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Rules for forming plurals of Greed & Latin words

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2006. 5. 12.



Rules for forming plurals of Greed & Latin words




1. Words ending in "a" add "e" to form the plural:


              urethra               urethrae

              ulna                   ulnae

              fibula                  gibulae



2. Words ending in "is change to "es" to form the plural:


              brevis                breves

              cirrhosis            cirrhoses

              diagnosis           dinoses

              naris                  nares



3. Words ending in "ix", "yx" or "ex" change to "ices" for plurals:


              appendix            appendices

              index                  indices

              calyx                  calyces

              varix                   varices



4. Words ending in "oma" add "ta" to form the plurals:


              adenoma            adenomata

              carcinoma          carcinomata

              stoma                stomata



5. Words ending in "os" and "us" change to "i" to form the plural:


              oculus               oculi

              bacillus              bacilli

              bronchus            bronchi

              gyros                  gyri



6. Words ending in "um" or on" drop these endings and add "a" to form the plural:


              septum               septa

              datum                 data

              ganglion             ganglia

              diverticulum         diverticula



7. Words ending in "d" add "es" to form the plural:


              glans                  glandes

              gonad                 gonades

              anthracoid           anthracoides



              The modern form, adding an "s" to the singular, is also very often preferable.

              glans = "gland"




8. Words ending in "er" add "a" to form the plural:


              cadaver                cadaver


              Modern form:         cadavers




9. Certain words ending in "itis" for their plurals by changing to "idites":


              arthritis                 arthridites

              myocarditis            myocardidites

              neuritis                 neuritidites




The following are a few modern therms that are exceptions to the rules.


              To explain the reasons behind each would require consideration of the

              inflections, declensions, neuters, etc. of Latin & Greek languages.



              foramen                 foramina

              femur                     femora

              albicans                albicantia

              dens                     dentes

              epididymis             epididymides

              os (mouth)             ora

              os (bone)              ossa

              pes                       pedes

              viscus                   viscera