줄기세포 영양제 라미나인의 섭취만으로도 많은 분들이 얼굴이 젊어 보인다 또는 주름이 없어졌다는 말을 많이 듣게 됩니다.
그 이유는 라미나인의 중요한 성분인 22가지 아미노산에는 피부세포를 재생 시켜주는 펩타이드와 FGF 가 있기 때문입니다.
*줄기세포 화장품이란 상피세포 성장인자를 이용한것으로 정확한 명칭은 줄기세포 배양액 화장품입니다. 줄기세포를 배양하면서 생기는 부산물을 이용하는것 입니다.
FGF의 3가지 핵심 역활
1.DNA를 정상적으로 복구
---골수 또는 각 장기나 피부의 약한 성체 줄기세포를 강력하게 활성화,조혈세포 활성화
---40세 이후 메말라가는 인체의 각종 호르몬 활성화,인슐린,세로토닌 증가,코티졸 감소,신경전달호르몬,항체및 면역호르몬 생성
FGF(Fibroblast Growth Factors)섬유아 세포성장인자
뇌신경세포를 재연결해주며 아래와 같은 증상에 영향을 줍니다.
@Obsessive Compulsive Disorder,OCD(정신분열증)
The human FGF2 (map locus 4q26-q27) gene product is a 155 AA long (17.3 kDa) precursor protein that contains a nine AA propeptide (1-9) and a 146 AA (10 to 155) growth factor, basic fibroblastic growth factor/FGFB/HBGF-2. FGFB/FGF2 contains a 17AA heparin binding site (128 to 144) and two 3-AA cell attachment sites (46 to 48 and 88 to 90).
There are at least 25 FGF-family members and four high affinity TK receptors.
Fibroblast growth factor (basic) is a founding member of this family.
It is an extensively studied mitogenic growth factor with over 10K citations in PubMed. FGF-2 is induced early in the development of the embryo where it supports pluripotency and self-renewal of embryonic stem cells and lineage defined stem cells; wherein it functions to support proliferation and inhibit differentiation, Wang G, et al. (2005); Xu C, et al. (2001); Xu C, et al. (2005).
The mechanism wherein FGF-2 supports pluripotency and self-renewal of ES cells is just beginning to emerge, Diecke S, et al. (2008). FGF-2 appears to be necessary, but not sufficient to sustain self-renewal and pluripotency.
Self-renewal of hESC depends upon activation of the Activin/Nodal/Smad2,3 branch and suppression of the BMP/GDF/Smad5 branch of the TGFbeta-family cell signaling program. FGF-2 is a competence factor for Nodal support of pluripotency, Vallier L, et al. (2005). Activin-A is necessary and sufficient to maintain stemness.
It induces the ｅxpression of both Nodal and FGF-2 in human ES cells, Xiao L, et al. (2006). FGF-2 promotes self-renewal of hESC, in part, by modulating TGFbeta/Nodal signaling, Gerber B, et al. (2007), but the mechanism is unclear.
FGF-2 is required for the maintenance of human embryonic stem cells in culture, Ding V, et al. (2006) and various other stem cell lines such as mesenchymal stem (stroma) cells (MSC). Even though FGF-2 is expressed in pluripotent embryonic stem cell populations, Rao RR, et al. (2004), long-term culture has relied upon the use of feeder cells especially mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) which secret FGF-2 and noggin, Wang G, et al. (2005). Traditionally FGF-2 has been added to ESC cultures indirectly through MEF coculture.
More recently, FGF-2 has been added directly to cell cultures, Wang G, et al. (2005).
This method eliminates the need for feeder cells, but is not equivalent in proliferation supporting activity to feeder cells.
Recently, it has been shown that transfection of the FGF-2 gene into stem cells such as MSC is more effective than exogenous FGF-2 supplementation, Go MJ, et al. (2007, 2008). A subpopulation of hES cells, germ layer derived fibroblast cells (GLDF), which secrets FGF2 has recently been isolated and shown to be fully equivalent to mouse feeder cells, Saxena, S, et al. (2008).
hESC can be induced, without passage thru embryoid bodies, to differentiate into neural precursor cells capable of generating neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocyts in the presence of FGF-2, Benzing C, et al. (2006). In neurogenesis, FGF-2 in the presence of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) supports proliferation; whereas removal of FGF-2 leads to differentiation, Kalluri HS, et al. (2008).
Sigma offers antibodies and shRNAs useful for the study of FGF-2 gene products.
Benzing C, Segschneider M, Leinhaas A, Itskovitz-Eldor J, Brüstle O. (2006) Neural conversion of human embryonic stem cell colonies in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-2. Neuroreport. 17: 1675-1681.
Diecke S, Quiroga-Negreira A, Redmer T, Besser D. (2008) FGF2 signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is crucial for self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. Cells Tissues Organs. 188: 52-61.
Ding V, Choo AB, Oh SK. (2006) Deciphering the importance of three key media components in human embryonic stem cell cultures. Biotechnol Lett. 28: 491-495.
Go MJ, Takenaka C, Ohgushi H. (2008) Forced ｅxpression of Sox2 or Nanog in human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells maintains their expansion and differentiation capabilities. Exp Cell Res. 314: 1147-1154.
Go MJ, Takenaka C, Ohgushi H. (2007) Effect of forced ｅxpression of basic fibroblast growth factor in human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. J Biochem. 2007 Dec;142(6):741-8.
Kawai T, Takahashi T, Esaki M, Ushikoshi H, Nagano S, Fujiwara H, Kosai K. (2004) Efficient cardiomyogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cell by fibroblast growth factor 2 and bone morphogenetic protein 2. Circ J. 68: 691-702.
Greber B, Lehrach H, Adjaye J. (2007) Fibroblast growth factor 2 modulates transforming growth factor beta signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and human ESCs (hESCs) to support hESC self-renewal. Stem Cells. 25: 455-464.
Kalluri HS, Dempsey RJ. (2008) Growth factors, stem cells, and stroke. Neurosurg Focus. 2: E14.
Rao RR, Calhoun JD, Qin X, Rekaya R, Clark JK, Stice SL. (2004) Comparative transcriptional profiling of two human embryonic stem cell lines. Biotechnol Bioeng. 88: 273-286.
Saxena S, Hanwate M, Deb K, Sharma V, Totey S. (2008) FGF2 secreting human fibroblast feeder cells: A novel culture system for human embryonic stem cells. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008 Mar 3.
Vallier L, Alexander M, Pedersen RA. (2005) Activin/Nodal and FGF pathways cooperate to maintain pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells. J Cell Sci. 118: 4495-509.
Wang G, Zhang H, Zhao Y, Li J, Cai J, Wang P, Meng S, Feng J, Miao C, Ding M, Li D, Deng H. (2005) Noggin and bFGF cooperate to maintain the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells in the absence of feeder layers. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 330: 934-942.
Xiao L, Yuan X, Sharkis SJ. (2006) Activin A maintains self-renewal and regulates fibroblast growth factor, Wnt, and bone morphogenic protein pathways in human embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 24: 1476-1486.
Xu C, Rosler E, Jiang J, Lebkowski JS, Gold JD, O'Sullivan C, Delavan-Boorsma K, Mok M, Bronstein A, Carpenter MK. (2005) Basic fibroblast growth factor supports undifferentiated human embryonic stem cell growth without conditioned medium. Stem Cells. 23: 315-323.
Xu C, Inokuma MS, Denham J, Golds K, Kundu P, Gold JD, Carpenter MK. (2001) Feeder-free growth of undifferentiated human embryonic stem cells. Nat Biotechnol. 19: 971-974.
Footnote: Gene Data Sources: HGNC, Entrez Gene, UniProt/Swiss-Prot, UniProt/TrEMBL, GDB, OMIM, GeneLoc, Ensembl.