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    원산 2021. 8. 2. 04:52

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    Mind-Bending Medicine: An Overview of Psychedelic Substances

    Published 1 year ago 

    on July 23, 2020

    By Katie Jones

    An Overview of Psychedelic Substances

    Fueled by a slew of new research, psychedelics may hold the key to treating a multitude of debilitating disorders such as addiction, PTSD, and depression.

    But as an industry that has laid dormant for decades, it will need to shed its negative connotations that have limited its potential and undermined new discoveries for so long.

    The infographic above showcases data from The Report on Psychedelics which explains seven of the most common psychedelic substances and examines the many mind-bending ways they could radically transform mental health as we know it.

    Resurrecting a Stigmatized Industry

    Although evidence of humans using psychedelics as medicine dates back thousands of years, it was not until the 1940s that psychiatrists became advocates of their therapeutic potential.

    Unfortunately, recreational psychedelics became a symbol of the 1960’s counterculture movement, which contaminated the industry’s reputation. The U.S. responded by introducing the Controlled Substances Analogue Enforcement Act, deeming these drugs illegal and stymying research studies in the process.

    Following some new discoveries in the early ‘90s however, psychedelics moved from the hands of festival-goers back to the labs of scientists. Since then, certain substances such as psilocybin have been granted breakthrough therapy status for treating depression by the U.S. FDA.

    With these recent developments, new companies and investment opportunities are beginning to emerge in the psychedelics space. But these complex drugs are not always easy to understand—so let’s dive in.

    What are Psychedelics?

    Psychedelics are psychoactive substances that can alter perception, mood, and cognitive processes. There are two broad classifications of psychedelics that relate to chemical structure.

    • Entheogenic Plants: Plants or fungi that produce chemical substances that can cause hallucinations
    • Synthetic Drugs: Drugs created in laboratory setting to mimic the effects of entheogenic plants

    Here are seven of the most common psychedelic substances explained:

    DrugCharacteristicsLegal StatusConditions StudiedNumber of Studies/trials

    Ayahuasca (Entheogenic plant) Traditional tea used in religious or spiritual rituals, mainly in South America. Not formally prohibited. Major depression 1
    DMT (Entheogenic plant) Powerful hallucinogen produced by multiple plants, humans, and animals with an unusually short bioavailability period. U.S.: Schedule I
    Canada: Schedule III
    UN: Schedule I
    UK: Class A
    Healthy subjects 1
    Ibogaine (Entheogenic plant) Derived from the tabernanthe iboga plant, a shrub found in the rainforest of western Africa. U.S.: Schedule I
    Canada: Controlled
    UN: Uncontrolled
    UK: Illegal
    Drug dependence, alcoholism 2
    Psilocybin (Entheogenic plant) Naturally occurring psychedelic chemical found in more than 100 species of mushrooms. U.S: Schedule 1
    Canada: Schedule III
    UN: Schedule I
    UK: Class A
    Depression, OCD, anorexia, migraines, cluster headaches, substance abuse 40
    Ketamine (Synthetic) Commonly used as an anesthetic and administered intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM). U.S.: Schedule III
    Canada: Schedule I
    UN: Uncontrolled
    UK: Class B
    Depression, mental health disorders, suicidal ideations, pain and related conditions, healthy subjects 925
    LSD (Synthetic) First derived from ergot, a fungus that develops on grains such as rye. U.S: Schedule I
    Canada: Schedule III
    UN: Schedule I
    UK: Class A
    Cluster headaches, depression, anxiety, chronic pain, Healthy subjects 12
    MDMA (Synthetic) Typically associated with rave culture, as it imparts feelings of joy combined with increased energy levels. U.S.: Schedule I
    Canada: Schedule I
    UN: Schedule I
    UK: Class A
    PTSD, autism, alcohol use disorder, Healthy subjects 43

    To avoid history repeating itself, Johns Hopkins University has created the Center for Psychedelic and Consciousness Research with the aim of enforcing strict standards of scientific rigor for the industry to follow.

    On the Precipice of Change

    With sound scientific evidence and standards coming into place, it’s no surprise that investors—from bestselling author Tim Ferris to several established cannabis companies—are supporting the born-again industry.

    Given the industry’s foothold in recreational use, a therapeutic comeback may be a tough pill for many to swallow. However, it is possible that we are on the precipice of not only a psychedelic revolution but more importantly, a mental health one.

    “Psychedelics, used responsibly and with proper caution, would be for psychiatry what the microscope is for biology and medicine or the telescope is for astronomy.”

    —Stanislav Grof

    Mind-Bending Medicine: An Overview of Psychedelic Substances (visualcapitalist.com)

     

    Mind-Bending Medicine: An Overview of Psychedelic Substances

    This infographic provides a simple overview of the seven most common psychedelic substances and explores their therapeutic potential.

    www.visualcapitalist.com