캐나다 로키 & 유럽 알프스 트레킹/캐나다 로키산맥 트레킹 9일 일정

    배나무고개(梨峴) 2016. 9. 29. 06:30

    요호국립공원 (Yoho National Park)

    - 캐나다 브리티시 컬럼비아주 (British Columbia, Canada) -


     캐나다 브리티시컬럼비아주()에 있는 요호국립공원 (Yoho National Park)면적 1,313km2, 1886년에 지정되었으며,

    밴프 국립공원(Banff National Park)의 서쪽에 인접해 있습니다.

    '요호'는 인디언어()로 '훌륭한 ·굉장한'이란 뜻으로, 요호 계곡을 중심으로 빙하(Glacier)가 있으며,

    웅장하고 아름답기로 유명한 태커코 폭포(Takakkaw Falls), 왑타폭포(Wapta Falls)와 요호호()(Yoho Lake)·

    에메랄드호()(Emerald Lake), 버지스 셰일 화석층(Burgess Shale Fossil Beds) 등이 있습니다.

    Wapta Mountain (2,778m), The President Range (최고점 3,138m), Mount Burgess (2,599m)

    높이 2,500m 이상의 산들이 있어서 많은 등산가들이  찾고 있습니다.


    Yoho National Park is located in the Canadian Rocky Mountains along the western slope

    of the Continental Divide of the Americas in southeastern British Columbia.

    Yoho NP is bordered by Kootenay National Park on the southern side

    and Banff National Park on the eastern side in Alberta.

    The name Yoho comes from the Cree word for awe and wonder.


    Yoho covers 1,313 km2 (507 mi2) and it is the smallest of the four contiguous national parks.

    Yoho, together with Jasper, Kootenay and Banff National Parks,

    along with three British Columbia provincial parks—Hamber Provincial Park, Mount Assiniboine Provincial Park,

    and Mount Robson Provincial Park—form the Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks World Heritage Site.

    The park's administrative and visitor centre are located in the town of Field, British Columbia,

    beside the Trans-Canada Highway.


    History


    The park was created following a trip by Prime Minister John A. Macdonald

    and his wife Agnes through the Rockies on the newly-completed Trancontinental Railroad.

    Inspired on his return to Ottawa, Yoho National Park was created on October 10, 1886.

    Glacier National Park was created on the same day, becoming the second

    and third national parks in the country, after Banff.


    The contiguous national parks of Banff, Jasper, Kootenay and Yoho, as well as the Mount Robson,

    Mount Assiniboine and Hamber provincial parks were declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1984.


    Fauna


    Common species of animals that roam in this park are the timber wolf, badger, moose, elk, mountain goat,

    golden-mantled ground squirrel, rufous hummingbird, hoary marmot, wolverine, cougar, pika, lynx,

    Grizzly bear, and black bear.


    Climate


    The weather in the park is localized and changeable. Being located on the west side of the continental divide,

    it receives more precipitation than areas east of the divide. Precipitation in the park increases with elevation.

    In winter, average temperatures are between 5 to 15 °C (41.0 to 5.0 °F) from the months November

    to April although temperatures can range between 10 to 35 °C (50.0 to 31.0 °F).

    The coldest weather usually occurs in the months December to February.

    In summer, mean temperatures average 12.5 °C (54.5 °F) with an average high of 20 °C (68.0 °F)

    and an average low of 5 °C (41.0 °F).

    Snowfall and freezing temperatures can occur during the summertime

    at altitudes above 1,500 m (4,900 ft).



    Geology


    The Kicking Horse River, a Canadian Heritage river, originates in the Wapta and Waputik icefields in the park.

    This river has created a natural bridge through solid rock.

    This formation is located 3 km west of Field, accessible from the road to Emerald Lake.


    The Canadian Rockies consist of sedimentary rock, with numerous fossil deposits.

    In particular, the Burgess Shale, located in Yoho National Park,

    has among the world's richest deposits of rare fossils.

    The Burgess Shale was discovered in 1909 by Charles Doolittle Walcott.

    In the southeastern corner of the park is an igneous intrusion known

    as the Ice River Complex containing deposits of sodalite, an ornamental stone.


    Mountains


    Waterfalls



    Yoho National Park 홈페이지 :

    http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/bc/yoho/index.aspx

    Map of the Canadian Rockies, highlighting the location of Yoho National Park in red.



    Satellite image of the area : Burgess Shale, Yoho National Park of Canada.



    Map of Banff National Park & Yoho National Park

    Map of Yoho National Park

     


    버지스 셰일 화석층 (Burgess Shale Fossil Beds)

    요호국립공원(Yoho National Park),

    - 브리티쉬 콜롬비아 주, 캐나다(British Columbia, Canada) -


     버지스 셰일(Burgess Shale)은 캐나다 브리티시컬럼비아 (Province of British Columbia, Canada)에 위치한

    버지스(Burgess) 산에서 발견된 이판암(또는 혈암 :頁岩, Shale)을 말합니다.

    버지스 셰일은 1907년부터 1927년까지 미국 워싱턴 D.C에 있는 스미스소니언 협회(Smithsonian Institution)

    박물관의 관장으로 일했던 찰스 두리틀 월컷(Charles Doolittle Walcott : March 31, 1850 ~ February 9, 1927)

    의해 1909년에 발견된 고생대 캄브리아기(Cambrian Period : 5 4200만 년 전에 시작하여 4 8830만 년 전)

    화석(Fossil), 혹은 그 지역을 말하며, 이로 인하여 로키산맥(Rocky Mountains)

    지층의 융기로 인하여 생긴 장소임을 알게 되었다고 합니다.


     찰스 두리틀 월컷(Charles Doolittle Walcott) 1910년부터 1925년까지

    최소 6만개에서 8만개에 이르는 화석을 채취했다고 합니다.


     현재는 이곳을 방문하기 위해서는 요호국립공원(Yoho National Park)측 혹은 필드에 위치한

    버지스 셰일 지질학재단(Burgess Shale Geoscience Foundation)에 가이드 투어(Guide Tour)를 요청해야 한답니다.

    현재 두 군데 (Walcott Quarry, Mount Stephen Fossil Bed)의 가이드 투어가 가능하다고 합니다.


     * 버지스 셰일 화석층 (Burgess Shale Fossil Beds)에 대해서 홈페이지 참조 :

    http://www.pc.gc.ca/eng/pn-np/bc/yoho/activ/burgess.aspx



    Burgess Shale poster in Emerald Lake



    Burgess Shale poster in Emerald Lake




    Wapta Mountain(2,778m) marks the termination of Fossil ridge,

    the seminal site of the famous Burgess Shale



    Walcott Quarry of the Burgess Shale showing the Walcott Quarry Shale Member.

    The white parallel vertical streaks are remnants of drill holes

    made during excavations in mid-1990s.



    Wapta Mountain(2,778m)

    Wapta Mountain(2,778m)



    Burgess Shale : Complete Anomalocaris(아노말로카리스) Fossil found,

    residing in the Royal ontario Museum, Toronto.



    Burgess Shale : Anomalocaris(아노말로카리스) canadensis mouthpiece

    (~5.25 x ~4.25 cm) from the Walcott Quarry, Burgess Shale.

    This was previously identified as a jellyfish, Peytoia nathorsti.

    Anomalocaris mouthpieces resemble pineapple rings



    Burgess Shale : Anomalocaris(아노말로카리스) 'arm' (grasping claw, ~8.5 cm long)

    from the Walcott Quarry, Middle Cambrian, near Field, British Columbia, Canada.



    Anomalocaris(아노말로카리스) :  캐나다 브리티시 콜럼비아의 필드 부근,

    중기 캄브리아기의 스티븐 산(Mt. Stephen : 3,199m) 삼엽충 층리에서 발견된 '아노말로카리스'의 '팔'.



    Holotype specimen of Ottoia



    The anterior portion of Ottoia, illustrating annulation and the eversible proboscis.



    Teeth of Ottoia prolifica



    Burgess Shale : ysheaia pedunculata, Early Cambrian,  British Columbia, Canada.



    가장 풍부한 버지스 셰일 생물인 마렐라(Marrella)



    Emerald Lake

    Emerald Lake BC full view



    The conference centre at Emerald Lake



    Emerald Lake from circuit trail


    Emerald Lake in Yoho National Park, British Columbia, Canada



    Emerald Lake, Yoho National Park (British Columbia, Canada)


    Emerald Lake (Yoho NP)



    Takakkaw Falls

    Takakkaw Falls



    Takakkaw Falls



    A rainbow over Takakkaw Falls



    Crepuscular Rays Beam through the Mist Blown from Takkakaw Falls



    Daly Glacier and Takakkaw Falls from the Iceline Trail


    Wapta Falls

    Wapta Falls, Yoho National Park, British Columbia, Canada



    Mount Burgess (2,599 m) and Emerald Lake,

    Yoho National Park, British Columbia



    Mount Burgess (2,599 m) and Emerald Lake



    An iconic view of Mount Burgess as featured on the back

    of the Canadian $10 bill from 1954 until 1971.



    Mount Stephen(3,199m) as seen from Field, British Columbia, Canada.




    Northwest face of Mt. Stephen(3,199m) from the top of Mt. Field,

    Showing North Gully and Fossil Gully



    The Vice President(3,077m), President glacier and President(3,123m)


    Lake McArthur, Yoho NationL Park (James MacDonald 그림)



    Chancellor Peak and Kicking Horse River (Yoho National Park of Canada)


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