경제적 손실 보존

무공해건강냄비 2013. 8. 19. 10:42

 

 

 

[미국 위스콘신 대학의 "져널 오브 홈 이코노믹스" Vol.17,No.5의 기사]

 

일반적으로 채소를 고온으로 물에 넣어 끓이게 되면 44%-66%의 영양분이 먹기도 전에 파괴되며 고압의 압력밥솥으로 했을 경우는 12%-21%가량의 영양분 손실이 발생합니다.

일반 가정에서 요리할때 맛은 제쳐두고 30-40년의 손실된 영양가는 돈으로 환산하면 어마어마한 금액(3억/30만불)을 허비하게 되는 것 입니다.

그러나 올바른 건강냄비를 사용하게 되면 불과 2%의 손실 밖에는 생기지 않으며 영양가와 맛이 살아 있는 음식을 온 가족이 즐기실 수 있읍니다.

무공해 건강냄비에 대한 작은 투자는 결국 큰 이득으로 돌아오게 됩니다.

 

 

 

*기존 조리기구의 폐혜

1.쎈불로 인한 실내 공기오염과 이산화탄소 배출 증가(폐암)

2.영양가가 파괴되고 맛도 없는 음식(조미료 사용)

3.조리기구의 독성으로 중금속 체내 축척(치매,유전자 파괴)

4.돈,시간 낭비및 영양불균형(후진국형)

 

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

High Grade Stainless Steel

무공해건강냄비 2013. 8. 19. 10:40

 

316L 스텐레스 재질은 기존 304L 스텐레스의 단점(소금,염소,열에 약함)이 없는 고가의 최신 무공해 합금 입니다. 수술시 인공뼈나 디스크 고정용볼트등의 재료로 사용되는 인체 친화적이며 완전무공해 금속입니다.

 

 

316: the first step up

If a job requires greater corrosion resistance than grade 304 can provide, grade 316 is the 'next step up'. Grade 316 has virtually the same mechanical, physical and fabrication characteristics as 304 with better corrosion resistance, particularly to pitting corrosion in chloride environments.

Grade 316 (UNS S31600) is the second most popular grade in the stainless steel family. It accounts for about 20% of all stainless steel produced.

 

Composition

Table 1 compares three related grades - 316, 316L and 316H.

Grade 316L is a low carbon 316 often used to avoid possible sensitisation corrosion in welded components.

Grade 316H has a higher carbon content than 316L, which increases the strength (particularly at temperatures above about 500oC), but should not be used for applications where sensitisation corrosion could be expected.

Table 1 - Composition on 316 and related grades

Grade   C% Mn% Si% P% S% Cr% Ni% Mo% N%
UNS 31600 316 0.08 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0 0.10

Related Grades

UNS S31603 316L 0.03 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0 0.10
UNS S31609 316H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0 -

Both 316L and 316H are available in plate and pipe, but 316H is less readily available ex-stock. 316L and 316H are sometimes stocked as standard 316 (test certificates will confirm compliance with the 'L' or 'H' specification).

Corrosion resistance

Grade 316 has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of media. Its main advantage over grade 304 is its increased ability to resist pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments. It resists ordinary rusting in virtually all architectural applications, and is often chosen for more aggressive environments such as sea-front buildings and fittings on wharves and piers. It is also resistant to most food processing environments, can be readily cleaned, and resists organic chemicals, dye stuffs and a wide variety of inorganic chemicals.

In hot chloride environments, grade 316 is subject to pitting and crevice corrosion and to stress corrosion cracking when subjected to tensile stresses beyond about 50oC. In these severe environments duplex grades such as 2205 (UNS S31803) or higher alloy austenitic grades including 6% molybdenum (UNS S31254) grades are more appropriate choices.

The corrosion resistances of the high and low carbon versions of 316 (316L and 316H) are the same as standard 316. They are mostly chosen to give better resistance to sensitisation in welding (316L) or for superior high temperature strength (316H).

Descriptions of these corrosion mechanisms are in ASSDA's Reference Manual.

 

Heat resistance

Like grade 304, 316 has good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 870oC and in continuous service to 925oC. Continuous use of 316 in the 425-860oC range is not recommended if subsequent exposure to room temperature aqueous environments is anticipated, but it often performs well in temperatures fluctuating above and below this range.

Grade 316L is more resistant to carbide precipitation than standard 316 and 316H and can be used in the above temperature range. However, where high temperature strength is important, higher carbon values are required. For example, AS1210 Pressure Vessels Code limits the operating temperature of 316L to 450oC and restricts the use of 316 to carbon values of 0.04% or higher for temperatures above 550oC. 316H or the titanium-containing version 316Ti can be specified for higher temperature applications.

Like other austenitic stainless steels 316 has excellent toughness down to temperatures of liquefied gases and has application at these temperatures, although lower cost grades such as 304 are more usually selected for cryogenic vessels.

Physical and mechanical properties (see Tables 2 and 3)

Table 2: Mechanical properties of grade 316 (annealed condition) given in ASTM A240M

 

Table 3: Physical properties of grade 316 typical values in annealed condition)

Tensil strength

515MPa min

  Density

8,027kg/m3

0.2% proof stress

205MPa min

  Elastic modulus

193GPa

Elongation

40% min

 

Mean coefficient of thermal expansion

Brinell hardness

217HB max

  0 - 100oC

15.9µm/m/oC

Rockwell hardness

95HRB max

  0 - 315oC

16.2µm/m/oC

Note: Slightly different properties are given in other specifications

  0 - 538oC

17.5µm/m/ oC

      0 - 649oC

18.6µm/m/ oC

      0 - 815oC

20.0µm/m/ oC

     

Thermal conductivity

      at 100oC

16.3W/m.K

      at 500oC

21.5W/m.K

      Specific heat 0 - 100oC

500J/kg.G

      Electrical resistivity 20oC

740 nOhm.m

Like other austenitic grades, 316 in the annealed condition is virtually non magnetic (ie very low magnetic permeability). While 304 can become significantly attracted to a magnet after being cold worked, grade 316 is almost always virtually totally non-responsive. This may be a reason for selecting grade 316 in some applications.

Another characteristic that 316 has in common with other austenitic steels is that it can only be hardened by cold working. An ultimate tensile strength in excess of 1,000MPa can be achieved and, depending on quantity and product form required, it may be possible to order to a specific cold-worked strength (see ASTM A666 or EN10088-2).

Annealing (also referred to as solution treating) is the main heat treatment carried out on grade 316. This is done by heating to 1,010 1,120oC and rapidly cooling - usually by water quenching.

Fabricability

Like other austenitic stainless steels, grade 316 has excellent forming characteristics. It can be deep drawn without intermediate heat softening enabling it to be used in the manufacture of drawn stainless parts, such as sinks and saucepans. However, for normal domestic articles the extra corrosion resistance of grade 316 is not necessary. 316 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of other parts for application in the industrial and architectural fields.

Grade 316 has outstanding weldability and all standard welding techniques can be used (although oxyacetylene is not normally used). Although post weld annealing is often not required to restore 316's corrosion resistance, making it suitable for heavy gauge fabrication, appropriate post-weld clean-up is recommended.

Machinability of 316 is lower than most carbon steels. The standard austenitic grades like 316 can be readily machined if slower speeds and heavy feeds are used, tools are rigid and sharp, and cutting fluids are used. An 'improved machinability' version of 316 also exists.

Cost comparisons

The guidelines in Table 4 are approximate 'first cost' comparisons for sheet material in a standard mill finish suitable for construction projects. The appeal of stainless over its first cost competitors dramatically increases when lifecycle costs are considered.

Table 4: First cost comparisons

Material Approximate Price ($/kg)
Glass (clear annealed) 0.2
Mild steel 1.0-1.5
Hot dip galvanised steel 1.5-2.5
304 stainless 4.0-5.0
Aluminium alloy (extruded) 4.0-5.5
316 stainless 5.0-6.0
Copper 8.0
Brass 8.5
Bronze 10.0

Source: Facet Consulting Engineers, Brisbane

Forms available

Grade 316 is available in virtually all stainless product forms including coil, sheet, plate, strip, tube, pipe, fittings, bars, angles, wire, fasteners and castings. 316L is also widely available, particularly in heavier products such as plate, pipe and bar. Most stainless steel surface finishes, from standard to special finishes, are available.

Applications

Typical applications for 316 include boat fittings and structural members; architectural components particularly in marine, polluted or industrial environments; food and beverage processing equipment; hot water systems; and plant for chemical, petrochemical, mineral processing, photographic and other industries.

Although 316 is often described as the 'marine grade', it is also seen as the first step up from the basic 304 grade.

Alternatives

Alternative grades to 316 should be considered in certain environments and applications including:

  • strong reducing acids (alternatives might be 904L, 2205 or a super duplex grade),
  • environments with temperatures above 50-60oC and with chlorides present (choose grades resistant to stress corrosion cracking and higher pitting resistance such as 2205 or a super duplex or super austenitic), and
  • applications requiring heavy section welding (316L), substantial machining (an improved machinability version of 316), high strength or hardness (perhaps a martensitic or precipitation hardening grade).

Specifications

Table 5: Some approximate equivalent designations

Wrought product

Standard UNS ASTM British German Swedish Japanese
Specification S31600 316 BS 316S16
En 58H, 58J
W. No 1,4401
DIN X5CrNiMo 18 10
SS 2347 JIS SUS 316

Cast product

Standard UNS ASTM BS3100 German AS2074  
Specification J92900 A743
CF-8M
316C16 STD 1,4408
DIN G-X6CrNiMo 18 10
H6B  

Note: For fasteners manufactured to ISO3506, 316 is included in the "A4" designation.

 

 

316: the first step up

If a job requires greater corrosion resistance than grade 304 can provide, grade 316 is the 'next step up'. Grade 316 has virtually the same mechanical, physical and fabrication characteristics as 304 with better corrosion resistance, particularly to pitting corrosion in chloride environments.

Grade 316 (UNS S31600) is the second most popular grade in the stainless steel family. It accounts for about 20% of all stainless steel produced.

Composition

Table 1 compares three related grades - 316, 316L and 316H.

Grade 316L is a low carbon 316 often used to avoid possible sensitisation corrosion in welded components.

Grade 316H has a higher carbon content than 316L, which increases the strength (particularly at temperatures above about 500oC), but should not be used for applications where sensitisation corrosion could be expected.

Table 1 - Composition on 316 and related grades

Grade   C% Mn% Si% P% S% Cr% Ni% Mo% N%
UNS 31600 316 0.08 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0 0.10

Related Grades

UNS S31603 316L 0.03 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0 0.10
UNS S31609 316H 0.04-0.10 2.0 0.75 0.045 0.03 16.0-18.0 10.0-14.0 2.0-3.0 -

Both 316L and 316H are available in plate and pipe, but 316H is less readily available ex-stock. 316L and 316H are sometimes stocked as standard 316 (test certificates will confirm compliance with the 'L' or 'H' specification).

Corrosion resistance

Grade 316 has excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of media. Its main advantage over grade 304 is its increased ability to resist pitting and crevice corrosion in warm chloride environments. It resists ordinary rusting in virtually all architectural applications, and is often chosen for more aggressive environments such as sea-front buildings and fittings on wharves and piers. It is also resistant to most food processing environments, can be readily cleaned, and resists organic chemicals, dye stuffs and a wide variety of inorganic chemicals.

In hot chloride environments, grade 316 is subject to pitting and crevice corrosion and to stress corrosion cracking when subjected to tensile stresses beyond about 50oC. In these severe environments duplex grades such as 2205 (UNS S31803) or higher alloy austenitic grades including 6% molybdenum (UNS S31254) grades are more appropriate choices.

The corrosion resistances of the high and low carbon versions of 316 (316L and 316H) are the same as standard 316. They are mostly chosen to give better resistance to sensitisation in welding (316L) or for superior high temperature strength (316H).

Descriptions of these corrosion mechanisms are in ASSDA's Reference Manual.

Heat resistance

Like grade 304, 316 has good oxidation resistance in intermittent service to 870oC and in continuous service to 925oC. Continuous use of 316 in the 425-860oC range is not recommended if subsequent exposure to room temperature aqueous environments is anticipated, but it often performs well in temperatures fluctuating above and below this range.

Grade 316L is more resistant to carbide precipitation than standard 316 and 316H and can be used in the above temperature range. However, where high temperature strength is important, higher carbon values are required. For example, AS1210 Pressure Vessels Code limits the operating temperature of 316L to 450oC and restricts the use of 316 to carbon values of 0.04% or higher for temperatures above 550oC. 316H or the titanium-containing version 316Ti can be specified for higher temperature applications.

Like other austenitic stainless steels 316 has excellent toughness down to temperatures of liquefied gases and has application at these temperatures, although lower cost grades such as 304 are more usually selected for cryogenic vessels.

Physical and mechanical properties (see Tables 2 and 3)

Table 2: Mechanical properties of grade 316 (annealed condition) given in ASTM A240M

 

Table 3: Physical properties of grade 316 typical values in annealed condition)

Tensil strength

515MPa min

  Density

8,027kg/m3

0.2% proof stress

205MPa min

  Elastic modulus

193GPa

Elongation

40% min

 

Mean coefficient of thermal expansion

Brinell hardness

217HB max

  0 - 100oC

15.9µm/m/oC

Rockwell hardness

95HRB max

  0 - 315oC

16.2µm/m/oC

Note: Slightly different properties are given in other specifications

  0 - 538oC

17.5µm/m/ oC

      0 - 649oC

18.6µm/m/ oC

      0 - 815oC

20.0µm/m/ oC

     

Thermal conductivity

      at 100oC

16.3W/m.K

      at 500oC

21.5W/m.K

      Specific heat 0 - 100oC

500J/kg.G

      Electrical resistivity 20oC

740 nOhm.m

Like other austenitic grades, 316 in the annealed condition is virtually non magnetic (ie very low magnetic permeability). While 304 can become significantly attracted to a magnet after being cold worked, grade 316 is almost always virtually totally non-responsive. This may be a reason for selecting grade 316 in some applications.

Another characteristic that 316 has in common with other austenitic steels is that it can only be hardened by cold working. An ultimate tensile strength in excess of 1,000MPa can be achieved and, depending on quantity and product form required, it may be possible to order to a specific cold-worked strength (see ASTM A666 or EN10088-2).

Annealing (also referred to as solution treating) is the main heat treatment carried out on grade 316. This is done by heating to 1,010 1,120oC and rapidly cooling - usually by water quenching.

Fabricability

Like other austenitic stainless steels, grade 316 has excellent forming characteristics. It can be deep drawn without intermediate heat softening enabling it to be used in the manufacture of drawn stainless parts, such as sinks and saucepans. However, for normal domestic articles the extra corrosion resistance of grade 316 is not necessary. 316 is readily brake or roll formed into a variety of other parts for application in the industrial and architectural fields.

Grade 316 has outstanding weldability and all standard welding techniques can be used (although oxyacetylene is not normally used). Although post weld annealing is often not required to restore 316's corrosion resistance, making it suitable for heavy gauge fabrication, appropriate post-weld clean-up is recommended.

Machinability of 316 is lower than most carbon steels. The standard austenitic grades like 316 can be readily machined if slower speeds and heavy feeds are used, tools are rigid and sharp, and cutting fluids are used. An 'improved machinability' version of 316 also exists.

Cost comparisons

The guidelines in Table 4 are approximate 'first cost' comparisons for sheet material in a standard mill finish suitable for construction projects. The appeal of stainless over its first cost competitors dramatically increases when lifecycle costs are considered.

Table 4: First cost comparisons

Material Approximate Price ($/kg)
Glass (clear annealed) 0.2
Mild steel 1.0-1.5
Hot dip galvanised steel 1.5-2.5
304 stainless 4.0-5.0
Aluminium alloy (extruded) 4.0-5.5
316 stainless 5.0-6.0
Copper 8.0
Brass 8.5
Bronze 10.0

Source: Facet Consulting Engineers, Brisbane

Forms available

Grade 316 is available in virtually all stainless product forms including coil, sheet, plate, strip, tube, pipe, fittings, bars, angles, wire, fasteners and castings. 316L is also widely available, particularly in heavier products such as plate, pipe and bar. Most stainless steel surface finishes, from standard to special finishes, are available.

Applications

Typical applications for 316 include boat fittings and structural members; architectural components particularly in marine, polluted or industrial environments; food and beverage processing equipment; hot water systems; and plant for chemical, petrochemical, mineral processing, photographic and other industries.

Although 316 is often described as the 'marine grade', it is also seen as the first step up from the basic 304 grade.

Alternatives

Alternative grades to 316 should be considered in certain environments and applications including:

  • strong reducing acids (alternatives might be 904L, 2205 or a super duplex grade),
  • environments with temperatures above 50-60oC and with chlorides present (choose grades resistant to stress corrosion cracking and higher pitting resistance such as 2205 or a super duplex or super austenitic), and
  • applications requiring heavy section welding (316L), substantial machining (an improved machinability version of 316), high strength or hardness (perhaps a martensitic or precipitation hardening grade).

Specifications

Table 5: Some approximate equivalent designations

Wrought product

Standard UNS ASTM British German Swedish Japanese
Specification S31600 316 BS 316S16
En 58H, 58J
W. No 1,4401
DIN X5CrNiMo 18 10
SS 2347 JIS SUS 316

Cast product

Standard UNS ASTM BS3100 German AS2074  
Specification J92900 A743
CF-8M
316C16 STD 1,4408
DIN G-X6CrNiMo 18 10
H6B  

Note: For fasteners manufactured to ISO3506, 316 is included in the "A4" designation.

 
 
 

316PLC 편리한 조립기능

무공해건강냄비 2013. 8. 19. 10:38

 

 

316 PLC는 다양한 연출이 가능하며 냄비나 프라이팬을 

Cover/Lid 로 사용하실수 있읍니다.

 

냄비와 냄비(4Qt + 2 Qt)   4Qt + Small Skillet     Small Skillet과1.5 Qt

          

  

 

 

Small Skillet을 이용한 Stacking Cooking/다단 요리

(4Qt + Small Skillet+2 Qt)

 

 

 

Large Skillet과 High Dome Cover를 이용한 Stacking Cooking/다단 요리

(Large Skillet+Egg Cups/Rack+Dome Cover+3 Qt)

 

 

 

 

 

Wok과 Large Skillet

 

6Qt 무공해 전기밥솥의 Cover 보관 기능

 

 

사용하기 쉬운 다이얼식 자동 온도조절기

 

 

 

STACK COOKING