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Rules for forming plurals of Greed & Latin words

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Life/e—md—medicine

2006. 5. 12.

 

 

Rules for forming plurals of Greed & Latin words

 

 

 

1. Words ending in "a" add "e" to form the plural:

 

              urethra               urethrae

              ulna                   ulnae

              fibula                  gibulae

 

 

2. Words ending in "is change to "es" to form the plural:

 

              brevis                breves

              cirrhosis            cirrhoses

              diagnosis           dinoses

              naris                  nares

 

 

3. Words ending in "ix", "yx" or "ex" change to "ices" for plurals:

 

              appendix            appendices

              index                  indices

              calyx                  calyces

              varix                   varices

 

 

4. Words ending in "oma" add "ta" to form the plurals:

 

              adenoma            adenomata

              carcinoma          carcinomata

              stoma                stomata

 

 

5. Words ending in "os" and "us" change to "i" to form the plural:

 

              oculus               oculi

              bacillus              bacilli

              bronchus            bronchi

              gyros                  gyri

 

 

6. Words ending in "um" or on" drop these endings and add "a" to form the plural:

 

              septum               septa

              datum                 data

              ganglion             ganglia

              diverticulum         diverticula

 

 

7. Words ending in "d" add "es" to form the plural:

 

              glans                  glandes

              gonad                 gonades

              anthracoid           anthracoides

 

 

              The modern form, adding an "s" to the singular, is also very often preferable.

              glans = "gland"

 

 

 

8. Words ending in "er" add "a" to form the plural:

 

              cadaver                cadaver

 

              Modern form:         cadavers

 

 

 

9. Certain words ending in "itis" for their plurals by changing to "idites":

 

              arthritis                 arthridites

              myocarditis            myocardidites

              neuritis                 neuritidites

 

 

 

The following are a few modern therms that are exceptions to the rules.

 

              To explain the reasons behind each would require consideration of the

              inflections, declensions, neuters, etc. of Latin & Greek languages.

 

 

              foramen                 foramina

              femur                     femora

              albicans                albicantia

              dens                     dentes

              epididymis             epididymides

              os (mouth)             ora

              os (bone)              ossa

              pes                       pedes

              viscus                   viscera