미술

林湖 2016. 3. 5. 13:51


 



[우정아의 아트 스토리] [139] 철저한 考證과 치밀한 묘사의...


로렌스 앨머-타디머(Lawrence Alma-Tadema· 1836~1912)는 네덜란드 출신으로

영국에 진출해 고전적인 회화로 최고의 인기를 누렸던 화가다.

그림 속에 등장하는 로마 황제 헬리오가발루스는 십대에 즉위해 온갖 기행과 전횡을 일삼다가

4년 만에 암살당한 인물이다.
.

로렌스 앨머-타디머, 헬리오가발루스의 장미, 1888년, 캔버스에 유채, 132.1×213.7㎝, 개인 소장.
로렌스 앨머-타디머, 헬리오가발루스의 장미, 1888년, 캔버스에 유채, 132.1×213.7㎝, 개인 소장.

.

화면 중앙, 온갖 과일을 쌓아둔 테이블 뒤에 엎드려 술잔을 치켜든 이가 바로 황제다.

그는 연회장 천장에서 엄청난 양의 장미꽃잎이 쏟아지게 만들어 놓고, 꽃잎에 파묻힌 손님들이

질식해 죽어가는 모습을 신나서 구경하는 중이다.

황제 양옆에서 뒹굴며 이 끔찍한 장면을 지켜보는 이들은 이 정도 광란쯤이야 이미 익숙하다는 듯이

심드렁한 표정이다. 원래 역사서에는 '제비꽃과 다른 꽃들'을 뿌렸다고 나와 있지만, 앨머-타디머는

이를 핑크색의 변주가 현란하기 그지없는 장미로 바꿨다.

19세기 영국 문학에서 장미야말로 이런 장면에 어울리는 퇴폐와 향락, 치명적 유혹의 상징으로

여겨졌기 때문이다.

앨머-타디머는 사물을 정교하고 치밀하게 묘사하는 북유럽 회화의 전통을 이어받았고,

고대 로마의 유적지를 두루 답사하며 많은 양의 사진을 수집했다.

그 결과, 작품에 등장하는 건물과 집기들은 놀랍도록 생생한 질감으로 보는 이의 눈을 놀라게 할 뿐

아니라, 모두 실물을 바탕으로 철저한 고증을 거친 것이다.

일례로 한겨울에 이 작품에 착수했던 화가는 꽃잎 하나도 허투루 그리지 않기 위해

무려 4개월 동안 매주 남프랑스에서 장미를 대량으로 조달할 정도였다고 한다.

봄마다 꽃가루 알레르기로 고생하는 이라면 이토록 아름다운 꽃들이, 글자 그대로 사람을 잡는

이 그림이 더욱 생생하게 느껴질 것이다.


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우정아 포스텍 교수·서양미술사


조선일보/2015.04.25 


 

 

 

 

 

ALMA-TADEMA, Lawrence 

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

 

Lawrence Alma-Tadema 1870 (2).jpg
English painter and designer

 (b. 1836, Dronrijp, d. 1912, Wiesbaden)

 

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema 

born Lourens Alma Tadema

8 January 1836 – 25 June 1912

 was a Dutch painter of special British denizenship.

 

Born in Dronrijp, the Netherlands,

and trained at the Royal Academy of Antwerp, Belgium,

he settled in England in 1870 and spent the rest of his life there.

A classical-subject painter, he became famous for his depictions of the luxury

and decadence of the Roman Empire,

with languorous figures set in fabulous marbled interiors

or against a backdrop of dazzling blue Mediterranean Sea and sky.

 

Though admired during his lifetime for his draftsmanship and

depictions of Classical antiquity, his work fell into disrepute after his death,

and only since the 1960s has it been re-evaluated

for its importance within nineteenth-century English art

 

 

File:Alma-Tadema.jpg

Self-portrait. .

oil on canvas. Florence, Uffizi Gallery.

 

 

 

English painter and designer of Dutch birth.

The son of a notary, Alma-Tadema demonstrated an early artistic ability.

In 1852 he entered the Antwerp Academy,

where he studied under Gustaf Wappers (1803-1874),

and Nicaise de Keyser (1813-1887).

 

 

Reading from Homer
1885
Oil on canvas, 91 x 183 cm
Museum of Art, Philadelphia

 

 

An important influence at this time was Louis de Taye,

Professor of Archaeology at the academy and a practicing artist.

Alma-Tadema lived and worked with De Taye from 1857 to 1859

and was encouraged by him to depict subjects

from the early history of France and Belgium.

This taste for historical themes increased when Alma-Tadema entered

 Baron Henri Leys's studio in 1859 and began assisting him

with his monumental frescoes for the Antwerp Town Hall.

 

 

 

Tibullus at Delias House
1866
Oil on panel, 44 x 65 cm
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

 

 

While in Leys's studio, Alma-Tadema produced several major paintings,

for example the Education of the Children of Clovis (1861; private collection) and

Venantius Fortunatus Reading his Poems to Radagonda

(1862; Dordrecht, Dordrechts Museum),

which are characterized by their obscure Merovingian subject-matter,

 rather sombre colouring and close attention to detail.

After visiting Pompeii in 1863 he turned to archaeologically exact genre paintings of

classical Greece and Rome.

 

 

Roman Art Lover
1868
Oil on panel, 56 x 85 cm
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven

 

 

He moved to London in 1870 after his wife's death,

and soon became a British citizen.

After his arrival in England, where he was to spend the rest of his life,

 Alma-Tadema's career was one of continued success.

 He became one of the most famous and highly paid artists of his time,

acknowledged and rewarded.

 

 

 

Women of Amphissa
1887
Oil on canvas, 122 x 183 cm
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown

 

By 1871 he had met and befriended most of the major Pre-Raphaelite painters

and it was in part due to their influence that the artist brightened his palette,

varied his hues, and lightened his brushwork.

 

Alma-Tadema's paintings are marked by clarity of colour, exactness,

and smooth finish; he imagined a Rome of splendour, sunlight, and gentle sentiment.

He inspired many followers and imitators, including Hollywood,

which has consistently reproduced his vision of the ancient world on film.

 

 

On the Steps of the Capitol
-
Watercolour, 191 x 400 mm
Private collection

 

 

 

File:Alma-Tadema The Education of the Children of Clovis.jpg

The Education of the Children of Clovis  1861

oil on canvas, 127 x 176.8 cm,

private collection.

Queen Clotilde, wife of King Clovis, is shown training her three young children

the art of hurling the ax to avenge the death of her father.

 

 

 

File:Egyptian chess players.jpg

Egyptian chess players  1879

Egyptian Chess Players (1865),

oil on wood, 39.8 x 55.8 cm. Private collection.

 

 

 

File:Tepidarium Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912).jpg

The Tepidarium (1881), oil on panel, 24 x 33cm .

The Lady Lever Art Gallery, Port Sunlight, UK. Lounging in the Tepidarium,

the central hall joining the baths of ancient cities, a curvaceous beauty takes her rest.

 

 

 

File:The Roses of Heliogabalus.jpg

The Roses of Heliogabalus (1888),

 oil on canvas, 132.1 x 213.7 cm, private collection.

As it was painted during the winter, Tadema arranged to have roses sent weekly

 from the French Riviera for four months to ensure the accuracy of each petal.

 

 

 

File:Alma-Tadema Unconscious Rivals 1893.jpg

Unconscious Rivals, (1893),

oil on panel,45 x 63 cm, Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery.

Alma-Tadema's female figures have a slightly bored pleasure-seeking attitude,

as if they were pampered courtesans.

There is little action in Alma-Tadema's paintings;

here the two women are just probably waiting for a lover.

The composition is balanced by the flowers in bloom

 

 

 

File:Alma Tadema Spring.jpg

Spring, (1894),

oil on canvas,179.2 x 80.3 cm,

J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.

It depicts the festival of Cerealia in a Roman street.

One of Tadema's most famous and popular works,

 it took him four years to complete.

The models for many of the participants and spectators

were Tadema's friends and members of his family

 

 

 

File:Portrait of Lawrence Alma-Tadema.jpg

Portrait of Lawrence Alma-Tadema

 

 

 

File:Alma Tadema Silver Favourites.jpg

Silver Favourites, 1903,

A woman feeding fishes in a marblescape

oil on wood, 69.1 x 42.2 cm,

Manchester Art Gallery.

 An outstanding example of Alma-Tadema's contrasting gleaming white marble

against a backdrop of dazzling blue Mediterranean sea.

The artist obliterated the middle-ground, and the foreground is abruptly juxtaposed

with the distant horizon, creating a dramatic effect.

 

 

 

File:Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, RA, OM - Sappho and Alcaeus - Walters 37159.jpg

Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, RA, OM - Sappho and Alcaeus 

This painting completed in 1881,

depicts Sappho and her companions listening as the poet Alcaeus plays a kithara,

on the island of Lesbos (Mytilene). The Walters Art Museum

 

 

 

File:1904 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - The Finding of Moses.jpg

1904 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - The Finding of Moses

The Finding of Moses, 1904, oil on canvas, 137.7 x 213.4 cm, private collection.

 It includes a number of archaeologically precise objects and inscriptions,

 the results of Tadema's diligent research.

After Tadema spent two years working on the painting, his wife pointed out wryly

that the infant Moses was now a toddler, and need no longer be carried.

 

The Finding of Moses is

a 1904 painting by the Anglo-Dutch artist Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema.

It was one his last major works before his death in 1912, but quickly fell out of favour;

according to rumour, it was sold in the 1960s for its frame.

After appreciation of Victorian painting was renewed towards the end of the 20h century,

it was described in an auction catalogue in 1995 as "the undisputed masterpiece of

[Alma-Tadema's] last decade, as well as a late (perhaps the final?) flowering of the

nineteenth-century's love-affair with Egypt".

It was sold at auction in 2010 for nearly US$36 million.

 

 

 

File:An eloquent silence, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema.jpg

An eloquent silence, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema  1890

 

 

 

 

File:Tadema Ignacy Jan Paderewski.jpg

Portrait of Ignacy Jan Paderewski. 1891.

oil on canvas. 45.7 × 58.4 cm (18 × 23 in).

Warsaw, National Museum in Warsaw.

 

 

 

A Sculpture Gallery - Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

A Sculpture Gallery  1867

 

 

 

A Picture Gallery (Benjamin Constant) - Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

A Picture Gallery (Benjamin Constant) 1866

 

 

 

File:The Sculpture Gallery by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1874-1875, oil on canvas - Hood Museum of Art - DSC09112.JPG

The Sculpture Gallery by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, 1874-1875,

oil on canvas - Hood Museum of Art -

 

 

 

 

Comparisons - Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Comparisons   1892

 

 

 

The Discourse - Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

The Discourse

 

 

 

Lawrence Alma-Tadema 1870.jpg

Anonymous. Portrait of Lawrence Alma-Tadema.
photograph. circa 1905.

 

 

 

File:Hippolytus Sir Lawrence Alma Tadema.jpg

The Death of Hippolytus  1860

 

 

 

 

File:Lawrence Alma-Tadema - Cleopatra - Google Art Project (438464).jpg

Cleopatra. .

oil on canvas. 54.6 × 66.7 cm (21.5 × 26.3 in).

Sydney, Art Gallery of New South Wales.

 

 

 

File:Lawrence Alma-Tadema 10.jpeg

Pandora. . watercolor. Private collection.

 

 

 

File:1879 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - Strigils and sponges.jpg

Strigils and Sponges, 1879

 

 

 

 

File:Tepidarium Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912).jpg

The Tepidarium, 1881

 

 

 

 

File:1890 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - Frigidarium.jpg

The Frigidarium, 1890

 

 

 

File:Alma-Tadema A Favourite Custom 1909 Tate Britain.jpg

A Favourite Custom, 1909

 

 

 

File:The Baths at Caracalla.jpg

The Baths at Caracalla, 1899

 

 

 

File:A Sculptors Model.jpg

A Sculptors Model  1877

Oil on canvas   86x195.5cm

 

 

 

File:Lawrence Alma-Tadema - Un estudio romano.jpg

Roman studio  1877

 

 

 

A Kiss - Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

A Kiss  1891

 

 

Ask Me No More Painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema

Ask Me No More Painting by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema  1906

 

 

 

Maria Magdalena - 1854

 

 

 

The Education of the Children of Clovis - 1861

 

 

  • Egyptian Chess Players - 1865
  • 로렌스 앨머 태디마

    (Lawrence Alma Tadema, 1836~1912)

    .

    네덜란드 드론리프 출생으로 라파엘전파의 작가로 분류됩니다.

    독일과 프랑스 벨기에의 역사 등을 연구하고 그 연구결과를 그림으로 표현했으며,

    고대 문명의 이상적인 면모를 정교하게 재현해내고자 노력했습니다.

     

    1870년 영국으로 건너가 생애 대부분을 영국에서 보냈으며

    1879년 로열아카데미의 정회원이 되고

    1899년 빅토리아 여왕으로부터 기사작위까지 하사받게 됩니다.


    아방가르드에 밀린 아카데미 작가들의 작품들이 냉대받았던 것과 마찬가지로

    앨머 태디마의 작품 역시 홀대받다가

    1995년 '모세의 발견, The finding of Moses'

    280만 달러에 팔렸다가 그 후 3000만 달러까지 치솟게 되었습니다.


    특히 이 그림은 영화 '벤허', '클레오파트라' 등의 연출자들에게 영감을 주었고

    영화속의 소품과 장식, 원근법과 구도에 이르기까지 영향을 미쳤습니다.


     

    File:1904 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - The Finding of Moses.jpg

    1904 Lawrence Alma-Tadema - The Finding of Moses

     

     


    Leaving a church in the 15th Century by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

    Mänaden depleted after the dance, detail by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

    My studio by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

     

    Pandora by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

     

    Penetralia by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

    Phidias shows his friends from the Parthenon frieze, detail by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

    Poesie by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

    Portrait of Aimé-Jules Dalou with his wife and daughter by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

    Portrait of Alice Lewis by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

    Portrait of Anna Alma-Tadema by Alma-Tadema

     

     

     

     

     

    Maria Magdalena - 1854

     

     

     

    The Education of the Children of Clovis - 1861

     

     

     

    Lesbia Weeping over a Sparrow - 1866

     

     

     

    A Sculpture Gallery - 1867

     

     

     

    Claudius Summoned - 1867

     

     

     

    Portrait of Mme. Bonnefoy and M. Puttemans - 1867

     

     

     

    The Honeymoon - 1868

     

     

     

    Egyptian Juggler - 1870

     

     

     

    Pottery Painting - 1871

     

     

     

    Death of the Pharaoh's Firstborn Son - 1872

     

     

     

    Cherries - 1873

     

     

     

    Joseph Overseer of the Pharoah's Granaries - 1874

     

     

     

    A Bath - 1876

     

     

     

    Between Hope and Fear - 1876

     

     

     

    A Sculptors Model - 1877

     

     

     

    Autumn Vintage Festival - 1877

     

     

     

    Flora - 1877

     

     

     

    Sculptors in Ancient Rome - 1877

     

     

     

    After the Audience - 1879

     

     

     

    Strigils and Sponges - 1879

     

     

     

    In the Tepidarium - 1881

     

     

     

    Sappho and Alcaeus - 1881

     

     

     

    An Oleander - 1882

     

     

     

    An Oleander - 1882