm that oxybenzone doesn’t significantly demonstrate endocrine disruption.

 

* Fast facts

- Approved in: United States (except Hawaii), Australia, Europe

- Restricted in : Japan

- Best for : Sun damage and burn prevention

- Coral safe? No, may also potentially affect fish,

- Caution: Sensitive skin types will want to skip formulas with this ingredient

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4. Octinoxate / Octyl methoxycinnamate [Found in chemical sunscreens]

= Octinoxate is a common and potent UVB absorber, meaning it’s effective for sun damage prevention. Combined with avobenzone, they can both provide great broad-spectrum protection against burns and aging.

It’s an organic compound and the most widely used UV blocking agent.

This substance produces free radicals when exposed to UV light which could damage your skin. This damage could continue even when you’re out of the sun.

This UV filter that is a direct cause of coral bleaching.

 

This ingredient is allowed in formulations (up to 7.5 percent),

but is banned in Hawaii due to the environmental risks on coral reefs.

* Fast facts

- Approved in: Certain U.S. states, Europe, Japan, Australia

- Banned in : Hawaii, Key West (Florida), Palau

- Best for : Sunburn prevention

- Coral safe? No, may also potentially affect fish,

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5. Octocrylene = It acts as a photosensitizer and raises the production of free radicals when you expose your skin to the sun.

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6. Avobenzone [replace of Oxybenzone] [Found in chemical sunscreens]

= Avobenzone is commonly used to block the full range of UVA rays and is reported as ‘unstable’ in physical sunscreens.

On its own, the ingredient destabilizes when exposed to light. To combat this, it’s often paired with other ingredients (such as mexoryl) to stabilize avobenzone.

 

In many countries, avobenzone is used in combination with zinc oxide and titanium dioxide specifically, but in the United States, the combination isn’t permitted.

 

While it’s found in broad-spectrum sunscreens, it’s often combined with other chemicals because avobenzone by itself will lose 50 to 90 percent Trusted Source of its filtering abilities within an hour of light exposure.

 

In the U.S., the FDA deems this ingredient safe but restricts the concentration amount to 3 percent in sunscreen formulations.

* Fast facts

- Approved in : United States, Australia, Europe

- Banned in : None; restricted use in Japan,

- Best for : Sun damage prevention

- Coral safe? Detectable levels but no harm found?,

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7. Titanium dioxide [Found in physical sunscreens]

= There are two sunscreen ingredients generally recognized as safe and effective, or GRASE, by the FDA, and both are physical sunscreen ingredients. (Note: the GRASE label also means that the FDA won’t be monitoring Trusted Source products with these ingredients.)

The first one, titanium dioxide, serves as a broad-spectrum UV filter (although it doesn’t block long UVA1 rays).

The FDA approves titanium dioxide for use in children older than 6 months Trusted Source, and research shows it’s generally safer than other sunscreens via skin exposure.

 

However, researchers also write that power and spray forms should be avoided as it may be hazardous. A 2011 review Trusted Source notes that titanium oxide nanoparticles through oral exposure are classified as “possibly carcinogenic to humans,” meaning only animal studies have been conducted.

 

Keep in mind this ingredient isn’t limited to sunscreen. It can also be found in SPF makeup, pressed powders, lotions, and whitening products.

* Fast facts

- Approved in : United States, Australia, Europe, Japan

- Banned in : None

- Best for : Sun damage prevention

- Coral safe?  Detectable levels but no harm found ?

- Caution : Formulas may leave white cast on darker skin, and ingredient may be carcinogenic in powder form,

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8. Zinc oxide [found in physical sunscreens] =

Zinc oxide is the second GRASE sunscreen ingredient, allowed in concentrations up to 25 percent.

Studies show it’s safe, with no evidence Trusted Source of skin penetration, even after repeated use. In Europe, the ingredient is labeled with a warning because of its toxicity to aquatic life. The ingredient doesn’t cause harm unless it’s swallowed or inhaled.

 

Compared to avobenzone and titanium oxide, it’s cited as a photostable, effective, and safe for sensitive skin. On the other hand, research also says it’s not as effective as chemical sunscreens, and isn’t as effective in protecting against sunburn as it is for sun damage.

* Fast facts

- Approved in : United States, Australia, Europe, Japan

- Banned in : None

- Best for : Sun damage prevention

- Coral safe? No,

- Caution : Certain formulations may leave a white cast for olive and dark skin tones

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9 and 10. PABA and Trolamine salicylate PABA

[Found in both chemical (PABA) and physical (Trolamine) sunscreens]

= Also known as Para-AminoBenzoic Acid, this is a strong UVB absorber. The popularity of this ingredient has decreased due to the fact that it increases allergic dermatitis and increases photosensitivity.

Studies on animals have also shown certain levels of toxicity, leading the European Commission and the FDA to restrict formula concentrations to 5 percent.

However, Canada has banned the use of PABA in cosmetics altogether.

 

Trolamine salicylate [Tea-Salicylate] was deemed GRASE in 2019, but the research shows Trusted Source it’s a weak UV absorber. Because of this, the ingredient is limited in its percentage alongside other GRASE ingredients.

* Fast facts

- Approved in : United States (up to 12-15%), Australia (trolamine salicylate only), Europe (PABA up to 5%), Japan,

- Banned in : Australia (PABA), Canada (both)

- Best for : Sunburn protection

- Coral safe? Unknown

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11. Cylcopentasiloxane / Cyclomethicone

= Silicone-based ingredients that are used in skin and hair care products. They soften the skin and smooth hair follicles,

but they’ve also been shown to be toxic and to bio-accumulate in aquatic organisms.

They are also suspected to be reproductive toxins and endocrine disruptors in humans.

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12. Formaldehyde, Diazolidinyl urea, Quaternium-15, DMDM Hydantoin and Hydroxymethylglycinate.

= you won’t see formaldehyde listed on any of your personal care products, but many of the preservatives that have been used as paraben replacements Release formaldehyde! Diazolidinyl urea, Quaternium-15, DMDM Hydantoin and Hydroxymethylglycinate are all formaldehyde releasers.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified formaldehyde as a human carcinogen. It is also an ecotoxin.

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13. Homosalate = another very common sunscreen ingredient that, for health concerns, is limited to less than 10% in a formula by the FDA. It is used as a UV absorber that helps sunscreen ingredients penetrate your skin. It bio-accumulates in the body faster than it can be eliminated and is considered a hormone disrupter.

Studies show that human breast cancer cell grew and multiplied 3.5 times more than normal when exposed to homosalate.

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14. Methylisothiazolinone = widely used and very effective preservative. It is considered a sensitizer and irritant, is associated with allergic reactions, and lab studies are suggesting that it may be a neurotoxin. It is also considered an ecotoxin.

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15. Sodium lauryl and laureth sulfate (SLS / SLES)

= SLS is also listed as ‘toxic to aquatic organisms’

a surfactant, detergent and emulsifier that creates lots of lather in shampoos and body washes. Although SLS is ‘derived from coconuts,’ the resulting molecule is VERY different from any coconut we’ve ever seen. A quick look at the ingredient’s MSDS sheet shows lots of potential for concern. They have been mentioned in nearly 16,000 studies in the PubMed science library about the toxicity of this chemical. Although the suppliers maintain that actual health risk varies based on the level of exposure to the ingredient, we maintain that it is the gradual, long term exposure that really counts and encourage you to avoid using this ingredient in any of your body care products.

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16. Zinc Oxide [Nano particles] = These are persistent biomaterials with a size of 1 to 100 nanometers.  A recent research study has shown that zinc oxide nanoparticles even in extremely low concentrations cause significant developmental disorders in sea life.

 

Noncoated nanoparticles (less than 35 nanometers) of zinc oxide and titanium oxide are toxic to coral, fish and other reef organisms. Their toxicity is due to their minuscule size and their interaction with cells. They can also cause oxidative stress in sunlight. Non-nano sized (above 150 nanometers in diameter) coated titanium oxide, and zinc oxide doesn’t exhibit acute toxicities.

When Nano sunscreens wash off from your body, they can harm the aquatic environment.

If you’re using a mineral sunscreen zinc or titanium, just make sure it is the non-nano grade.

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Zinc is found naturally in the environment and in seawater; we are suggesting that you use extreme caution when choosing zinc based sunscreens that are promoted as ‘clear’ or ‘transparent.’ Some of these dispersions have the ability of offering a transparent zinc without having to use nano particles. BUT if you review the MSDS[see note^] sheet of these materials – even the all natural version used in natural products – they are all listed as marine pollutants and have ‘a component listed as highly toxic to aquatic organisms.’ Some of these have ‘Attention! Highly toxic to fish and/or other aquatic organisms’ listed on first page of MSDS, others are buried under Section 12 of the MSDS sheet.

 

* note^ ; MSDS [Material Safety Data Sheet] ;; A Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) is a document that contains information on the potential hazards (health, fire, reactivity and environmental) and how to work safely with the chemical product. It is an essential starting point for the development of a complete health and safety program.

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17. Retinyl Palmitate = Sunscreens which contain this product may quicken the development of malignant cells. They spread skin cancer quickly because they contain vitamin A and its derivatives, retinyl palmitate, and retinol.

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18. Phthalates = carcinogenic and link to low sperm counts, early breast development, congenital disability, liver, and kidney damage.

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19. Synthetic musks = They are believed to cause hormone disruption. Synthetic musks accumulate in breast milk, body fat, umbilical cord blood and the environment.

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