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Number Won 2015. 10. 1. 02:15

Oct. 1, 2015

Dujuan (Northwest Pacific Ocean)

NASA's GPM Analyzes Typhoon Dujuan's Large Rainfall Totals

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite measured the rainfall that Typhoon Dujuan dropped on Taiwan. Highest rainfall totals were over the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and along the eastern coast of Taiwan, south of where the typhoon made landfall.

Typhoon Dujuan formed in the western Pacific Ocean northwest of Guam on September 21, 2015.

GPM showed that Taiwan's heaviest rainfall totals of over 275 mm (10.8 inches) were located along the coast south of where Typhoon Dujuan made landfall. The highest rainfall totals were found over the open waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean where totals reached 600 millimeters (mm)/23.6 inches.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

A preliminary analysis of rainfall totals for the period from September 22 to 29, 2015 was generated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, using NASA's Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) data. The highest rainfall totals were found over the open waters of the northwestern Pacific Ocean where totals reached 600 millimeters (mm)/23.6 inches.

Dujuan intensified to a super typhoon with winds of 125 knots (144 mph) on September 27, 2015 as it approached Taiwan. The island of Taiwan experienced extreme rainfall and damaging winds with the passage of typhoon Dujuan. The typhoon also caused hundreds of injuries and at least three deaths in Taiwan.

GPM showed that Taiwan's heaviest rainfall totals of over 275 mm (10.8 inches) were located along the coast south of where Typhoon Dujuan made landfall.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

That analysis indicated that Taiwan's heaviest rainfall totals of over 275 mm (10.8 inches) were located along the coast south of where Typhoon Dujuan made landfall.

After pounding Taiwan the typhoon started weakening before hitting China. When it reached coastal China, it dropped light to moderate rainfall over a large area while dissipating.

Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 29, 2015 - NASA Captures Typhoon Dujuan's Landfall in Southeastern China

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Typhoon Dujuan as it made landfall in southeastern China.

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Typhoon Dujuan making landfall in southeastern China at 05:00 UTC (1 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 29.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

On September 29 at 0300 UTC (Sept. 28 at 11 p.m. EDT), the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) issued their final bulletin on Dujuan. At that time, the center of Dujuan was located near 25.3 North latitude and 118.6 East longitude, about 131 nautical miles west of Taipei, Taiwan.

Dujuan's maximum sustained winds were near 75 knots (86 mph/138.9 kph), making it still the strength of a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Wind Scale. Dujuan was moving to the northwest at 11 knots (12.6 mph/20.3 kph) and continued tracking inland.

When Aqua passed over Dujuan at 05:00 UTC (1 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 29, the strongest storms were on the eastern side of the storm, over the Taiwan Strait (the body of water between southeastern China and the island of Taiwan). Animated multispectral satellite imagery and radar imagery showed that the thunderstorms were weakening over the western quadrant of the storm.

The National Meteorological Center (NMA) continued to issue orange warning of typhoon at 6:00 a.m. local time on September 29. For current warnings from the China's NMA, visit: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/weather/Warnings/ActiveWarnings/201509/t20150929_294049.html

Dujuan is moving along the southwestern edge of a sub-tropical ridge or elongated area of high pressure and is forecast to move northward ahead of an approaching area of low pressure. Forecasters at the JTWC expect Dujuan to weaken quickly as it moves north and dissipate by October 1.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 28, 2015 - NASA Satellites Dissect Typhoon Dujuan Affecting Taiwan

NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites provided visible and infrared data on Typhoon Dujuan's clouds while NASA's RapidScat instrument analyzed the storm's powerful winds as it approached Taiwan.

The MODIS instrument aboard Terra captured a visible image of Typhoon Dujuan affecting Taiwan on Sept. 28 at 02:45 UTC.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

At 8 a.m. EDT Sept. 27, RapidScat identified the strongest area of sustained winds in Typhoon Dujuan were around the center of circulation where they were near 45 meters per second (100 mph/162 kph). The data was analyzed and made into an image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, California.

JPL also analyzed infrared temperature data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite. on Sept. 27 at 17:17 UTC (1:17 p.m. EDT) the AIRS instrument saw very cold, high, powerful thunderstorms with cloud top temperatures in excess of -81F/-63C/210K around the center of Dujuan. Cloud tops that cold have the ability to generate heavy rainfall.

Sept. 27 at 17:17 UTC (1:17 p.m. EDT) the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite saw very cold, high, powerful thunderstorms (purple) with cloud top temperatures in excess of -81F/-63C/210K around the center of Dujuan.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

The next day, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of Typhoon Dujuan affecting Taiwan on Sept. 28 at 02:45 UTC (Sept. 27 at 10:45 p.m. EDT). The image showed that Dujuan maintained a large and clear eye upon its approach to Taiwan.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), the center of Dujuan was located near  24.4 North latitude and 121.5 East longitude, just 42 miles south of Taipei, Taiwan. Dujuan was moving to the west-northwest at 13 knots (14.9 mph/24 kph) and had maximum sustained winds near 100 knots (115.1 mph/185.2 kph).

At 8 a.m. EDT Sept. 27, RapidScat identified the strongest area of sustained winds in Typhoon Dujuan were around the center of circulation where they were near 45 meters per second (100 mph/162 kph) in red.

Credits: NASA JPL/Doug Tyler

Dujuan was moving across Taiwan and is expected to weaken during its trek west. The storm is expected to make another landfall in southeastern China in a day as a typhoon.

For updated forecast tracks visit the Joint Typhoon Warning Center page: http://www.usno.navy.mil/JTWC/.   For forecast updates from Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau, visit: http://www.cwb.gov.tw/eng/. For forecast updates and warnings and watches from China's Meteorological Administration, visit: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/weather/Warnings/.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 25, 2015 - Typhoon Dujuan Give NASA an Eye-Opening Performance

Former Tropical Storm Dujuan strengthened into a typhoon and when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead it got a clear look at the storm's new large eye.

NASA's Terra satellite passed over Dujuan on September 25, 2015 at 02:15 UTC (Sept. 24 at 10:15 p.m. EDT) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument took a visible picture of the storm. Dujuan's eye had become visible from space. Dujuan's eye is about 25 nautical miles (28.7 miles/46.3 km) wide.

NASA's Terra satellite passed over Dujuan on Sept. 24 at 10:15 p.m. EDT and the MODIS instrument took a visible picture of the storm. Dujuan's eye had become visible from space.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on September 25, 2015 the center of Tropical Storm Dujuan was located near latitude 20.1 North, longitude 131.0 East. That's about 444 nautical miles (510 miles/822.3 km) south-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan.

Dujuan was moving toward the northwest near 8 knots (9.2 mph/14.8 kph). Maximum sustained winds were near 80 knots (92.0 mph/148.2 kph) and Dujuan is expected to peak on September 27 with maximum sustained winds near 115 knots (132 mph/213 kph) before weakening commences.

Dujuan is expected to track just north of Ishigakijima Island, Japan on September 27, and pass just north of Taiwan before making landfall in southeastern China on September 29.

For updated forecast tracks visit the Joint Typhoon Warning Center page: http://www.usno.navy.mil/JTWC/.  For forecast updates from Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau, visit: http://www.cwb.gov.tw/eng/. For forecast updates and warnings and watches from China's Meteorological Administration, visit: http://www.cma.gov.cn/en2014/weather/Warnings/.Center page: http://www.usno.navy.mil/JTWC/.  

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 24, 2015 - NASA Identifies Tropical Storm Dujuan's Strongest Side

The MODIS instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Dujuan at 04:40 UTC (12:40 a.m. EDT) on Sept 24. The MODIS image showed Dujuan has the signature comma shape of a tropical cyclone.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

On Sept. 23 at 4:11 p.m. EDT, RapidScat saw Tropical Storm Dujuan east of the Philippines and its strongest winds (red) were southeast of the center.

Credits: NASA JPL/Doug Tyler

The RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station is an important tool for forecasters because it identifies where the strongest winds are located in a tropical cyclone when it is over open waters. RapidScat saw that Tropical Storm Dujuan's strongest side was in the southeastern quadrant.

On Sept. 23 at 4:11 p.m. EDT, RapidScat saw Tropical Storm Dujuan east of the Philippines and its strongest winds (red) were south and southeast of the center. Maximum sustained winds in both areas were as strong as 30 meters per second (67 mph/108 kph).

At 04:40 UTC (12:40 a.m. EDT) on Sept 24, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Dujuan. The MODIS image showed Dujuan has the signature comma shape of a tropical cyclone. 

Images from RapidScat are created at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and MODIS images are created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.  

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Dujuan was located near latitude 18.6 North, longitude 132.0 East. Dujuan is moving toward the west-southwest near 3 knots (3.4 mph/5.5 kph). Maximum sustained winds were near 55 knots (63.2 mph/ 101.9 kph) and Dujuan is expected to become a typhoon in the next couple of days peaking on September 27 with maximum sustained winds near 115 knots (132 mph/213 kph). Dujuan is moving to the north-northwest and is expected to track near Ishigakikima Island, Japan on September 27, and pass just north of Taiwan before making landfall in southeastern China on September 29. For updated forecast tracks visit the Joint Typhoon Warning Center page: http://www.usno.navy.mil/JTWC/.  

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 23, 2015 - NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Peers into Tropical Storm Dujuan

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Tropical Storm Dujuan on Sept. 23 and saw a large and elongated circulation. 

Tropical Depression 21W has strengthened into a tropical storm and has been renamed Tropical Storm Dujuan.

On Sept. 23 at 0442 UTC (12:42 a.m. EDT) infrared data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite or VIIRS instrument that flies aboard Suomi NPP showed cloud top temperatures west of the elongated center of Tropical Storm Dujuan were as cold as -63F/-53C, indicating strong storms reaching high into the troposphere. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that elongated bands of shallow or weaker thunderstorms were forming around the low level center of circulation.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite flew over Dujuan at 4:42 UTC (12:42 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 23 and the VIIRS instrument aboard captured this infrared image that showed most of the strongest storms were west of the center.

Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA

VIIRS is a scanning radiometer that collects visible and infrared imagery and "radiometric" measurements. Basically it means that VIIRS data is used to measure cloud and aerosol properties, ocean color, and ocean and land surface temperatures. The Suomi NPP satellite is co-managed by both NASA and NOAA.

By 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Tropical Storm Dujuan's maximum sustained winds were near 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kph). Dujuan's center was near 18.3 North latitude and 134.7 East longitude, about 623 nautical miles (717 miles/1,154 km) southeast of Kadena Air Base, Iwo To, Japan. It was moving to the west at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph).

For watches and warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html.

JTWC expects Dujuan will move west, and then turn north-northwest. Dujuan is expected to continue to intensify and will peak at 110 knots (126.6 mph/203.7 kph) on passing south of Okinawa, Iwo To, Japan on Sept. 27 and 28.

Sept. 22, 2015 - NASA Sees Formation of Tropical Depression 21W

This false-colored infrared image from the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite shows cold cloud top temperatures (purple) of Tropical Depression 21W on Sept. 21 at 16:17 UTC (12:17 p.m. EDT).

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over a developing tropical low pressure area in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean on September 21 when the latest depression was coming together. The AIRS instrument aboard Aqua used infrared light to determine temperatures of cloud tops and where the strongest storms were located.

At NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard Aqua was used to create a false-colored infrared image of developing Tropical Depression 21W. The data was taken on September 21 at 16:17 UTC (12:17 p.m. EDT) and showed cold cloud top temperatures as cold as or colder than -63F/-53C circling the consolidating center of circulation. Cloud top temperatures that cold have been shown to generate heavy rainfall.

By September 21 at 2100 UTC (5 p.m. EDT the low pressure system organized enough to be classified as a tropical depression.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on September 22, Tropical Depression 21W (TD21W) had maximum sustained winds near 30 knots (34.5 mph/55.5 kph). It was centered near 17.8 North latitude and 139.2 East longitude, about 845 nautical miles (972 miles/1,565 miles) southeast of Kadena Air Base, Iwo To, Japan.TD21W was moving to the northwest at 11 knots (12.6 mph/20.3 kph) and is expected to turn to the north-northwest. This depression is currently no threat to land areas.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects 21W to strengthen into a tropical storm and to typhoon-strength by September 24 on its journey northward.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Oct. 1, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes,

Hurricanes

Sept. 29, 2015

Ida (Atlantic Ocean)

NASA's RapidScat Sees the End of Tropical Storm Ida

The RapidScat instrument saw former Tropical Storm Ida's waning winds when the International Space Station passed over the remnant low pressure area on September 25, 2015.

At 6 a.m. EDT on September 25, RapidScat identified the strongest area of sustained winds in the dying storm in the southeastern quadrant of the storm where they were near 18 meters per second (40 mph/64 kph). Sustained winds around the rest of the system were a lot weaker, near 9 meters per second (20 mph/32 kph) or less.

At 6 a.m. EDT Sept. 25, RapidScat identified the strongest area of sustained winds in the dying storm in the southeastern quadrant of the storm where they were near 18 meters per second (40 mph/64 kph) in yellow.

Credits: NASA JPL/Doug Tyler

Ida hung on for two more days after RapidScat passed overhead, and became post-tropical.

On Sunday, September 27, the National Hurricane Center stated that Ida had become a remnant low pressure area. At 5 p.m. EDT (2100 UTC), the center of Post-Tropical Cyclone Ida was located near latitude 24.5 North, longitude 48.7 West. That's about 1020 miles (1,645 km) east-northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands.The post-tropical cyclone was moving toward the west near 5 mph (7 kph). At that time, maximum sustained winds were near 30 mph (45 kph).

By Monday, September 28, 2015, the remnant low opened up into a trough (elongated area of low pressure).

Rob Gutro
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 25, 2015 - NASA's GPM Measures Meandering Tropical Depression Ida's Precipitation 

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core observatory satellite had another good view of meandering tropical storm Ida located in the central Atlantic Ocean and measured rainfall rates within the storm.

On Sept. 24, NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite saw some storms in Ida were dropping heavy rainfall at a rate of 122 mm (4.8 inches) per hour. Some storm tops reache 15 kilometers (9.3 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

GPM is a satellite jointly managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. GPM passed over Ida on September 24, 2015 at 0756 UTC (3:35 AM EDT). Measurements of precipitation by GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) instruments showed that Ida still contained a few embedded strong convective thunderstorms that were dropping heavy rainfall. Some rainfall was measured by GPM's Ku Band radar falling at a rate of 122 mm (4.8 inches) per hour.

GPM's 3-D radar reflectivity data (DPR Ku band) can be used to reveal the intensity of rain showers embedded within a tropical cyclone. Measurements of Ida, a tropical storm at the time GPM passed overhead, showed that isolated thunderstorms had storm tops reaching heights of 15 kilometers (9.3 miles) and intense rain showers.

NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite saw some storms in Ida were dropping heavy rainfall at a rate of 122 mm (4.8 inches) per hour. Some storm tops reache 15 kilometers (9.3 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Tropical Depression Ida was located near latitude 21.7 North, longitude 45.3 West. That's about 1,180 miles (1,900 km) east-northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands

Ida was moving toward the north-northwest near 3 mph (6 kph), and Ida is expected to turn to the northwest late on September 25. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1007 millibars. Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph) and the National Hurricane Center expects some weakening over the next two days. Ida is expected to become a remnant low over the weekend.

Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 24, 2015 - NASA Sees a Somewhat Shapeless Tropical Storm Ida

The MODIS instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image of a somewhat shapeless Tropical Storm Ida at 16:25 UTC (4:45 p.m. EDT) on Sept 23.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Tropical Storm Ida has been dealing with wind shear and appeared somewhat shapeless on imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite on September 23.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image of a somewhat shapeless Tropical Storm Ida at 16:25 UTC (4:45 p.m. EDT) on Sept 23. National Hurricane Center forecaster Berg noted on September 24 that Ida's low-level center is exposed to the west of a relatively small cluster of deep convection (clouds and thunderstorms) due to 25 knots of west-northwesterly shear.  

On September 24 at 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Ida was located near latitude 19.6 North, longitude 45.5 West. That's about 1,155 miles (1,855 km) east of the Northern Leeward Islands.  

Ida was moving toward the east near 6 mph (9 kph). A turn toward the north is expected by tonight, followed by a northwestward motion by Friday night, September 25. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars. Maximum sustained winds were near 40 mph (65 kph) and the National Hurricane Center expects little change in strength in the next two days.

Ida is still in the Central Atlantic Ocean and is no threat to land. The NHC expects Ida to move to the north-northwest over the next couple of days. Updated forecasts can be found at: www.nhc.noaa.gov.

Rob Gutro
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 23, 2015 - NASA, NOAA Satellites Show Wind Shear Affecting Tropical Storm Ida

On Sept. 22 at 12:17 p.m. EDT the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provided this infrared look at Ida and saw wind shear pushing strongest storms with coldest cloud tops being pushed northeast of the center (in purple).

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

On Sept. 22 at 12:17 p.m. EDT the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder, or AIRS, instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Ida. AIRS data showed that southwesterly vertical wind shear was pushing clouds and strongest storms with coldest cloud tops to the east and northeast of the center. Cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63 degrees Fahrenheit/-53 degrees Celsius, indicative of strong storms with the potential for heavy rain. Fortunately, Ida remains over open ocean.

The next day a visible image of Tropical Storm Ida continued to show wind shear persisted. An image of Ida was taken from NOAA's GOES-East satellite on Sept. 23 at 7:45 a.m. EDT and showed clouds being blown to the east-northeast of the center from wind shear.

Forecaster Berg of NOAA's National Hurricane Center noted on Sept. 23, "Shortwave infrared satellite imagery and a microwave pass (a look at the storm using microwaves) suggest that multiple low-level swirls are revolving around Ida's center, which has been fixed to the west-northwest of an ongoing burst of deep convection (rising air that form the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone). This pattern is the consequence of 30 knots of west-northwesterly [wind] shear."

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Ida was located near latitude 20.4 North, longitude 47.2 West. About 1,045 miles (1,685 km) east of the Northern Leeward Islands, Ida has been meandering toward the south near 2 mph (4 kph). A slow eastward motion is expected later today, followed by a turn toward the north on Thursday.

This image of Tropical Storm Ida was taken from NOAA's GOES-East satellite on Sept. 23 at 7:45 a.m. EDT and showed clouds being blown to the east-northeast of the center from wind shear.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

Maximum sustained winds are near 40 mph (65 kph) with higher gusts. Little change in strength is forecast through Thursday night. Tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 175 miles (280 km) mainly to the east of the center. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars.

There are no coastal watches or warnings in effect as Ida is in the open central Atlantic Ocean.

In three days, the vertical wind shear is expected to ease enough to allow Ida to strengthen. Ida is expected to move to the east and then curve north later on Sept. 24.

Rob Gutro
NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 22, 2015 - NASA's Terra Satellite Sees Tropical Storm Ida Meandering

The MODIS instrument aboard Terra captured a visible image of Ida at 9:10 a.m. EDT on Sept 22. The MODIS image showed that Ida appeared to be dealing with wind shear as the storm was not circular.

Credits: NASA/NRL

When NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Storm Ida on Sept. 22, it was meandering and going in circles in the central Atlantic Ocean.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, instrument aboard Terra captured a visible image of Ida at 13:10 UTC (9:10 a.m. EDT). The MODIS image showed that Ida appeared to be dealing with wind shear as the storm was not circular.

Forecaster Avila of the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted, "Ida continues to be a sheared cyclone with the low-level center located to the northwest of an area of very deep convection. The upper-level outflow in the southern half of the cyclone has become better defined since yesterday, but it is not existent elsewhere."

As for the meandering, Avila noted that the cyclone is embedded within an uncommon flow pattern. It is located at the southern end of a mid-level trough (an elongated area of low pressure), which is forcing the cyclone to move east-southeastward at about 7 knots, and also causing vertical wind shear.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Ida was located near latitude 20.5 North, longitude 47.5 West. Ida is moving toward the east-southeast near 8 mph (13 kph), and this general motion with a decrease in forward speed is expected during the next day or two. Maximum sustained winds remain near 45 mph (75 kph) with little change in strength over the next two days. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars.

After a couple of days, the pattern should change, and wind shear is expected to decrease. Ida is then expected to move slowly to the north-northwest.

Rob Gutro
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 21, 2015 - GPM Sees Powerful Storms Within Tropical Storm Ida

On Sept. 21, NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite some of Tropical Storm Ida's thunderstorms were dropping rain at a rate of over 142 mm (5.6 inches) per hour and thunderstorms were above 17 km (10.5 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission satellite looked at Tropical Storm Ida in the Central Atlantic and identified the areas of heaviest rainfall.

The GPM core observatory satellite found that tropical Storm IDA contained some very powerful convective thunderstorms when the satellite passed over on September 21, 2015 at 0902 UTC (05:02 a.m. EDT). The satellite passed directly above the most powerful storms within Ida where rain was measured by GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) instruments. DPR found that some thunderstorms were dropping rain at a rate of over 142 mm (5.6 inches) per hour.

GPM's DPR (Ku Band) radar data were used examine the 3-D structure of precipitation within tropical storm IDA. Some powerful convective storms within Ida were found to reach extremely high altitudes well above 17 km (10.5 miles). These very tall thunderstorms in the middle of a tropical cyclone are often a sign of intensification.

At a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on Sept. 21, the center of Tropical Storm Ida was located near latitude 20.6 North, longitude 48.0 West. That's about 995 miles (1,605 km east-northeast of the Northern Leeward Islands. Ida was moving toward the north-northwest near 7 mph (11 kph).  A north-northwest motion with a decrease in forward speed is expected today.  A slow meandering motion is forecast to occur on Tuesday and Tuesday night.

Maximum sustained winds are near 50 mph (85 kph) with higher gusts. The National Hurricane Center noted that some strengthening is possible during the next 24 hours, then little change in strength is expected on Tuesday and Tuesday night. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1003 millibars.

Ida formed on September 18 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) as a tropical depression about 870 miles (1,405 km) west-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands. It was the tenth tropical depression of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season. By 11 p.m. that night, the depression became Tropical Storm Ida.

The National Hurricane Center predicts that Ida will become even more powerful and may become a hurricane within the next couple days.

Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 30, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, Earth, Goddard Space Flight Center, GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat,

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Hurricanes

Sept. 18, 2015

TD9 (Atlantic Ocean)

Satellite Shows Tropical Depression 9 Weakening

NOAA's GOES-East satellite provides continuous coverage of the Atlantic and eastern U.S. and on September 18 at 0845 UTC (4:45 a.m. EDT) saw the fading Tropical Depression 9.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured an image of Tropical Depression 9 weakening in the Central Atlantic on September 18, 2015. Tropical Depression 9 is battling wind shear and dry air, both of which are taking the life out of it.

NOAA's GOES-East satellite provides continuous coverage of the Atlantic and eastern U.S. and on September 18 at 0845 UTC (4:45 a.m. EDT) saw the fading Tropical Depression 9. Forecaster Beven of the National Hurricane Center noted that the satellite imagery showed a burst of convection with cloud tops colder than -70C had developed near and northeast of the center of Tropical Depression Nine. However, strong vertical wind shear continues to affect the storm. The image was created by the NASA/NOAA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

At 500 AM AST (0900 UTC), the center of Tropical Depression Nine was located near latitude 17.6 North, longitude 45.7 West. The depression is moving toward the north-northwest near 7 mph (11 kph).  A motion toward the northwest is expected during the next 48 hours.

Maximum sustained winds are near 30 mph (45 kph) with higher gusts. The depression is moving through an area of strong upper-level winds, and it is forecast to weaken to a remnant low Friday or Friday night (September 18).The estimated minimum central pressure is 1007 millibars.

Beven said the depression continues to be in an environment of 25 to 30 knot of westerly vertical wind shear, and water vapor imagery shows mid- to upper-level dry air is moving into the depression. Both of those factors are weakening the depression. The dynamical computer forecast models suggest those conditions should persist for at least 48 hours, and based on this the depression is forecast to degenerate to a remnant low pressure area in 24 hours or less.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 17, 2015 - NASA's GPM Analyzes Tropical Depression Nine Rainfall

On Sept. 16, NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite found that the tallest thunderstorms within TD9 were reaching heights of about 14.9 km (9.2 miles) in a feeder band southeast of TD9's center of circulation. The most intense rain was falling at 58.2 mm (2.3 inches) per hour.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Tropical Depression 9 in the Central Atlantic and looked at the rainfall rates within the storm.

Tropical cyclone development has been relatively slow in the Atlantic Ocean in 2015 with tropical depression Nine (TD9) forming yesterday, September 16 in the central tropical Atlantic.

GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) instruments collected data on Sept. 16 at 1016 UTC (6:16 a.m. EDT). At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, data from that overpass (or flyover) were used to create a three dimensional (3-D) extent of Tropical Depression Nine's (TD9) rainfall. GPM's 3-D DPR (Ku Band) found that the tallest convective thunderstorms within TD9 were reaching heights of about 14.9 km (9.2 miles) in a feeder band southeast of TD9's center of circulation. The most intense rain was measured by GPM falling at a rate of 58.2 mm (2.3 inches) per hour.

On Sept. 16, NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite found that the tallest thunderstorms within TD9 were reaching heights of about 14.9 km (9.2 miles) in a feeder band southeast of TD9's center of circulation. The most intense rain was falling at 58.2 mm (2.3 inches) per hour.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

The GPM core satellite is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

At 5 a.m. EDT on September 17, 2015 the center of Tropical Depression Nine was located near latitude 16.3 North and longitude 45.3 West.  That puts the center about 1,065 miles (1.715 km) east of the Lesser Antilles.  The depression was moving toward the northwest near 7 mph (11 kph), and this general motion is expected to continue for the next couple of days.

Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph) and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) expects some weakening is expected during the next couple of days. In fact, the NHC said that the depression could degenerate to a remnant low pressure area by Saturday, September 19. For the latest forescasts on TD9, visit the National Hurricane Center webpage: www.nhc.noaa.gov.

Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 16, 2015 - NASA's RapidScat and Aqua Satellite See Tropical Depression 9 Developing

Infrared data from the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on Sept. 16 at 04:23 UTC (12:23 a.m. EDT) showed cold cloud tops of powerful thunderstorms wrapping north and east of TD9's center.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

RapidScat data on September 15 at 10 a.m. EDT showed strongest sustained winds in developing Tropical Depression 9 were north of the center near 24 meters per second (53.6 mph/ 86.4 kph).

Credits: NASA JPL, Doug Tyler

The ninth tropical depression of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season developed in the central Atlantic on September 16, 2015. The day before, NASA's RapidScat instrument analyzed the surface winds of the developing low pressure area and found tropical-storm-force winds in one quadrant of the system. NASA's Aqua satellite looked at the depression and saw that it was already being affected by wind shear.

RapidScat data on September 15 at 10 a.m. EDT showed that the strongest sustained winds in the developing depression were north of the center near 24 meters per second (53.6 mph/ 86.4 kph).  Winds around the rest of the system were around 20 meters per second/72 km/44.7 mph, with the exception of the western quadrant, which were weaker. RapidScat wind data was analyzed by the RapidScat team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

Infrared data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite on Sept. 16 at 04:23 UTC (12:23 a.m. EDT) showed cold cloud tops of powerful thunderstorms wrapping north and east of the developing depression's center. Cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63F/-53C, and were capable of generating heavy rain.

At 11 a.m. (1500 UTC) on September 16 the center of Tropical Depression Nine was located near latitude 15.0 North, longitude 43.1 West. That puts the center about 1,270 miles (2,050 km) west of the Cape Verde Islands. The depression is moving toward the north-northwest near 8 mph (13 kph). Maximum sustained winds are near 30 mph (45 kph) with higher gusts. The National Hurricane Center noted that little change in strength is forecast during the next 48 hours. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1010 millibars.

National Hurricane Center Forecaster Brennan noted that some southwesterly vertical wind shear is already affecting the cyclone, with most of the thunderstorms, clouds and convection (rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone) pushed east and north of the estimated center position. Brennan noted that the environment will becomes less favorable from this point forward, with the wind shear forecast to quickly increase over the next day and remain high through the remainder of the forecast period. In addition, the southwesterly flow aloft will bring dry mid- to upper-level air over the cyclone.

NHC expects Tropical Depression 9 to move in a north-northwestward to northwestward direction for the next couple of days and then turn west-northwest in four days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 18, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, Earth, Goddard Space Flight Center, GOES (Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellites), GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat,

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Hurricanes

Sept. 18, 2015

Kilo (Central Pacific)

NASA GPM Gets a Ton of Kilo

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite provided many views of Tropical Cyclone over its very long life. GPM is a satellite co-managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency that has the ability to analyze rainfall and cloud heights. GPM was able to provide data on Kilo over its 21 day life-span. The GPM core observatory satellite flew over Kilo on August 25, 2015 at 0121 UTC as it approached Johnson Atoll and found that rainfall intensity had recently increased and the tropical depression's storm tops were very tall. GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) discovered that rain was falling at a rate of almost 65 mm (2.6 inches) per hour and storm tops were measured at altitudes of over 15.4 km (9.5 miles) Kilo was born in the Central Pacific Ocean on August 21, became a hurricane, crossed the International Dateline and was re-classified as a Typhoon and finally became extra-tropical on September 11 off Hokkaido, Japan, the northernmost of Japan’s main islands.

Credits: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 11, 2015 - NASA Spots Kilo Becoming Extra-Tropical Near Hokkaido, Japan

On September 11 at 03:35 UTC the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Storm Kilo brushing northern Japan.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite spotted Tropical Storm Kilo brushing the eastern side of Hokkaido, Japan early on September 11 as it was becoming extra-tropical.

At 03:35 UTC (11:35 p.m. EDT on Sept. 10) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Kilo brushing northern Japan. The center of Kilo was east of northern Honshu (the largest island in Japan) and clouds and storms in Kilo's northwestern quadrant were over the island of Hokkaido, Japan's northernmost island. Kilo is a large storm with tropical-storm-force winds of 34 knots (39.1 mph/62.9 kph) or higher occurring up to 225 nautical miles (259.1 miles/417 km) from the center.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued their final warning on the system at 0300 UTC on September 11 (11 p.m. EDT, Sept. 10), marking the end of the system after three weeks as a tropical cyclone. Kilo's center was near 38.5 North latitude and 147.4 East longitude, about 309 nautical miles east-southeast of Misawa, Japan.

Kilo's maximum sustained winds were near 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kph) and it was moving to the north-northwest at 17 knots (19.5 mph/31.4 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that Kilo is now tracking over sea surface temperatures of 77 degrees Fahrenheit (25 degrees Celsius). Tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of at least 26.6C/80F to maintain intensity and tropical characteristics. The JTWC noted that as Kilo continues moving north, sea surface temperatures will drop rapidly, helping the system transition to an extra-tropical storm.  

Kilo is becoming an extra-tropical storm as it approaches the southern Kuril Islands. The islands are part of Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region and are an archipelago that covers about 810 miles (1,300 km) from northern Japan to Kamchatka, Russia.

When a tropical cyclone becomes extra-tropical it has lost its "tropical" characteristics. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the term "extra-tropical" implies both poleward displacement (it moves closer to the north or south pole depending on what hemisphere it is located in) of the cyclone and the conversion of the cyclone's primary energy source from the release of latent heat of condensation to baroclinic (the temperature contrast between warm and cold air masses) processes. It is important to note that cyclones can become extra-tropical and still retain winds of hurricane or tropical storm force.

Kilo is expected to pass through the Kuril Islands and move into the Sea of Okhotsk by September 12 where it is forecast to dissipate.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 10, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Storm Kilo Affected by Wind Shear

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Tropical Storm Kilo's clouds at 02:50 UTC on September 10.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite captured this infrared look at Kilo on Sept.9 at 1547 UTC (11:47 a.m. EDT). Strongest storms (purple) north and east of center.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

Strong vertical wind shear is taking its toll on the now weaker Tropical Storm Kilo in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Visible and infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite shows that southwesterly wind shear has been pushing the clouds and storms to the northeast of the storm's center.  

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathers infrared data that reveals temperatures. When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Kilo on September 9 at 1547 UTC (11:47 a.m. EDT), the AIRS data and showed some highest, coldest, strongest thunderstorms with cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C were being pushed north and east of the center as a result of strong vertical wind shear. 

On September 10, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery continues to indicate eroding deep convection displaced over the northern semi-circle of the system.

When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Kilo again on September 10 at 02:50 UTC (Sept. 19 at 10:50 p.m. EDT), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument took a visible picture of the storm. The MODIS image showed that strong wind shear continued to push the clouds northeast of the center.  

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Kilo was located near latitude 35.9 north and longitude 148.4 west. About 483 nautical miles (555.8 miles/894.5 km) southeast of Misawa Air Base, Japan. Kilo was moving toward the north-northwest near 13 knots (14.9 mph/24 kph) and is expected to turn toward the west-southwest on Sept. 9 and 10. Maximum sustained winds are near 50 knots (57.5 mph/ 92.6 kph).

Kilo was moving north-northwest and continues to weaken. Kilo is expected to become extra-tropical on September 11 off Hokkaido, Japan, the northernmost of Japan’s main islands.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 09, 2015 - NASA's RapidScat Sees Typhoon Kilo Hold Strength

RapidScat showed that Kilo's tropical storm-force winds extended between 170 to 240 nautical miles from the center and strongest sustained winds surrounded the eye at more than 30 meters per second (108 kph/67 mph).

Credits: NASA JPL, Doug Tyler

Typhoon Kilo is maintaining strength as it continues to move through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. NASA's RapidScat instrument measured the typhoon-force winds and the extent of tropical-storm force winds in the storm.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on September 9, Typhoon Kilo's maximum sustained winds were near 65 knots (75 mph/120.4 kph) making it a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale.

It was centered near 30.8 North latitude and 152.5 East longitude, about 674 nautical miles east southeast of Narita Airport, Japan. Kilo was moving to the northwest at 14 knots (16.1 mph/25.9 kph).

RapidScat showed that tropical storm-force winds extended between 170 to 240 nautical miles (196.5 to 276.4 miles/314.8 to 444.8 km) from the center of circulation. RapidScat data showed that the strongest sustained winds surrounded the eye and were stronger than 30 meters per second (108 kph/67 mph). Kilo's eye is about 9 nautical miles wide.

Infrared satellite imagery shows bands of thunderstorms continued to wrap in the slightly cloud-filled eye with some slight subsidence or sinking air on the western side of the system. Where the air sinks, clouds cannot form.

Kilo was moving northwest, along the southwestern edge of a western extension of a deep layered sub-tropical ridge (elongated area) of high pressure.

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect it to maintain current strength over the next day or so. Kilo is curving north and is forecast to transition to an extra-tropical storm as it moves into the Sea of Okhotsk.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 08, 2015 - NASA Sees Typhoon Kilo Maintaining its Eye

NASA's Terra satellite passed over Typhoon Kilo on Sept. 8 at 23:50 UTC (7:50 p.m. EDT) as it continued to move through the open waters of the Northwestern Pacific.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response

Typhoon Kilo continues to thrive in the Northwestern Pacific and imagery from NASA's Terra satellite late on September 7 showed that the storm still maintained a clear eye.

The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument that flies aboard Terra provided a visible-light image of Kilo on September 7 at 23:50 UTC (7:50 p.m. EDT). The image showed thick bands of thunderstorms wrapping around the eastern and northern quadrants of the visible eye.

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on September 9, Typhoon Kilo had maximum sustained winds near 65 knots (74.8 mph/120.4 kph). Kilo is expected to strengthen to 75 knots (86.3 mph/ 138.9 kph) later in the day before weakening. It was centered near 26.8 North latitude and 158.5 East longitude, about 289 nautical miles northeast of Minami Tori Shima, Japan. Kilo was moving to the west-northwest at 18 knots (20.7 mph/33.3 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that Kilo is expected to take more of a northerly track by September 10. Thereafter, Kilo is expected to become extra-tropical and curve to the northeast near the Kuril Islands in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region. The islands form an 808 mile (1,300 kilometer) volcanic archipelago that stretches northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia.

For updated watches and warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: http://www.jma.go.jp/en/warn/

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 04, 2015 - Typhoon Kilo's Eye Gets a NASA Style Close-Up

On Sept. 3 NASA's Aqua satellite got a close-up of Typhoon Kilo's eye as it moved through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean. Credit:

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite got a close-up of Typhoon Kilo's eye as it moved through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

The MODIS or Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite zoomed into Typhoon Kilo's eye on September 3. MODIS looked at the eye with a 250 meter (0.15 mile/273 yard) resolution close-up. The image showed an eye mostly covered by high clouds, however, the northern eyewall was visible.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on September 4, 2015, Kilo's maximum sustained winds were near 75 knots (86.3 mph/138.9 kph). It was centered near 23.4 North latitude and 175.7 East longitude, about 565 nautical miles (650 miles/1,046 km) east-northeast of Wake Island. Kilo was moving to the west at 6 knots (6.9 mph/11.1 kph). 

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) expects Kilo re-strengthen as it moves through warm waters above 30 Celsius (85 Fahrenheit). JTWC expects Kilo to peak at 120 knots on Sept. 7 after passing Wake Island. After that peak weakening is forecast to being as the storm turns to the west-northwest. For updated forecasts, visit the JTWC website: http://www.usno.navy.mil/JTWC/.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 03, 2015 - NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Typhoon Kilo Headed West

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Typhoon Kilo on Sept. 3 at 2:40 UTC in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Typhoon Kilo is the westernmost tropical cyclone of a four storms in the Pacific Ocean basin on September 4. From west to east they include Typhoon Kilo, Hurricane Ignacio, Hurricane Jimena and Tropical Storm Kevin.

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Kilo and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument took an image of the storm that showed Kilo maintained an eye and thick bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the low-level center. Kilo also appeared more symmetric in the MODIS image.

At 11 a.m. EDT (5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC) the center of Typhoon Kilo was located near latitude 24.0 north and longitude 166.0 west. That's 702 nautical miles east-northeast of Wake Island.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted Kilo was moving toward the southwest near 1 knot (1 mph/2 kph). Maximum sustained winds are near 80 knots (92 mph/148 kph). 

JTWC expects Kilo to re-intensify over the next several days and peak at 120 knots by September 6 over the open waters of the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite made several passes over the Pacific Ocean on Sept. 3 and captured Typhoon Kilo (left) and Hurricanes Ignacio (center) and Jimena (right) across the Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 02, 2015 - Typhoon Kilo Moving Through Northwestern Pacific Ocean

At 11 a.m. EDT on Sept. 2, Typhoon Kilo's eye was visible in a GOES-West satellite image.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

NOAA's GOES-West satellite spotted the eye in a strong Typhoon Kilo moving through the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

At 11 a.m. EDT on September 2, Typhoon Kilo's maximum sustained winds were near 90 knots (103.6 mph/166.7 kph). It was centered near 24.3 North and 179.1 East, about 762 nautical miles east-northeast of Wake Island. Kilo was moving very slowly at 3 knots (3.4 mph/5.5 kph).

At that time, Typhoon Kilo's eye was visible in a satellite image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite. The image also showed powerful bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the low level center of circulation.

GOES-West is managed by NOAA. The image was created by NASA/NOAA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland.

Fortunately, Kilo is in open waters and is currently no threat to land areas.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Kilo to re-strengthen and continue tracking west. It is expected to peak in intensity on September 6.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 01, 2015 - NASA Spots Kilo, Now a Typhoon in the Northwestern Pacific

On Sept. 1 at 01:15 UTC NASA's Aqua satellite saw Typhoon Kilo maintained a clear eye. The eye was surrounded by a thick band of powerful thunderstorms. Large bands of thunderstorms spiraled into the center from the northern and southern quadrants.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Hurricane Kilo may have formed in the Central Pacific Ocean, but on September 1 it crossed the International Date Line, so it was classified as a typhoon. NASA's Aqua satellite spotted a clear eye in the Category 3 typhoon early on September 1.

Different Names, Different Locations

There are three different names for the same kinds of storm all depending on location.
Hurricanes, cyclones, and typhoons are all the same weather phenomenon. In the Atlantic and Northeastern Pacific Ocean, the term “hurricane” is used. The same type of storm in the Northwestern Pacific is called a “typhoon.” In the South Pacific and Indian Ocean, they're known as "cyclones."

The International Date Line

The International Date Line lies to the west of Hawaii. It is an imaginary line on the surface of the Earth that stretches from the North to South Pole, and signifies a change in one calendar day. The "line" runs through the middle of the Pacific Ocean, roughly following the 180° line of longitude but zig-zags to pass around some territories and island groups. If traveling over the line, the date west of the line adds 24 hours, while east of the line subtracts 24 hours.

When Aqua passed over Kilo, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer instrument captured a visible picture of the storm that showed it maintained a clear eye. The eye was surrounded by a thick band of powerful thunderstorms. Large bands of thunderstorms spiraled into the center from the northern and southern quadrants.

Where is Kilo Now?

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), Typhoon Kilo had maximum sustained winds near 105 knots (120.8 mph/194.5 kph). It was centered near 22.9 North latitude and 179.6 West longitude. That puts the center about 802 nautical miles east-northeast of Wake Island. Kilo is moving to the north at 7 knots (8 mph/12.9 kph). Currently, Kilo poses no threat to land areas.

Kilo is forecast to move west and intensify to Category 4 storm again by September 4 with maximum sustained winds expected to reach 125 knots (143.8 mph/231.5 kph). Kilo is expected to maintain that intensity for a couple of days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 31, 2015 - NASA Sees Hurricane Kilo Headed for International Date Line

This infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows Hurricane Kilo west of the Hawaiian Islands on August 31 at 8:00 a.m. EDT.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

This false-colored infrared image from Aug. 30 at 13:35 UTC (9:35 a.m. EDT) shows there were high, cold, strong thunderstorms (purple) with cloud top temperatures in excess of -63F/-53C around the center of Hurricane Kilo.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

NASA's Aqua and NOAA's GOES-West satellite saw Hurricane Kilo moving west in the Central Pacific Ocean as it neared the International Date Line.   

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathers infrared data that reveals temperatures. When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Kilo on August 30, the AIRS data and showed high, cold, strong thunderstorms surrounded the center of Hurricane Kilo, and had cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C. NASA research has shown that thunderstorms with cloud tops that cold and high in the troposphere have the potential to generate heavy rainfall.  

On August 31 at 8:00 a.m. EDT an infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite clearly showed that Hurricane Kilo maintained its eye. 

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC/5 a.m. HST), the center of Hurricane Kilo was near latitude 21.5 north and longitude 179.3 west. That's about 480 miles (770 km) south-southwest of Midway Island. Kilo's maximum sustained winds were near 135 mph (215 kph). That means that Kilo is a category four hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane wind scale. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center expects little change in intensity over the next two days.

Kilo is moving toward the north-northwest near 10 mph (17 kph) and is expected to continue in that direction for the next couple of days. CPHC noted that later today, August 31, Kilo may cross the International dateline into the Northwest Pacific Ocean.

For updated forecasts, visit NOAA's CPHC website:  http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 28, 2015 - NASA Sees Comma Shaped Tropical Storm Kilo

NASA AIRS infrared data showed the strongest thunderstorms (purple) around the center and in a band of thunderstorms that extended from the center to the south and west, giving the appearance of a giant comma.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

Tropical Storm Kilo looks like a giant comma from space in imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite. Kilo continues to strengthen and was affecting Johnston Island as a tropical storm warning continued on August 28. 

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the tropical storm on August 27 at 13:05 UTC (9:05 a.m. EDT. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard Aqua looked at the storm in infrared light, measuring temperatures of cloud tops and surrounding sea surface to help determine where the strongest parts of the storm are, and if the waters surrounding the storm would help it maintain strength.

AIRS showed the strongest thunderstorms stretched high into the troposphere (the lowest layer of the atmosphere) around the center of circulation and in a band of thunderstorms that extended from the center to the south and west, giving the appearance of a giant comma. Cloud-top temperatures in both of those areas were as cold as or colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-53 Celsius), indicating high, powerful thunderstorms with the capability to generate heavy rainfall.

In the image, Johnston Island was near the end of the "tail" of the comma. That means that the island was experiencing tropical storm conditions which are expected to diminish late on August 28. Heavy showers and thunderstorms from Kilo were affecting Johnston Island bringing an additional rainfall amounts of 2 to 4 inches. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center noted that large surf will continue on the island on August 28, especially along northwest and north facing shores and reefs.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Kilo was located near latitude 17.2 north and longitude 170.6 west. Maximum sustained winds were near 70 mph (110 kph) and the CPHC expects Kilo to become a hurricane and slowly intensify during the next couple of days.

Kilo was moving toward the west near 8 mph and is expected to gradually turn west-northwest on August 29. The estimated minimum central pressure is 990 millibars. For updates, visit the CPHC website at: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 27, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Storm Kilo Wrapped Halfway Around Itself

This false-colored infrared image of Tropical Storm Kilo from August 27 at 00:53 UTC (8:53 p.m. EDT, Aug. 26) shows high, cold, strong thunderstorms (purple) with cloud top temperatures in excess of -63F/-53C.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Kilo early on August 27, infrared imagery showed that bands of thunderstorms wrapped more than halfway around the system.

On August 27, a tropical storm warning was in effect for Johnston Island as Kilo moved closer. Bands of rain and thunderstorms have already been affecting the islands and are expected to continue as the storm moves closer. NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center expects Kilo to bring between 5 to 10 inches of rainfall, with isolated maximum totals near 15 inches.  

A false-colored infrared image of Tropical Storm Kilo from August 27 at 00:53 UTC (8:53 p.m. EDT, Aug. 26) showed high, cold, strong thunderstorms with cloud top temperatures in excess of -63F/-53C wrapping halfway around the eastern side of the storm from north to south. The data was made into an image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California, using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite.

AIRS data also showed that the sea surface temperatures around Kilo are near 29 Celsius (84.2 Fahrenheit), warm enough to promote strengthening. Tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of at least 26.6C/80F to maintain strength. Warmer sea surface temperatures will assist in strengthening. 

At 9 a.m. EDT (5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC) on August 27, 2015 the center of tropical storm kilo was located near latitude 17.8 north and longitude 168.1 west.

Kilo is crawling toward the southwest near 1 mph (2 kph) and is expected to turn west and speed up slowly over August 28 and 29. Maximum sustained winds were near 65 mph (100 kph) and slow strengthening is expected through August 29. The estimated minimum central pressure is 994 millibars.

CPHC indicated that tropical storm conditions are expected on Johnston Island on August 27, as well as increasing large surf especially along north and northeast facing shores and reefs as Kilo approaches. For updates, visit:  http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/cphc/.

Kilo is expected to reach hurricane strength after passing Johnston Island and then head north-northwest.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 25, 2015 - GPM Sees Energetic Tropical Depression Kilo

On August 25 at 0121 UTC, GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar discovered that rain in Kilo was falling at a rate of almost 65 mm (2.6 inches) per hour and storm tops were measured at altitudes of over 15.4 km (9.5 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Rainfall associated with Tropical Depression Kilo recently dumped heavy rain in some areas of the state of Hawaii. The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite analyzed Kilo's rainfall as it passed overhead early on August 25.

Tropical depression Kilo changed course to move away from the Hawaiian Islands so it is no longer a threat, but has recently been more energetic. The GPM core observatory satellite flew over on August 25, 2015 at 0121 UTC as Kilo approached Johnson Atoll and found that rainfall intensity had recently increased and the tropical depression's storm tops were very tall.

GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) discovered that rain was falling at a rate of almost 65 mm (2.6 inches) per hour and storm tops were measured at altitudes of over 15.4 km (9.5 miles). Images were created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. GPM is a satellite managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 

On Tuesday, August 25, 2015 at 5 a.m. EDT (11 p.m. HST/Aug. 24) the center of Tropical Depression Kilo was located near latitude 18.4 north...longitude 167.3 west. That means that the center was about 185 miles (300 km) northeast of Johnston Island and about 640 miles (1,035 km) west-southwest of Honolulu, Hawaii. Maximum sustained winds are near 30 mph (45 kph) and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) predicts some slow intensification from late from Tuesday through Wednesday night.

The depression was moving toward the north near 8 mph (13 kph) and is expected to turn toward the northwest then move toward the west by August 26. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1006 millibars.

The CPHC predicts that Kilo will strengthen again into a tropical storm as it moves harmlessly westward over the open waters of the central Pacific Ocean.

Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center 


Aug. 24, 2015 - GPM Sees Rainfall in Tropical Depression Kilo Nearing Johnston Island

NASA's GPM Sees Heavy Rainfall in Tropical Depression Kilo on Aug. 23 at 01:31 UTC, NASA/JAXA's GPM satellite saw rain was falling at a rate of over 121 mm (4.8 inches) in powerful storms on the northern side of Kilo. Those storms reached heights of over 16.6 km (10.3 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite gathered rainfall data on Tropical Depression Kilo as it heads toward Johnston Island in the Central Pacific Ocean. on August 24, a Tropical Storm Warning was posted for Johnston Island.

Kilo formed as depression and strengthened into a tropical storm to southeast of the Hawaiian Islands on August 20, 2015. By 5 a.m. EDT on Sunday, August 23, Kilo weakened to a tropical depression. Today, August 24, the tropical depression nearing Johnston Island.

The National Hurricane Center noted that Johnston Island will experience tropical storm conditions today and tomorrow, August 25. Large surf is expected especially along east and southeast facing reefs and shorelines through Wednesday, August 25, and Kilo is expected to drop between 4 to 8 inches of rainfall along and near its track.

That rainfall was seen by the GPM core observatory satellite on August 23, 2015 at 0131 UTC (Aug. 22 at 11:31 p.m. EDT). GPM’s Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR)  discovered that rain was falling at a rate of over 121 mm (4.8 inches) in powerful storms on the northern side of Kilo. Those same storms are shown in a 3-D simulated view reaching heights of over 16.6 km (10.3 miles). The GPM satellite is managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

On August 24 at 1200 UTC (8 a.m. EDT), the center of Tropical Depression Kilo was located near latitude 14.8 north and longitude 166.7 west. That's about 160 miles (255 km) east of Johnston Island the Depression is moving toward the west-northwest near 7 mph (11 kph).  The estimated minimum central pressure is 1006 millibars.   Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph). For updated forecasts, visit NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center website: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

Kilo is expected to strengthen to a tropical storm later today and into a hurricane by Tuesday, August 25 as it turns northeast toward the island of Nihoa.

Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 21, 2015 - NASA Sees Development of Tropical Storm Kilo

NASA's Aqua satellite flew a developing low pressure area southeast of the Big Island of Hawaii in the Central Pacific on Aug. 20 that intensified into Tropical Storm Kilo the next day.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

A new tropical storm formed in the Central Pacific Ocean today, August 21, named Kilo. NASA's Aqua satellite passed the storm when it was a developing low pressure area the day before.

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over the tropical low pressure area on August 20 was it was organizing into Tropical Depression 3C. NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) noted that the low became a depression at 5 p.m. EDT on August 20. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image of the developing storm that showed a good circulation (rounded) and thunderstorms around the low-level center of circulation.

By 11 a.m. EDT on August 21, Tropical Depression 3C strengthened into a tropical storm and was renamed Kilo. At that time, Kilo's center was located near latitude 12.7 north...longitude 151.7 west. That puts the center of Kilo about 535 miles (860 km) south-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii and 720 miles (1,160 km) southeast of Honolulu. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1004 millibars.

Kilo was moving toward the west-northwest near 16 mph (26 kph) and had maximum sustained winds near 40 mph (65 kph). The CPHC expects Kilo to gradually strengthen over the next couple of days. 

For updates on the storm visit NOAA's CPHC website: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 18, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, GOES (Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellites), GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat, Terra Satellite,

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Hurricanes

Sept. 17, 2015

Vamco (Northwestern Pacific)

NASA Mapped Heavy Rainfall from Tropical Storm Vamco

The GPM IMERG analysis from Sept. 12 to 15, 2015 indicated that over 220 mm (8.7 inches) rain fell along Tropical Storm Vamco's path.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Tropical Storm Vamco was a short-lived tropical storm but brought large amounts of rainfall to southeastern Asia. The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite measured the rainfall over four days and showed some impressive totals.

Tropical Storm Vamco formed in the South China Sea on September 13, 2015 and went ashore in Vietnam a few days later. Although short-lived Vamco dropped very heavy rainfall over the mountainous terrain of central Vietnam and in Laos and eastern Thailand.

An Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) rainfall analysis was created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland for the period from September 12 to 15, 2015. This analysis indicated that during this short period over 220 mm (8.7 inches) rain fell along the tropical storms path. Flash floods and landslides likely occurred in areas of this large rainfall.

The GPM mission is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 

Harold F. Pierce
SSAI/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 14, 2015 - NASA's RapidScat Catches a Day in the Short Life of Tropical Storm Vamco

On Sept. 13 at 4 p.m. EDT RapidScat saw Vamco's winds were near 21 meters per second (46.9 mph/75.6 kph) on the storm's southwestern side, along the coast of southeastern Vietnam.

Credits: NASA JPL/Doug Tyler

Tropical Storm Vamco lived for two days in the South China Sea. on the day it developed into a depression the RapidScat instrument aboard the International Space Station provided forecasters data on its surface winds.

On Sunday, September 13, Tropical Depression 19W developed and quickly intensified into Tropical Storm Vamco near Hainan in the South China Sea.

The RapidScat instrument measured Vamco's sustained winds on September 13 at 4 p.m. EDT.  Maximum sustained winds were near 21 meters per second (46.9 mph/75.6 kph) on the storm's southwestern side, along the coast of southeastern Vietnam.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on Monday, September 14, 2015, Tropical Storm Vamco had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots (40 mph/62 kph). It was located just 42 nautical miles (48 miles/77 km) southeast of Da Nang, Vietnam near 15.5 North latitude and 108.3 East longitude. It was moving to the west at 8 knots (9.2 mph/14.8 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that animated enhanced infrared imagery depicts the majority of the convection (thunderstorms and rain) over central Vietnam and north of the system. The position of the low-level center appears to be within 10 nautical miles of the Vietnam coastline.

Forecasters at JTWC expect Vamco to move west over the rugged terrain of Vietnam and Laos and completely dissipate. At 11 a.m. EDT, JTWC issued their final warning on this short-lived system.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 16, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat,

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Hurricanes

Sept. 11, 2015

Jimena (Eastern Pacific)

Satellite Spots Jimena's Remnants North of Hawaiian Islands

NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an infrared look at the remnants of Tropical Storm Jimena on Sept. 10 at 10:00 a.m. EDT moving north of Hawaii.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured an infrared image of the remnants of what was Tropical Storm Jimena as it continued moving past the northern Hawaiian Islands on September 10.

At 8 a.m. EDT on September 10, NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) noted that remnant low that had been tropical depression Jimena was located around 225 miles north of Lihue, Hawaii. The remnant low has been moving west to west-southwest near 10 mph.

NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an infrared look at the remnant low pressure area on Sept. 10 at 10:00 a.m. EDT as it continued moving north of Hawaii. The GOES image showed that the strongest part of the remnant low was east of the center where some clouds and storms were still visible.

CPHC noted that environmental conditions will likely inhibit redevelopment of the system.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 09, 2015 - NASA's RapidScat Sees Tropical Storm Jimena's Strong Side Away from Hawaii

This infrared image of Tropical Storm Jimena was captured by NOAA's GOES-West satellite on Sept. 9 at 8 a.m. EDT. Jimena appears as a swirl of clouds with strongest storms on its north and eastern sides.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

The RapidScat instrument showed Jimena's strongest sustained winds on Sept. 8 at 11 a.m. EDT were near 25 meters per second (55.9 mph/90 kph) in the northern quadrant of the storm.

Credits: NASA JPL/Doug Tyler

The strongest winds in Tropical Storm Jimena were on its northern side when NASA's RapidScat instrument measured the storm's surface winds. The following day, NOAA's GOES-West satellite saw the strongest thunderstorms east of the center.

RapidScat is a scatterometer perched on the International Space Station (ISS) that measures surface winds over the ocean. When the ISS passed over Jimena on September 8 at 11 a.m. EDT, RapidScat saw the strongest sustained winds in Jimena near 25 meters per second (55.9 mph/90 kph) on the northern side of the storm. Winds around the rest of the circulation center were weaker.

On September 9 at 0300 UTC (Sept. 8 at 11 p.m. EDT) the center of tropical storm Jimena was located near latitude 26.0 north and longitude 153.9 west. That's about 410 miles (660 km) northeast of Honolulu, Hawaii. Jimena was moving toward the west-southwest near 8 mph (14 kph). Jimena is forecast to turn to the west by September 10.

Maximum sustained winds dropped to near 50 mph (85 kph) and NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center forecast calls for a slow decrease in strength for the next couple of days. The estimated minimum central pressure was 998 millibars.

NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an infrared image of Tropical Storm Jimena on Sept. 9 at 8 a.m. EDT. In the image, Jimena appears as a swirl of clouds with strongest storms on its north and eastern sides.

As Tropical Storm Jimena continues its westerly track, northeast and east facing shores of the Hawaiian Islands will continue to experience large swells and surf through Wednesday, September 9, 2015. For updated forecasts, visit the CPHC website:  http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 08, 2015 - NASA Sees Wind Shear Affecting Tropical Storm Jimena

NASA's Aqua satellite captured this infrared look at Jimena on Sept.8 at 1147 UTC (7:47 a.m. EDT). Strongest storms (purple) west of center.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

Strong vertical wind shear has been affecting Tropical Storm Jimena in the Central Pacific and pushing the clouds and storms west of the center, as seen in infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathers infrared data that reveals temperatures. When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Jimena on September 8 at 1147 UTC (7:47 a.m. EDT), the AIRS data and showed some highest, coldest, strongest thunderstorms with cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C were being pushed west of the center. 

Forecasters at NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center noted that "Jimena is in an increasingly hostile west to southwest [vertical] shear environment...ranging from 24 knots to 32 knots.

Vertical wind shear means the change of winds with height. Those winds interact dynamically with thunderstorms to either help or diminish the strength of vertical updrafts of rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone.

At 11 a.m. EDT (5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Jimena was located near latitude 26.5 north and longitude 152.7 west. About 485 miles (785 km) northeast of Honolulu, Hawaii. Jimena was moving toward the west near 8 mph (13 kph) and is expected to turn toward the west-southwest on Sept. 9 and 10.

Maximum sustained winds are near 50 mph (85 kph) and the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) expects Jimena to gradually weaken through Thursday, September 9. The estimated minimum central pressure is 996 millibars.

CPHC said that Jimena is forecast to gradually weaken through the next five days, becoming an extratropical low pressure area by September 12.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 04, 2015 - NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Sees a Weaker Hurricane Jimena

The VIIRS instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite captured this infrared image of Hurricane Jimena on August 28 at 10:16 UTC (6:16 a.m. EDT). Strongest part of the hurricane appears in red.

Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA

Hurricane Jimena is on a downward spiral and is expected to continue weakening. NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite flew over Hurricane Jimena and saw the strongest thunderstorms were on its southern and northeastern sides. Jimena is expected to bring rough surf to the Hawaiian Islands over the weekend of Sept. 5 and 6.     

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite or VIIRS instrument aboard the satellite provided infrared data of the storm that showed the coldest cloud top temperatures, which indicate the strongest thunderstorms were in Jimena's northern quadrant. Cloud top temperatures there were as cold as -80 Celsius (-112 Fahrenheit) indicating strong storms with the potential for heavy rainfall.   

NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) said that water vapor imagery strongly suggests that very dry is being drawn into the system which will diminish the development of thunderstorms. In addition, CPHC noted that the outflow (air at the top of the storm being pushed to the fringes of the hurricane from the center) was "showing some restrictions in the western quadrant." In the VIIRS image, the western quadrant lacked strong thunderstorms.

VIIRS is a scanning radiometer that collects visible and infrared imagery and "radiometric" measurements. Basically it means that VIIRS data is used to measure cloud and aerosol properties, ocean color, and ocean and land surface temperatures.

On September 4, 2015, Jimena was far to the northwest of Hawaii. At 11 a.m. EDT (5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC) Jimena's center was located near latitude 19.7 north and longitude 145.1 west. That's about 650 miles (1,045 km) east of Hilo, Hawaii and 835 miles (1,345 km) east of Honolulu.

Despite the distance from Hawaii, the CPHC expects rough surf to continue affecting Hawaii. CPHC said "large and powerful long-period swells generated by Hurricane Jimena will produce hazardous and potentially damaging surf in the main Hawaiian islands through this weekend (Sept. 5 and 6), primarily along east facing shores.

Maximum sustained winds are near 85 mph (140 kph) and gradual weakening is expected. The estimated minimum central pressure is 975 millibars. Jimena was moving toward the northwest near 5 mph (7 kph) and is expected to move to the north-northwest. For updated forecasts visit NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center at: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

The CPHC noted that by Monday and Tuesday, Sept. 7 and 8, an elongated area of high pressure in the middle-atmosphere situated north of Jimena is forecast to strengthen. As a result, it will likely push the storm in a westward direction. CPHC forecasts steady weakening over the next several days and by Sept. 9, expect Jimena to be a depression.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 03, 2015 - NASA's GPM Sees Hurricane Jimena's Eroding Eyewall

On Sept. 3, GPM showed that Jimena's eyewall (dark red semicircle indicating intense rainfall) continued to erode away on the southern side. Most of the rain bands south of the center have also greatly diminished.

Credits: NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

Hurricane Jimena, a once powerful Category 4 storm with maximum sustained winds estimated at 140 mph by the National Hurricane Center, has continued to weaken well east of Hawaii. The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite analyzed rainfall rates and saw the eyewall was eroding.

The eyewall of a hurricane contains a storm's most damaging winds and intense rainfall. It consists of a vertical wall of powerful thunderstorms circling a hurricane's open eye. 

GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. GPM captured data on Jimena on Thursday, September 3, 2015 at 10:01 UTC (6:01 a.m. PDT). At the time Jimena, which began to recurve to the northwest yesterday, steering it away from the Hawaiian Islands, was located about 750 east of Hilo, Hawaii and was moving slowly towards the northwest at 3 mph with maximum sustained winds estimated at 110 mph by the central Pacific Hurricane Center.  GPM shows that Jimena's eyewall continued to erode away on the southern side.  Most of the rain bands south of the center have also greatly diminished. 

Jimena is forecast to continue to weaken and take a more north-northwest track over the next few days. NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center noted that large swells from Jimena will produce hazardous surf along east facing shores of the main Hawaiian Islands. Surf produced by these swells will build and continue through the weekend of September 5 and 6.

Steve Lang
SSAI/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 2, 2015 - NASA's GPM Sees Hurricane Jimena's Intense Eyewall

On Sept. 1 at 22:40 UTC 6:40 p.m. EDT, NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image of Hurricane Jimena in the Central Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

On Sept. 1, GPM saw that Jimena had an intense eyewall (dark red semicircle indicating intense rainfall) located around the northern half the still visible eye (dark spot in the center of the IR cloud image).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite passed over Hurricane Jimena and saw an intense eyewall with heaviest rainfall occurring in the northern and eastern sides of the storm.

GPM captured an image of Hurricane Jimena at 10:11 UTC (3:11 a.m. PDT) on September 1, 2015.  GPM showed that Jimena was still a very strong system. An intense eyewall was seen around the northern half the still visible eye, though the southern half of the eyewall appeared to be eroded away.  GPM saw a nearly circular rain band surrounding the center that completely wrapped around the storm and appears to be a possible secondary eyewall trying to form outside of the inner eyewall.  Other tightly curved rainbands north and east of the center reflect Jimena's still powerful cyclonic circulation. 

At the time of the GPM image the center of the storm was located about 1,060 miles east of Hilo, Hawaii, and NHC estimated Jimena's maximum sustained winds to be at 130 mph. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency, JAXA.

By September 2 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Jimena's eye was less apparent in infrared satellite imagery, which NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center noted may be because the eyewall is in a replacement cycle (another eye wall is building behind the current eyewall, which is eroding). 

At that time the center of Hurricane Jimena was located near latitude 17.7 north and longitude 142.8 west. That's about 815 miles (1,315 km) east of Hilo, Hawaii and 1,015 miles (1,630 km) east of Honolulu. 

Maximum sustained winds were near 110 mph (175 kph) making Jimena a category three hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. Gradual weakening is forecast through Thursday night, September 2.

Jimena was moving toward the west-northwest near 8 mph (13 kph) and is expected to continue in that direction before turning to the northwest on September 3.

The hurricane is close enough to the Hawaiian Islands to cause large ocean swells. CPHC noted that large swells from Hurricane Jimena will produce hazardous surf along east facing shores of the main Hawaiian Islands. The surf will build today (September 2) and continue through the weekend of September 5 and 6).

CPHC noted that environmental conditions are expected to produce only slow weakening during the next 48 hours. After 72 hours, cooler sea surface temperature values and increasing shear are expected to produce more rapid weakening.

Stephen Lang
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sept. 01, 2015 - NASA's GPM Satellite Shows Double Eyewall in Hurricane Jimena

This GPM satellite image of Hurricane Jimena shows the presence of a double eyewall structure. Heaviest rainfall in red and pink. Cloud imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite.

Credits: NASA/JAXA/NRL/NOAA

This infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows Hurricane Jimena moving into the Central Pacific Ocean on Sept. 1 at 8:00 a.m. EDT.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite showed a double eyewall in Hurricane Jimena on September 1 as it moved through the Eastern Pacific and into the Central Pacific Ocean.

The GPM satellite is a shared satellite between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. GPM can measure rainfall rates from space and determine the heights of thunderstorms that make up a hurricane like Jimena. Very heavy rainfall was occurring in the powerful thunderstorms circling Jimena's eye.

National Hurricane Center (NHC) forecaster Roberts noted in the 11 a.m. EDT discussion that "Enhanced infrared images and an earlier microwave overpass from the Global Precipitation Measurement satellite continue to show the presence of a double eyewall structure with evidence of erosion of Jimena's inner eyewall in the southern portion. Since the overall presentation reveals decay of the eyewall, the initial intensity is lowered to 105 knots."

On September 1 at 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC), the eye of Hurricane Jimena was located near latitude 16.4 North and longitude 139.1 West.  That's about 1,075 miles (1,730 km) east of Hilo, Hawaii. Maximum sustained winds remained near 130 mph (215 kph) and Jimena is a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The National Hurricane Center expects slow weakening during the next two days.

Jimena was moving toward the west near 13 mph (20 kph). A turn toward the west-northwest is expected later on September 1. The estimated minimum central pressure is 948 millibars.

Jimena has moved into the Central Pacific basin, so the Central Pacific Hurricane Center will take over forecasting for this storm. 

The NHC noted that sea surface temperatures are expected to remain relatively warm ahead of Jimena for several days and wind shear doesn't appear to be a factor affecting the storm.  Jimena is expected to move in a northwesterly direction for the next couple of days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 31, 2015 - NASA Sees Hurricane Jimena's Large Eye

This infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows Hurricane Jimena on August 31 at 8:00 a.m. EDT.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

This false-colored infrared image from Aug. 31 at 10:59 UTC (6:59 a.m. EDT) showed thick bands of high, cold, strong thunderstorms (purple) with cloud top temperatures in excess of -81F/-63C/210K around the center of Hurricane Jimena.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

NASA's Aqua satellite and NOAA's GOES-East satellites provided views of Hurricane Jimena that showed it maintained a large eye and powerful thunderstorms around it. on August 31, Jimena continued moving through the Eastern Pacific as a major hurricane.

An infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite on August 31 at 8:00 a.m. EDT revealed that Hurricane Jimena's wide-eye continued to be cloud free. The GOES image also showed thick bands of powerful thunderstorms circling the eye.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard Aqua gathers infrared data that shows temperatures. Data taken on August 31 at 10:59 UTC (6:59 a.m. EDT) was made into a false-colored image that revealed powerful thunderstorms with cloud top temperatures in excess of -81F/-63C/210K around the center of Hurricane Jimena. NASA research has shown that thunderstorms with cloud tops that cold and high in the troposphere have the potential to generate heavy rainfall.

The AIRS data also showed that sea surface temperatures around Jimena were warmer than 28 degrees Celsius (82.4 Fahrenheit). Warmer sea surface temperatures can help a storm intensify because they can increase evaporation and thunderstorm development. As the warm, moist air evaporates and rises, it condenses into clouds. In a hurricane, air rotates inward toward the storm's center then rises to higher altitudes. As the air rises it cools and condenses into clouds and rain, releasing heat (called latent heat). It is the cycle of evaporation and condensation powers a tropical cyclone.

NHC forecaster Cangialosi noted "Jimena is expected to more or less maintain its intensity during the next day or so while it remains over 28C water and in a very low wind shear environment." Tropical cyclones need sea surface temperatures of at least 26.6C/80F to maintain intensity.

NOAA's National Hurricane Center (NHC) on-line discussion said "the eye of the hurricane remains distinct and has a diameter of about 20 nautical miles, and the convective pattern is slightly asymmetric with cloud tops slightly warmer west of the eye.

On August 31 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT/5 a.m. HST), the center of Hurricane Ignacio was located near latitude 15.6 North and longitude 135.3 West. That's about 1,330 miles (2,145 km) east of Hilo, Hawaii. The estimated minimum central pressure is 936 millibars.

NHC reported Jimena's maximum sustained winds were near 150 mph (240 kph). Jimena is a category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale.  Little change in strength is expected during the next day or so, followed by slow weakening.

Jimena was moving toward the west near 16 mph (26 kph) and is forecast to turn to the west-northwest with a decrease in forward speed during the next couple of days.

For updated forecasts, visit NOAA's NHC website: www.nhc.noaa.gov.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 28, 2015 - Suomi NPP Satellite Sees Rapidly Intensifying Hurricane Jimena

The VIIRS instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite captured this infrared image of Hurricane Jimena on August 28 at 10:16 UTC (6:16 a.m. EDT). Strongest part of the hurricane appears in red.

Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite flew over Hurricane Jimena in the Eastern Pacific and saw the strongest thunderstorms building up quickly, especially in the northern quadrant of the storm. Jimena intensified rapidly overnight on August 27 and early August 28 and the National Hurricane Center expects it to become a major hurricane.  

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite or VIIRS instrument aboard the satellite provided infrared data of the storm that showed the coldest cloud top temperatures, which indicate the strongest thunderstorms were in Jimena's northern quadrant. Cloud top temperatures there were colder than -63 Fahrenheit (-53 Celsius).  

VIIRS is a scanning radiometer that collects visible and infrared imagery and "radiometric" measurements. Basically it means that VIIRS data is used to measure cloud and aerosol properties, ocean color, and ocean and land surface temperatures.

Forecaster Berg at the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that microwave data has shown an eye beneath the central dense overcast, and a more definitive eye is just now becoming apparent in infrared satellite imagery.

At 11 a.m. EDT (8 a.m. PDT)/1500 UTC on August 28, the center of Hurricane Jimena was located near latitude 12.4 North and longitude 122.0 West.  That puts the center about 1,075 miles (1,720 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico.

Jimena was moving toward the west near 12 mph (19 kph), and this motion is expected to continue through early Saturday, August 29. The estimated minimum central pressure is 979 millibars.

The NHC noted that Jimena has been rapidly intensifying, and maximum sustained winds had increased to near 90 mph (150 kph) with higher gusts. Additional strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours, and Jimena is expected to become a major hurricane tonight, August 28.

A peak intensity is expected in about 48 hours, when NHC expects Jimena's maximum sustained winds to reach 145 mph (125 knots), making it a powerful Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Thereafter, Jimena will gradually weaken due to a slightly drier environment and lower oceanic heat content values. 

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 27, 2015 - Two Satellites See Newborn Tropical Storm Jimena Consolidating

NOAA's GOES-West satellite saw Tropical Storm Jimena almost 1,500 miles southwest of Baja California, Mexico at 8 a.m. EDT on Aug. 27, 2015.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

This false-colored infrared image from Aug. 27 at 09:47 UTC (4:57 a.m. EDT) shows high, cold, strong thunderstorms (purple) with cloud top temperatures in excess of -63F/-53C around the center of Tropical Storm Jimena.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

NASA's Aqua satellite and NOAA's GOES-West satellite provided temperature and cloud data on newborn Tropical Storm Jimena in the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Data from both satellites show the storm continues to consolidate.

Tropical Depression 13E formed about 865 miles (1,390 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico at 5 p.m. EDT (2100 UTC) on August 26. Six hours later, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Jimena at 11 p.m. EDT.

A false-colored infrared image from Aug. 27 at 09:47 UTC (4:57 a.m. EDT) showed high, cold, strong thunderstorms surrounding the center of Tropical Storm Jimena. AIRS imagery also showed a thick band of thunderstorms spiraling into the northern quadrant of the storm from the east. Coldest cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63F/-53C around the center of the tropical storm. NASA research has shown that thunderstorms with cloud tops that cold and high in the troposphere have the potential to generate heavy rainfall.

At 11 a.m. EDT on August 27, Forecaster Berg of the National Hurricane Center noted that Jimena is steadily becoming better organized with deep convection persisting near the center and more pronounced banding developing around the circulation.

NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured imagery of Tropical Storm Jimena's clouds at 8 a.m. EDT on Aug. 27. The image showed a tight circular area of thunderstorms around the center of circulation and bands of thunderstorms from the northern and southern quadrants wrapping into the center. 

On August 27 at 11 a.m. EDT (8 a.m. PDT/1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Jimena was located near latitude 12.4 North, longitude 117.7 West. That's about 890 miles (1,430 km) southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico. Jimena was moving toward the west-northwest near 17 mph and is expected to turn west and slow down later in the day. Maximum sustained winds had increased to near 45 mph (75 kph). The estimated minimum central pressure is 1003 millibars.

This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 25 to 27 shows Tropical Storm Kilo in the Central Pacific followed by Hurricane Ignacio and Tropical Storm Jimena near southwestern Mexico. Imagery.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

Berg's forecast discussion noted that "rapid intensification is a distinct possibility during the next 24 hours." Jimena is forecast to become a hurricane on August 27.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 11, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, GOES (Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellites), GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat, Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership),

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Hurricanes

Sept. 10, 2015

Etau (Northwest Pacific)

NASA Looks at Japan's Torrential Rains and Winds from Twin Tropical Cyclones

RapidScat saw Tropical Storm Etau on Sept 9 at 3:20 a.m. UTC entangled with Japan and again near 4 p.m. EDT (20oo UTC) with a well-formed spiral. Typhoon Kilo was located (right) east of Japan.

Credits: NASA JPL/Doug Tyler

This GPM IMERG analysis shows rainfall total estimates for Japan from Sept. 2 to 9. Totals over 750 mm (29.5 inches) were analyzed near the south-central coast of Honshu near where tropical storm Etau passed over the island.

Credits: NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

Japan has experienced large rainfall that caused flooding and large evacuations as a result of two weather systems. NASA's GPM Core satellite measured rainfall as NASA's RapidScat saw Etau and Typhoon Kilo on either side of Japan.

Over the past week Japan has experienced extreme rainfall that resulted in flooding, landslides and many injuries. A nearly stationary front that was already moving over Japan caused much of the rain but Tropical Storm Etau also interacted with the front and magnified the scale of the deluge.

Heavy rainfall led to the evacuation of over one million people. The area around the city of Joso, located in the Ibaraki prefecture and north of Tokyo, received as much as 600 mm (24 inches) of rainfall. The Aichi prefecture where Joso is located received rainfall and winds near 78 mph (125 kph). According to the Japan Meteorological Agency, the hardest-hit areas were the Ibaraki and Tochigi prefectures

The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite provided rainfall data on the weather system. This rainfall analysis from space was generated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, using NASA's Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) data. It shows rainfall total estimates for Japan during the seven day period from September 2 to 9, 2015 when Japan was getting drenched.

This analysis indicates that much of Japan's main island of Honshu had over 100 mm (almost 4 inches) of rainfall. Extraordinary totals of over 750 mm (29.5 inches) were analyzed near the south-central coast of Honshu near where tropical storm Etau passed over the island.

This GPM IMERG analysis shows rainfall total estimates for Japan during the seven day period from September 2 to 9. Extraordinary totals of over 750 mm (29.5 inches) were analyzed near the south-central coast of Honshu near where tropical storm Etau passed over the island.

Credits: NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

After landfall in Japan, Tropical Storm Etau moved northward into the Sea of Japan. "RapidScat saw Etau on Sept 9 at 3:20 a.m. UTC (Sept. 8 at 11:20 p.m. EDT), still entangled with Japan and again near 4 p.m. EDT (20oo UTC) with a well-formed spiral," said Doug Tyler of NASA's RapidScat team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. The evening picture shows Japan bracketed by Kilo to the east, and Etau to the west, in the Sea of Japan. 

On September 10, satellite imagery showed Etau's remnants over the Primorsky Krai territory of southeastern Russia on the Sea of Japan. Meanwhile, Typhoon Kilo continued moving northward in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Hal Pierce/ Rob Gutro
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 09, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Storm Etau Drench Japan

GPM measured rain falling in Etau at a rate of up to 88.0 mm (3.5 inches) per hour in some areas. The same powerful storms reached heights of almost 16 km (9.9 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

On Sept. 8 at 16:41 UTC (12:41 p.m. EDT), the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provided this infrared look at Etau land falling in east central Japan. Strongest storms with coldest cloud tops appear in purple. Credit:

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

NASA's GPM core satellite passed over Tropical Storm Etau as it moved across central Japan, dropping heavy rain. By September 9, Etau had weakened and moved over the Sea of Japan where it is expected to dissipate.

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission satellite measures rainfall rates from space. GPM is a joint NASA/JAXA mission.

ON September 7 at 1416 UTC (10:16 a.m. EDT), Tropical Storm Etau was drenching Japan with intense rainfall as it moved northward over the main island of Honshu. Rainfall amounts of over 300 mm (almost 12 inches) have been reported. GPM made measurements of rainfall and storm top heights in Etau when the satellite passed over the center of the tropical storm. GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) measured rain falling at a rate of up to 88.0 mm (3.5 inches) per hour in some areas. The same powerful storms that were dropping heavy rainfall were also shown by GPM radar (Ku Band) to reach heights of almost 16 km (9.9 miles).

On Sept. 8 at 16:41 UTC (12:41 p.m. EDT), the AIRS or Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provided an infrared look at Etau land falling in east central Japan. The strongest storms with coldest cloud tops were over the Kansai and Hokkaido regions at the time Aqua flew overhead. AIRS measured cloud top temperatures near -63 Fahrenheit/-53 Celsius. NASA research indicates that storms with cloud top temperatures that cold, high in the troposphere, have the ability to generate heavy rainfall, as GPM indicated the previous day.  

The final warning for Tropical Storm Etau was issued on September 9, 2015 at 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT). By that time, the storm had moved over Japan and emerged into the Sea of Japan, where it was becoming extra-tropical.

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center reported that water vapor imagery showed an elongated cloud structure that has continued to gain frontal characteristics as it embeds within the baroclinic zone.

The center was located near 37.0 North latitude and 136.3 East longitude, about 194 nautical miles west-northwest of Yokosuka, Japan. Etau was moving to the north-northwest as 23 knots, and had maximum sustained winds near 35 knots.

Etau's remnants are expected to transition to a northwestward trajectory and pass west of Misawa, Japan.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 08, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Storm Etau Approaching Japan

NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Storm Etau on Sept. 8 at 01:30 UTC saw the northern fringes of the storm were already spreading over the big island of Japan.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response

NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Northwestern Pacific Ocean early on September 8 and captured an image of newborn Tropical Storm Etau approaching Japan.

The eighteenth tropical depression of the northwestern Pacific Ocean typhoon season formed near the island of Iwo To, Japan on Sunday, September 7. NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Storm Etau on September 8, 2015 at 01:30 UTC (Sept. 6 at 9:30 p.m. EDT) and captured a visible image of the storm that showed that the northern fringes of the storm were already spreading over the big island of Japan. Etau appeared somewhat elongated as it did in imagery on Sept. 7, however, thick bands of thunderstorms were wrapping into the center from the eastern and southern quadrants.

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on September 8, Etau was centered near 29.9 North latitude and 138.1 East longitude, about 379 nautical miles (436 miles/ 701.9 km) south of Yokosuka, Japan. Etau was moving to the north at 14 knots (16.1 mph/25.3 kph). Etau's maximum sustained winds were near 45 knots (51.7 mph/83.3 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) forecast calls for Etau to make landfall near Kyoto, Japan late on September 8/early September 9 then cross into the Sea of Japan.

The JTWC forecast discussion noted that "The system will begin to decay due to land interaction, specifically with the peaks of the Daikå Mountain Range." As the Etau moves just north of Kyoto, vertical wind shear is forecast to increase and cooler sea surface temperatures in the Sea of Japan will lead to its dissipation. 

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 11, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat, Terra Satellite,

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Hurricanes

Sept. 10, 2015

Grace (Atlantic Ocean)

NASA Sees Former Tropical Storm Bow out "Grace-fully"

NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite flew over Grace at 4:45 UTC (12:45 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 9 and the VIIRS instrument aboard captured this infrared image. Satellite data showed Grace no longer had a closed circulation.

Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over former Tropical Storm Grace and saw the storm had weakened into an open wave of low pressure. Wind data from NASA's RapidScat was also used to confirm Grace's degeneration.

NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite flew over Grace at 4:45 UTC (12:45 a.m. EDT) on Sept. 9 and the VIIRS instrument aboard captured an infrared image of the storm. Satellite data showed Grace no longer had a closed circulation and is now an open wave. 

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), on September 9, the remnants of Grace were located near latitude 14.5 North and longitude 49.0 West. That puts Grace's remnants about 825 miles (1,325 km) east of the Lesser Antilles.

The remnants were moving toward the west near 18 mph (30 kph) and this general motion is expected to continue over the next couple of days. Maximum sustained winds were near 30 mph (45 kph) with higher gusts. The National Hurricane Center said that "little change in strength is expected over the next day or two." The estimated minimum central pressure is 1008 millibars.

NHC Forecaster Pasch noted that "Data from the Rapidscat instrument onboard the International Space Station showed that there were no longer any westerly surface winds in Grace. This was confirmed by animation of high-resolution visible imagery that showed no westerly low-cloud motions." Since Grace had opened up into a wave, the National Hurricane Center issued its final advisory.

Grace's remnant wave is expected to continue moving quickly to the west. NHC noted that the remnants could produce some gusty winds and showers over portions of the Lesser Antilles within a couple of days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 08, 2015 - NASA's GPM Sees Grace Weaken to a Depression

The GPM core observatory satellite passed above Grace on Sept. 8, 2015 at 8:26 a.m. EDT. Rainfall data overlaid on a NOAA GOES-East Visible/Infrared image showed Grace contained only scattered areas of light rain.

Credits: NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite flew over Grace in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean as it weakened to a depression. GPM found that the weaker storm only contained light rain.

On Saturday September 5, 2015 a tropical disturbance south of the Cape Verde Islands in the eastern Atlantic Ocean was designated tropical depression number seven (TD7). TD7 was subsequently upgraded to tropical storm Grace that evening after the tropical depression showed increasingly better organization. Now, just three days after it formed, it has weakened back to a depression.

Grace is moving into an area of the Atlantic Ocean where adverse vertical wind shear and dry mid-level air is predicted to cause the tropical storm to dissipate to a trough of low pressure within a few days. The GPM core observatory satellite passed above Grace on September 8, 2015 at 1226 UTC (8:26 a.m. EDT). At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) data was overlaid on a NOAA GOES-East Visible/Infrared image showed Grace contained only scattered areas of light rain.

GPM is a satellite that is co-managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

National Hurricane Center forecaster Richard Pasch noted in the discussion on Tuesday, September 8, "After the overnight burst of deep convection, thunderstorm activity has diminished and the overall cloud pattern remains disorganized."

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on September 8, the center of Tropical Depression Grace was located near latitude 14.3 North, longitude 42.8 West.  That's about 1,235 miles (1,990 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Satellite data indicate that the maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 35 mph (55 kph) with higher gusts. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1007 millibars.

The depression is moving toward the west near 20 mph (31 kph) and it is expected to continue in that direction over the next two days.

The NHC forecast expects Grace to move through an environment of increasing vertical shear and dry mid-level air for the next few days. Those are two factors that should cause the system to weaken further, and to degenerate into a remnant low pressure area over the next day or two.

Hal Pierce / Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 10, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Earth, GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership),

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Hurricanes

Sept. 9, 2015

Fred (Atlantic Ocean)

Fred Fades in Far Atlantic  

NOAA SHOUT '15 - Overflight of Tropical Storm Fred by NASA Global Hawk Timelapse movie of the overflight of Tropical Storm Fred by the NASA Global Hawk on Sept 5, 2015 as part of the NOAA SHOUT '15 Mission. HDVis camera imagery.

Credits: NOAA/NASA/Dave Fratello

Before Tropical Storm Fred fizzled in the Eastern Atlantic, NASA's Global Hawk flew overhead on September 5 and the Global Hawk's imagery was used to create a movie of the flyover as part of NOAA's SHOUT mission. 

On Sunday, Sept. 6. at 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) the center of Tropical Depression Fred was located near latitude 24.9 North, longitude 43.2 West. The depression was moving toward the north near 10 mph (17 kph). Maximum sustained winds were near 35 mph (55 kph). By 5 p.m. EDT (2100 UTC) on September 6, Fred's maximum sustained winds dropped to 20 knots (23 mph/37 kph) and were weakening quickly. At that time, the National Hurricane Center issued their final warning on Fred. Fred finally succumbed to adverse atmospheric conditions and was no longer a tropical cyclone.

For information about NOAA's SHOUT mission, visit: uas.noaa.gov/shout/.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 04, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Depression Fred Fading, New Storm Developing

This visible image of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on Sept. 4 at 7:45 a.m. EDT shows Tropical Depression Fred winding down and another low pressure area that just came off the West African coast.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

The Eastern Atlantic Ocean continues to generate storms, and as satellites are watch Tropical Storm Fred fade over the next couple of days, a new area of low pressure has moved off the coast of western Africa.

A visible image of the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on Sept. 4 at 7:45 a.m. EDT showed Tropical Depression Fred as a tight swirl of low clouds, with clouds and storms only southeast of the center. The GOES image also showed the new low pressure area called System 91L just off the coast of western Africa. The GOES image was created by the NASA/NOAA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. 

Where is Fred?

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Depression Fred was located near latitude 22.3 North and longitude 38.3 West. That puts the center of Fred about 1,275 miles (2,050 km) southwest of the Azores islands. Fred was moving toward the west-northwest near 9 mph (15 kph), and is expected to turn toward the northwest by early on September 6. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1006 millibars.

Maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph), and is expected to weaken to a remnant low pressure area by September 5 because it is in an area of strong upper-level winds.

Another System Developing Behind Fred

To the southeast of Fred, another area of low pressure in a tropical wave designated System 91L, had moved off the coast of western Africa. At 0600 UTC (2 a.m. EDT) the center of System 91L was located near 10.7 North latitude and 18.1 West longitude, a couple of hundred miles off the west coast of Africa. System 91L is expected to move south of the Cape Verde Islands late on September 4 and 5.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that the low continues to show signs of organization and has the potential for some development as it moves westward at 15 to 20 mph across the tropical Atlantic during the next few days. NHC gives System 91L a 40 percent chance to develop in the next two days and 60 percent chance in five days.

So, forecasters will watch as Fred fizzles and 91L ramps up over the next several days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 4 - Update #1 - NASA's 3-D GPM Flyby of Tropical Storm Fred

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Fred when it was developing in the Eastern Atlantic early August 30 and saw "hot towers" in the storm, which hinted that the storm was intensifying.

Fred became the first Cape Verde hurricane of the 2015 Atlantic season when it was upgraded from a tropical storm on August 31, 2015 at 0600 UTC (2 a.m. EDT). The GPM core observatory satellite flew over on August 30, 2015 at 0236 UTC when Fred was forming from a tropical wave that moved off the African coast. Rainfall was measured by GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) at the extreme rate of close to 128 mm (5.0 inches) per hour. Rainfall in towering convective storms at Fred’s center of circulation were providing the energy necessary for intensification into a hurricane. Three dimensional reflectivity data from GPM’s DPR showed that these “hot towers” had storm top heights reaching to 16.2 km (10.0 miles).

A "hot tower" is a tall cumulonimbus cloud that reaches at least to the top of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It extends approximately 9 miles/14.5 km high in the tropics. These towers are called "hot" because they rise to such altitude due to the large amount of latent heat. Water vapor releases this latent heat as it condenses into liquid. Those towering thunderstorms have the potential for heavy rain. NASA research shows that a tropical cyclone with a hot tower in its eyewall was twice as likely to intensify within six or more hours, than a cyclone that lacked a hot tower.

GPM is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

Animation Credit: NASA/SVS, Alex Kekesi
Text Credit: NASA/Goddard, Rob Gutro


Sep. 03, 2015 - NASA Shows Upper-Level Westerly Winds Affecting Tropical Storm Fred

NASA's Aqua satellite captured this infrared look at Fred on Sept.2 at 1505 UTC (11:05 a.m. EDT). Westerly wind shear was pushing the thunderstorms to the east-southeast of the low-level center.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

Upper-level westerly winds have been affecting Tropical Storm Fred in the far eastern Atlantic Ocean and continue to do so today, September 3. Infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite showed the highest thunderstorms pushed southeast of the storm's center.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathers infrared data that reveals temperatures. When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Tropical Storm Fred on September 2 at 15:05 UTC (11:05 a.m. EDT), the AIRS data and showed some highest, coldest, strongest thunderstorms with cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C were being pushed southeast of the center. 

On September 3, Forecaster Avila of the National Hurricane Center noted that a surge of strong upper-level westerly winds removed most of the convection from Fred overnight, and again the cyclone consists of a very vigorous swirl of low clouds.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Fred was located near latitude 21.5 North, longitude 34.1 West. That's about 760 miles (1,225 km) west-northwest of the Cape Verde Islands. Fred's maximum sustained winds were near 40 mph (65 kph). Fred was moving toward the west-northwest near 9 mph (15 kph), and this motion is expected to continue for the next couple of days. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1005 millibars.

Fred is encountering strong upper-level winds, so weakening is forecast. The NHC expects Fred to become a post-tropical remnant low pressure area by tomorrow, September 4.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 02, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Storm Fred Losing Its Punch

At 10:45 a.m. EDT on Sept. 2, Tropical Storm Fred appeared as a tight swirl of clouds, devoid of strong thunderstorms in a GOES-East satellite image.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

NASA's RapidScat instrument saw Fred's strongest winds on Sept. 1 at 4 a.m. EDT tightly circled the center and were on the northern side, between 24 and 27 meters per second (53.6 to 60.4 mph/86.4 to 97.2 kph).

Credits: NASA/JPL, Doug Tyler

Tropical Storm Fred is losing its punch. Satellite imagery shows that there are no strong thunderstorms developing in the tropical storm indicating that the storm is weakening.

The RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station measured Tropical Storm Fred's winds on September 1 at 4 a.m. EDT. RapidScat saw that the strongest winds tightly circled the center and were on the northern side of the storm, as strong as 24 and 27 meters per second (53.6 mph/ 86.4 kph and 60.4/97.2 kph). 

On September 1 at 13:00 UTC (9 a.m. EDT) the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite saw Tropical Storm Fred moving past the Cape Verde Islands. At that time, the strongest thunderstorms were northwest of the center. By September 2, those strong thunderstorms were hard to find on NOAA's GOES- East satellite imagery taken at 10:45 a.m. EDT. Both the MODIS and the GOES images were created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on September 2 the center of Tropical Storm Fred was located near latitude 19.8 North, longitude 30.9 West.  About 525 miles (845 km) west-northwest of the Cape Verde Islands. Fred is moving toward the west-northwest near 10 mph (17 kph), and this general motion is expected to continue over the next couple of days.

Satellite wind data indicate that the maximum sustained winds dropped to near 45 mph (75 kph) with higher gusts. Weakening is forecast during the next 48 hours. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1004 millibars.

Satellite imagery on September 2 showed that Fred had been without deep convection (strong uplift in the atmosphere that creates thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone) since about 11 p.m. on September 1. The National Hurricane Center noted that Fred just consists of a tight swirl of low- to mid-level clouds. NHC Forecaster Brown noted "If organized deep convection does not return very soon, which appears unlikely, Fred will become a post-tropical cyclone this afternoon.  Strong westerly (wind) shear, marginal sea surface temperatures, and dry mid-level air should cause the circulation to gradually spin down during the next few days."

Fred is expected to become a post-tropical cyclone later in the day on Wednesday, September 2, 2015.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 01, 2015 - NASA-NOAA Satellite Shows Fred Facing a Fizzling Future

This visible image from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite shows thunderstorms diminishing in Tropical Storm Fred on Sept. 1 at 11:04 a.m. EDT.

Credits: NASA/NOAA/NRL

Fred was a hurricane on August 31 and weakened to a tropical storm on September 1 after moving through the Cape Verde Islands and the storm faces more obstacles in the coming days. Visible imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite on September 1 showed a less organized storm than on the previous day.

Fred continues to quickly weaken. The strongest thunderstorms near the center of the storm decreased in coverage and have become less organized in visible imagery from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite. Suomi NPP flew over Fred on September 1 at 11:04 a.m. EDT. 

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on September 1, the center of Tropical Storm Fred was located near latitude 18.3 North, longitude 27.0 West. That's about 255 miles (410 km) northwest of the Cape Verde Islands.

Maximum sustained winds have decreased to near 50 mph (85 kph), and the National Hurricane Center (NHC) expects additional weakening during the next 48 hours, and Fred is forecast to become a tropical depression by late Wednesday, September 2. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1003 millibars.

Fred was moving toward the west-northwest near 10 mph (17 kph), and this general motion is expected to continue during the next couple of days.

Fred faces more factors that will make it fizzle over the next several days. The tropical storm is expected to move into an area with increasing southwesterly wind shear (winds that can tear a tropical cyclone apart), some dry air in the mid-levels of the atmosphere, and cooler sea surface temperatures. All of those factors will help weaken the now weaker tropical storm.

The NHC noted that Fred is expected to weaken to a tropical depression in 36 to 48 hours (by September 3) and become a remnant low in 2 to 3 days, but this could occur sooner.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 31, 2015 - NASA Finds "Hot Towers" in Fred, Now a Hurricane

On Aug. 30 when the GPM satellite examined the developing Fred, it found rain fall occurring at close to 128 mm (5.0 inches) per hour in “hot towers” reaching to 16.2 km (10.0 miles).

Credits: NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Fred when it was developing in the Eastern Atlantic early August 30 and saw "hot towers" in the storm, which hinted that the storm was intensifying. 

Fred became the first Cape Verdes hurricane of the 2015 Atlantic season when it was upgraded from a tropical storm on August 31, 2015 at 0600 UTC (2 a.m. EDT).

The GPM core observatory satellite flew over on August 30, 2015 at 0236 UTC when Fred was forming from a tropical wave that moved off the African coast. Rainfall was measured by GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) at the extreme rate of close to 128 mm (5.0 inches) per hour. Rainfall in towering convective thunderstorms at Fred’s center of circulation were providing the energy necessary for intensification into a hurricane. Three dimensional reflectivity data from GPM’s DPR showed that these “hot towers” had storm top heights reaching to 16.2 km (10.0 miles).

GPM is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

A "hot tower" is a tall cumulonimbus cloud that reaches at least to the top of the troposphere, the lowest layer of the atmosphere. It extends approximately 9 miles/14.5 km high in the tropics. These towers are called "hot" because they rise to such altitude due to the large amount of latent heat. Water vapor releases this latent heat as it condenses into liquid. Those towering thunderstorms have the potential for heavy rain. 

NASA research shows that a tropical cyclone with a hot tower in its eyewall was twice as likely to intensify within six or more hours, than a cyclone that lacked a hot tower.

Early on August 31, Fred was lashing the Cape Verde Islands in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean. The National Hurricane Center noted hurricane conditions were occurring over portions of the easternmost Cape Verde Islands and are expected to spread northwestward over portions of the northern and northwestern Cape Verde Islands later today. Additionally, storm surge is expected to bring coastal flooding.

The rainfall that GPM saw on August 30 is expected to impact the islands today, August 31. Fred is expected to produce total rain accumulations of 4 to 6 inches over the Cape Verde Islands, with possible isolated maximum amounts of 10 inches.

At 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), the center of Hurricane Fred was located near latitude 16.1 North, longitude 23.5 West. Fred is moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 km/h) and this general motion is expected to continue through Tuesday, September 1, according to NHC.  on the forecast track, the center of Fred is expected to pass near or over the northwestern Cape Verde Islands later today, August 31. The estimated minimum central pressure is 989 millibars.

Maximum sustained winds were near 80 mph (130 kph) and by Tuesday, September 1, gradually weakening is forecast to begin. For forecast updates, visit the NHC: www.nhc.noaa.gov

Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 30, 2015 - Western Africa Gives Birth to Atlantic's Tropical Storm Fred

This visible image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite shows newborn Tropical Storm Fred near the Cape Verde Islands in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on August 30 at 7:45 a.m. EDT.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

This visible image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite shows newborn Tropical Storm Fred near the Cape Verde Islands in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on August 30 at 7:45 a.m. EDT and Erika's remnants over Florida.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

Tropical Storm Fred developed early on Sunday, August 30, 2015 from a tropical wave off the coast of Western Africa. NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured a visible image of the new tropical storm.

Because Fred is close to the Cape Verde Islands, a Tropical Storm Warning was in effect. In addition, there's a Hurricane Watch in effect for the Cape Verde Islands as Fred is expected to strengthen to hurricane-force.

A visible image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showed newborn Tropical Storm Fred was near the Cape Verde Islands in the Eastern Atlantic Ocean on August 30 at 7:45 a.m. EDT. The image was created by NASA/NOAA's GOES Project at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. 

At 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC), the National Hurricane Center reported that the center of Tropical Storm Fred was located near latitude 12.9 North and longitude 19.3 West. That's about 315 miles (505 km) east-southeast of Praia in the Cape Verde Islands. Maximum sustained winds are near 40 mph (65 kph) and NHC noted that steady strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours, and Fred could be near hurricane strength when it moves through the Cape Verde Islands.

Fred was moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and that general motion is expected to continue through Tuesday.  on the forecast track, the center of Tropical Storm Fred is expected to move through the Cape Verde Islands by late Monday, August 31 and into Tuesday, September 1.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 9, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Ames Research Center, Aqua Satellite, Earth, Goddard Space Flight Center, GOES (Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellites), GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat, Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership),

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Hurricanes

Sept. 5, 2015

Ignacio (was 12E - Eastern Pacific)

GPM Sees Weakening Tropical Storm Ignacio Headed Toward Canada

GPM analyzed Hurricane Ignacio's rainfall on Sept. 3, 2015 at 2116 UTC and found the maximum rainfall rate was only about 74.0 mm (2.9 inches) per hour.

Credits: NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

Hurricane Ignacio continues weakening as it moves over the colder waters of the Pacific Ocean far to the north of Hawaiian Islands. The Global Precipitation Measurement of GPM mission core satellite flew over Ignacio and analyzed the weaker storm's precipitation.

Ignacio peaked as a category four hurricane with winds of 125 knots (144 mph) less than a week ago when it was southeast of Hawaii. Ignacio had weakened to strong tropical storm intensity with winds of about 60 knots (69 mph) when the GPM core observatory satellite flew over on September 3, 2015 at 2116 UTC.

GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) found with this pass that the maximum rainfall rate was only about 74.0 mm (2.9 inches) per hour. GPM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, JAXA.

On September 4, 2015 at 11 a.m. EDT (5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC) the center of Hurricane Ignacio was located near latitude 32.4 north and longitude 164.2 west. That puts the center about 860 miles (1,380 km) north-northwest of Honolulu, Hawaii and about 600 miles (965 km) north-northeast of French Frigate Shoals. The estimated minimum central pressure is 980 millibars. Maximum sustained winds are near 75 mph (120 kph) and weakening.

Ignacio was moving toward the north-northwest near 13 mph (20 kph) and is expected to turn north on September 5, then northeast the following day. For updated forecasts visit NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center at: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

Ignacio could buffet western Canada's coast near Queen Charlotte Islands as a sub-tropical storm during the week of September 7.

Harold F. Pierce
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 03, 2015 - NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Ignacio in a Trio Across the Pacific

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this image of Hurricane Ignacio on Sept. 3 at 2:40 UTC in the Central Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

The tropical trio of tropical cyclones continued on September 3 when NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the Pacific Ocean. Images taken from several overpasses were put together to create a panorama of the Pacific that included Typhoon Kilo, Hurricane Ignacio and Hurricane Jimena.

Hurricane Ignacio lies northeast of Hawaii in the Central Pacific Ocean and is sandwiched between Kilo in the Northwestern Pacific and Jimena in the Central Pacific. After Ignacio regained hurricane status, Aqua passed overhead and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument took an image of the storm that showed a re-developed eye and thick bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the low-level center.

At 11 a.m.  EDT (5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC) the center of Hurricane Ignacio was located near latitude 28.8 north and longitude 161.7 west. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) noted Ignacio was moving toward the northwest near 14 mph (22 kph) and this motion is expected to continue through today followed by a turn toward the north Friday and Saturday.

Maximum sustained winds are near 75 mph (120 kph) and gradual weakening is expected over the next two days. The estimated minimum central pressure is 983 millibars.

NOAA's CPHC noted that after September 3, ocean swells generated from Ignacio will fade but swells from Hurricane Jimena, located east-southeast of the Hawaiian Islands, will then become the dominant surf producer.

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite made several passes over the Pacific Ocean on Sept. 3 and captured Typhoon Kilo (left) and Hurricanes Ignacio (center) and Jimena (right) across the Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 02, 2015 - NASA Sees a Weaker Tropical Storm Ignacio North of Hawaiian Islands

On Sept. 1 at 21:10 UTC the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Tropical Storm Ignacio near Hawaii. Credit:

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

On Sept. 1 at 12 a.m. EDT the RapidScat instrument observed Ignacio's strongest winds were on the southern side of the storm near 30 meters per second (108 kph/67 mph).

Credits: NASA JPL, Doug Tyler

When NASA's Terra satellite passed over Tropical Storm Ignacio on Sept. 1 it gathered cloud and wind data on the weakening storm.

Late on August 31 at 11 p.m. EDT the RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station observed Ignacio's strongest winds surrounded the center of storm near 30 meters per second (108 kph/67 mph). Those winds weakened over the next 36 hours.

At 21:10 UTC (5:10 p.m. EDT) the MODIS instrument aboard Terra captured a visible image of Tropical Storm Ignacio well north of the Hawaiian Islands. As the storm weakened from a hurricane to a tropical storm, the eye was no longer visible.

At 11 a.m. EDT on September 2, there are no coastal watches or warnings in effect for Hawaii as Ignacio passing well north of the main Hawaiian Islands. There was no eye visible on satellite imagery, but the center of the storm was indicated by a "warm spot" on infrared imagery that stood out from the colder cloud top temperatures of the thunderstorms surrounding Ignacio's center. Those thunderstorms, however, had weakened since the previous day.

The center of Tropical Storm Ignacio was located near latitude 26.1 north and longitude 157.1 west. That's about 335 miles (540 km) north of Honolulu. Ignacio was moving toward the northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and the storm is expected to turn to the north-northwest late on September 3. Maximum sustained winds were near 70 mph (110 kph) and slow weakening is expected starting on Thursday, September 3.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Sep. 01, 2015 - NASA Sees Wind Shear Affecting Hurricane Ignacio

This infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows Hurricane Ignacio's clouds bring blown to the northeast from wind shear on Sept. 1 at 8:00 a.m. EDT.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

NASA's Aqua satellite captured this infrared look at Ignacio on Sept.1 at 7:41 a.m. EDT. Southwesterly wind shear was pushing the thunderstorms to the northeast of the low-level center.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

Hurricane Ignacio is staying far enough away from the Hawaiian Islands to not bring heavy rainfall or gusty winds, but is still causing rough surf. Infrared satellite data on September 1 shows that wind shear is adversely affecting the storm and weakening it.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathers infrared data that reveals temperatures. When NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Ignacio on September 1 at 11:41 UTC (7:41 a.m. EDT), the AIRS data and showed some high, cold, strong thunderstorms surrounded the center where cloud top temperatures were near -63F/-53C. However, AIRS also showed that southwesterly wind shear was pushing the thunderstorms to the northeast of the low-level center.

The National Hurricane Center noted that infrared data showed the central dense overcast clouds had now been completely sheared away and replaced with a "warmer banding feature across the western and northern semicircles." That means weaker thunderstorms with less cold cloud top temperatures, because there wasn't as much uplift in the atmosphere to push them higher. 

On September 1 at 8:00 a.m. EDT an infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite clearly showed that that southwesterly vertical wind shear was affecting the storm. In the image it appeared that Ignacio developed a tail that extended to the northeast as its clouds and thunderstorms were being pushed in that direction.

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC/5 a.m. HST), the center of Hurricane Ignacio was near latitude 23.5 north and longitude 153.7 west. That's about 310 miles (495 km) east-northeast of Honolulu, Hawaii, and 275 miles (445 km) north-northeast of Hilo. The estimated minimum central pressure is 984 millibars.

Ignacio's maximum sustained winds dropped to near 80 mph (130 kph). That means that Kilo is a category one hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane wind scale. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center expects Ignacio to slowly weaken through early Thursday, September 3.

NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center noted that large swells generated by Ignacio will continue along east and northeast facing shores of the Hawaiian Islands over the next couple of days. Resultant surf will be large...potentially damaging and life-threatening.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 31, 2015 - NASA Sees a Weakening Hurricane Ignacio Moving Parallel to Hawaiian Islands

This false-colored infrared image from Aug. 30 at 22:47 UTC (6:47 p.m. EDT) shows there were high, cold, strong thunderstorms (purple) with cloud top temperatures in excess of -63F/-53C around the center of Hurricane Ignacio.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

This infrared image from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows Hurricane Ignacio near the Hawaiian Islands on August 30 at 8:00 a.m. EDT.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Hurricane Ignacio and viewed the storm in infrared light, providing valuable temperature data. Aqua saw a weaker Ignacio moving parallel to the Hawaiian Islands.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument aboard Aqua gathers infrared data that shows temperatures. That AIRS data was made into a false-colored infrared image from August 30 at 22:47 UTC (6:47 p.m. EDT) and showed high, cold, strong thunderstorms surrounded the center of Hurricane Ignacio.

AIRS imagery also showed a thick band of thunderstorms spiraling into the northern quadrant of the storm from the east. Coldest cloud top temperatures were as cold as -63F/-53C around the center of the hurricane, somewhat warmer than they were the day before. NASA research has shown that thunderstorms with cloud tops that cold and high in the troposphere have the potential to generate heavy rainfall. As Ignacio weakens, those cloud tops will drop and become less cold. When infrared data shows that cloud tops are warmer, it means the uplift in the storm is weakening.

On August 31, NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) stated that infrared satellite images show that Ignacio continued to steadily weaken...down from a peak intensity that was reached on August 30, with a cloud-filled eye barely discernible.

On August 31 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT/5 a.m. HST), the center of Hurricane Ignacio was located near latitude 20.9 north and longitude 150.8 west. That's about 460 miles (735 km) east of Honolulu, and about 335 miles (540 km) east of Hana, Hawaii. The estimated minimum central pressure is 966 millibars.

Maximum sustained winds are near 105 mph (165 kph) and the CPHC expects significant weakening over the next couple of days.

Wednesday. Hurricane force winds extend outward up to 60 miles (95 km) from the center and tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 175 miles (280 km). Because Ignacio remains several hundred miles from land, Hawaii is not experiencing the hurricane-force winds.

Ignacio is moving toward the northwest near 10 mph (17 kph) and this motion Is expected to continue for the next couple of days.

The CPHC forecast calls for Ignacio to track in a general north-northwesterly direction over the next several days, paralleling the Hawaiian Islands to the east, but never making landfall. Ignacio is also forecast to weaken to a tropical storm by September 2 as it continues heading northwest. For updated forecasts, visit NOAA's CPHC website:  http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 28, 2015 - NASA's GPM Sees Heavy Rain in Hurricane Ignacio

Rainfall associated with hurricane Ignacio was measured by the GPM core observatory satellite's Microwave Imager (GMI) on August 27, 2015 at 1121 UTC (7:21 a.m. EDT). GPM's GMI instrument found that rain was falling at a rate of over 60 mm (~2.4 inches) per hour south of the hurricane's eye.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Hurricane Ignacio continued to strengthen as NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite analyzed its rainfall. Ignacio is forecast to move near Hawaii over the weekend of August 29 and 30. 

Hurricane Ignacio is the latest tropical cyclone in this busy 2015 eastern Pacific hurricane season to pose potential danger for the Hawaiian Islands. Guillermo passed close to the north, Hilda curved to the south and Kilo's course was threatening before a course change moved it to the south of the islands. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) in Honolulu Hawaii predicts that Ignacio will still be a hurricane when it passes to the northeast of Hawaii in the next several days.

Rainfall associated with hurricane Ignacio was measured by the GPM core observatory satellite's Microwave Imager (GMI) on August 27, 2015 at 1121 UTC (7:21 a.m. EDT). GPM's GMI instrument found that rain was falling at a rate of over 60 mm (~2.4 inches) per hour south of the hurricane's eye. GPM is co-managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

On August 28, the heaviest rainfall shifted slightly to the southeast side of the storm. Infrared satellite data, such as those from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite showed cloud top temperatures in that quadrant of the storm were as cold as -80 Fahrenheit (-62.2 Celsius).

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on August 28, 2015, the center of hurricane ignacio was located near latitude 13.9 north and longitude 143.1 west. That puts the center about 890 miles (1,430 km) east-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii and about 1,100 miles (1,770 km) east-southeast of Honolulu, Hawaii. Maximum sustained winds are near 90 mph (150 kph). Ignacio is expected to slowly strengthen through late Saturday, August 29 and peak at 110 mph (177 kph). Ignacio is expected to start weakening slightly on August 31.

Ignacio is moving toward the west-northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and is expected to continue in that direction for the next day. The estimated minimum central pressure is 982 millibars.

The CPHC forecast puts the center of Hurricane Ignacio east of the Big Island of Hawaii on Monday, August 31 and expects the storm to move in a northwesterly direction, paralleling the Hawaiian Islands. For updates, visit the CPHC website at: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc.

Hal Pierce / Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 27, 2015 - NASA Data Shows Hurricane Ignacio's Very Cold Cloud Tops Indicate Quick Strengthening

This false-colored infrared image of Hurricane Ignacio from August 27 at 11:23 UTC (7:23 a.m. EDT) shows high, cold, strong thunderstorms (purple) with cloud top temperatures in excess of -63F/-53C.

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

When cloud top temperatures get colder, the uplift in tropical cyclones gets stronger and the thunderstorms that make up the tropical cyclones have more strength. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Hurricane Ignacio and infrared data revealed cloud top temperatures had cooled from the previous day.

Ignacio strengthened to a hurricane at 11 p.m. EDT on August 26. It became the seventh hurricane of the Eastern Pacific Ocean hurricane season.

A false-colored infrared image of Hurricane Ignacio was made at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California, using data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite The AIRS data from August 27 at 11:23 UTC (7:23 a.m. EDT) showed that cloud top temperatures had cooled within Ignacio indicating that the uplift of air within the storm was stronger than it was on August 26. AIRS data showed the strongest thunderstorms  had cloud top temperatures in excess of -63F/-53C.

Forecaster Blake at NOAA's National Hurricane Center noted that "Very cold cloud tops persist near the center of Ignacio, although the overall cloud pattern is not very symmetric and no eye is present in conventional satellite data. However, microwave images show an eye beneath the cirrus clouds."

At 5 a.m. EDT (2 a.m. PDT/0900 UTC) on Thursday, August 27 the center of Hurricane Ignacio was located near latitude 12.6 North, longitude 138.5 West. That's about 1,205 miles (1,940 km) east-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii. Ignacio was moving toward the west-northwest near 13 mph (20 kph) and this general motion is expected to continue through Friday. Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 85 mph (140 kph). The estimated minimum central pressure is 985 millibars.

The NHC noted that further strengthening seems likely with Ignacio over the next couple of days as the storm moves through an area with light-to-moderate easterly shear, warm water and a moist atmosphere. Ignacio's strength is expected to peak on August 29 when the maximum sustained winds are forecast to be near 110 knots (115 mph) before weakening commences.

The current five day forecast from the NHC brings Ignacio east of the Big Island of Hawaii. Ignacio has now moved into the Central Pacific Ocean, and forecasts will be covered by NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center. For updates, visit:  http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/cphc/.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 26, 2015 - NASA Measures Rainfall in Stronger Tropical Storm Ignacio

On Aug. 25, GPM found rain falling at a rate of over 74 mm (2.9 inches) per hour with storm tops reaching to altitudes of close to 15 km (8.7 miles).

Credits: NASA/SSAI/JAXA, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite measured rainfall as Tropical Depression Twelve was upgraded to Tropical Storm Ignacio.

Tropical Depression 12E strengthened into Tropical Storm Ignacio at 5 p.m. EDT yesterday, August 25. At that time, it became the ninth named tropical storm of the Eastern Pacific hurricane season.

The GPM core observatory satellite saw Ignacio on August 25, 2015 at 2256 UTC. GPM’s Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) found rain falling at a rate of over 74 mm (2.9 inches) per hour with storm tops reaching to altitudes of close to 15 km (8.7 miles). GPM is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

On August 26, the strongest convection (rising air that form the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone) has been persisting mainly over the western half of the circulation. That means more thunderstorm development on that side of the storm. Recent microwave images show increased banding of thunderstorms.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on August 26, the center of Tropical Storm Ignacio was located near latitude 12.3 North, longitude 134.1 West. That's about 1,485 miles (2,385 km) east-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii. Ignacio currently poses no threat to land areas.

Ignacio is moving toward the west near 7 mph (11 km/h). This westward motion is expected to continue today with an increase in forward speed. A turn toward the west-northwest is forecast on Thursday.

Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 50 mph (85 kph) and the National Hurricane Center expects Ignacio to become a hurricane by Thursday, August 27. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1001 millibars. For updated forecasts, visit: www.nhc.noaa.gov.

Hal Pierce
SSAI/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 25, 2015 - NASA's Terra Satellite Sees Birth of Tropical Depression 12E

At 3:10 a.m. EDT on August 25, NASA's Terra satellite saw strongest storms (red) west of the center in newborn Tropical Depression 12E in the Eastern Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA/NRL

The twelfth tropical depression of the Eastern Pacific Ocean hurricane season was born today, August 25, 2015, as NASA's Terra satellite flew overhead.

At 3:10 a.m. EDT on August 25, the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite gathered infrared data on newborn Tropical Depression 12E. The infrared data measures temperatures of cloud tops and found that the coldest and highest thunderstorms were mostly to the west of the circulation center. That's because the depression is being battered by southeasterly wind shear. 

At 200 AM PDT (0900 UTC), the center of Tropical Depression Twelve-E was located near latitude 13.2 North, longitude 131.7 West. That's about 1,610 miles (2,595 km) east-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii. Maximum sustained winds remain near 35 mph (55 kph)

The depression was moving toward the west near 5 mph (7 kph) and this general motion with some increase in forward speed is forecast during the next day or so. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1006 millibars.

National Hurricane Center's forecaster Cangialosi said that the wind shear is expected to lessen later in the day on August 25. Lighter wind shear and warm sea surface temperatures will help the storm intensify over the next several days. NHC currently expects the depression to reach hurricane status on August 28.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Sept. 5, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, GOES (Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellites), GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat, Terra Satellite,

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Hurricanes

Aug. 26, 2015

Loke (was TD4C - Central Pacific)

NASA's GPM Satellite Sees Heavy Rain Around Loke's Center

On August 25, GPM showed that highest storm top heights in Loke reached to above 15.3 km (9.5 miles) and rain falling at over 160 mm (6.3 inches) per hour in intense rainfall near the center.

Credits: NASA/JAXA/SSAI, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite can measure rainfall from space, and saw heavy rainfall in the Central Pacific's Loke when it was a hurricane. 

Hurricane Loke formed southwest of the Hawaiian Islands on August 21, 2015 but Loke has not been a threat to Hawaii because it intensified to hurricane strength while moving well west of Hawaii over the open waters of the Pacific Ocean.

The GPM core observatory satellite measured precipitation within the hurricane as it flew above the most powerful thunderstorms in the hurricane on August 25, 2015 at 0116 UTC. At the time GPM passed over Loke it had maximum sustained winds near 75 mph (120 kph).

GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) measured rain falling at over 160 mm (6.3 inches) per hour in intense rainfall near the center of hurricane Loke. GPM DPR data also showed that storm top heights in that area reached to above 15.3 km (9.5 miles). GPM is co-managed by NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Loke was located near latitude 33.2 north and longitude 175.1 west. That puts the center about 370 miles (595 km) north-northeast of Midway Island. Loke is moving toward the northwest near 21 mph (33 kph). An acceleration toward the northwest will occur during the next 36 hours as Loke undergoes transition to an extra-tropical low.

Maximum sustained winds are near 50 mph (85 kph) and weakening is expected as the storm becomes extra-tropical today. The estimated minimum central pressure is 992 millibars.

Ocean swells and rough surf across reefs and shorelines over the western portions of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument were easing from Loke, but swells from former Typhoon Atsani will start to affect the area, according to NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center.

Loke is forecast to continue to accelerate toward the northwest and begin to undergo transition to an extra-tropical low today, August 26, 2015 as it becomes drawn into the circulation of a larger low associated with former Typhoon Atsani.

Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 25, 2015 - NASA Sees Hurricane Loke Moving North

At 01:10 UTC on August 25 NASA's Aqua satellite saw Hurricane Loke in the Central Pacific.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Hurricane Loke as it continued moving north in the Central Pacific early on August 25.

At 01:10 UTC on August 25, 2015 (9:10 p.m. EDT/Aug. 24) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured an infrared image of Hurricane Loke. The image showed the thunderstorms wrapping around the northern quadrant of the storm from east to west of the storm's center. Despite attaining hurricane status, however, there was no visible eye although microwave data taken earlier indicated an eye.  

Loke is still stirring up rough surf on its journey north. The Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) noted that large swells produced by Loke will cause rough surf across reefs and shorelines over the western portions of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument through Wednesday. Large waves may overwash low-lying portions of the islands and atolls during this time.

At 5 a.m. HST (11 a.m. EDT/1500 UTC) the center of Hurricane Loke was located near latitude 29.9 north and longitude 172.2 west. Maximum sustained winds were near 75 mph (120 kph). Slow and steady weakening is expected to begin later on August 26.

Loke was moving to the north-northeast near 18 mph and CPHC expects the storm to turn to the north and then northwest later in the day and on August 26.

Hurricane Loke is expected to weaken to a tropical storm by Wednesday, August 26 and become extra-tropical later in the day as it moves in a northwesterly direction over open waters of the Central Pacific Ocean.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 24, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Storm Loke Strengthening

Terra passed over Loke on August 24 at 09:50 UTC (5:50 a.m. EDT). The data showed that the strongest storms, with the coldest (red) cloud top temperatures were north of the center of circulation.

Credits: NASA/NRL

NASA's Terra satellite analyzed Tropical Storm Loke in infrared light as it continued strengthening in the Central Pacific.

Loke formed on August 20 at 11 p.m. EDT as Tropical Depression 4C. By August 21 at 5 p.m. EDT the depression strengthened into a tropical storm and was renamed Tropical Storm Loke.

NASA's Terra satellite gathered infrared data on Loke using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument. Terra passed over Loke on August 24 at 09:50 UTC (5:50 a.m. EDT). The data showed that the strongest storms, with the coldest cloud top temperatures were north of the center of circulation. Highest, strongest thunderstorms stretch high into the troposphere (lowest layer of the atmosphere) and the higher the cloud top, the colder it is. Cloud top temperatures were near -63F/-53C indicating these thunderstorms were capable of generating heavy rainfall.

Loke is expected to reach hurricane strength later today, and a hurricane warning is in effect for portions of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument, from Pearl and Hermes Atoll to Lisianski Island. In addition, NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center posted a tropical storm warning is in effect for Midway Island, portions of the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument from Lisianski Island to Maro Reef.

At 8 a.m. EDT (2 a.m. HST/1200 UTC) the center of Tropical Storm Loke was located near latitude 24.4 north...longitude 178.0 west. Loke is moving toward the northeast near 15 mph...24 km/h. Loke is expected to turn to the north on August 25. CPHC noted on the forecast track the outer winds of Loke should reach the warned areas within the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument during the afternoon on August 24 with the core of Loke passing through the warned area at night. Maximum sustained winds are near 65 mph (105 kph) and is expected to become a hurricane on August 25. The estimated minimum central pressure is 995 millibars.

For the full forecast and local effects, go to the CPHC website: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/cphc

Loke's center is expected to pass near the Pearl and Hermes Atoll and Midway Island late today, August 24, and early Tuesday, August 25.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 21, 2015 - NASA Sees New Tropical Depression Form Near International Date Line

On Aug. 21 at 9:40 a.m. EDT NASA's Aqua satellite captured the development of Tropical Depression 4C in infrared light. Red indicates coldest cloud tops and strongest storms.

Credits: NASA/NRL

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over newborn Tropical Depression 4C in the Central Pacific Ocean on August 21. TD 4C lies just three degrees east of the International Date Line.

The International Date Line sits on the 180 degree line of longitude in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. When Tropical Depression 4C formed on August 20 at 11 p.m. EDT, it developed near 15.2 North latitude and 177.5 degrees West longitude.

On Aug. 21 at 1340 UTC (9:40 a.m. EDT), NASA's Aqua satellite captured Tropical Depression 4C in infrared light. Infrared data was gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The infrared data showed the coldest cloud top temperatures persisting mostly to the north of the low-level circulation center. 

The CPHC noted that recent satellite animations and microwave data show some indications that dry air in the mid-levels may be affecting the southern side of the circulation. Dry air saps evaporation and thunderstorm development.

By 11 a.m. EDT (5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC) on August 21, TD4C's maximum sustained winds were near 35 mpg (55 kph). It was about 515 miles (825 km) west of Johnston Island and 850 miles (1,365 km) south of Midway Island. It was moving to the north at 5 mph (7 kph) and is expected to curve to the northwest by August 22. Minimum central pressure was 1003 millibars.

The CPHC expects TD4 to become a tropical storm late on August 21 or on August 22 as it moves in a northerly direction almost paralleling the International Date Line before turning northeast toward Midway Island by August 26.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Aug. 26, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes,

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Hurricanes

Aug. 26, 2015

Goni (was 16W - Northwest Pacific Ocean)

NASA Sees Extra-Tropical Cyclone Goni Over Sea of Japan

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Extra-Tropical Cyclone Goni on August 26 at 02:00 UTC (10 p.m. EDT, August 25) and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer captured this visible image of the storm in the Sea of Japan.  The storm is expected to make final landfall near Vladivostok, Russia later on August 26.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 25, 2015 - NASA Sees Typhoon Goni Cover Southern Half of Sea of Japan

At 12:30 a.m. EDT on August 25 NASA's Aqua satellite saw Typhoon Goni filling up the southern half of the Sea of Japan.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Typhoon Goni after it moved out of the East China Sea and north into the Sea of Japan.

At 04:30 UTC (12:30 a.m. EDT) on August 25, 2015, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible picture of the typhoon. The image showed the storm's center in the southern part of the Sea of Japan, and the storm filled up the bottom half of the sea. The typhoon appeared weaker as there was no visible eye. The MODIS image also showed that the storm's western quadrant were over North Korea and South Korea, while the eastern quadrant stretched over most of the big island of Japan.

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on August 25, Goni's maximum sustained winds were near 70 knots (80.5 mph/129.6 kph). It was centered near 35.3 North latitude and 131.0 East longitude, about 81 nautical miles (93 miles/150 km) northwest of Iwakuni, Japan. Goni was moving to the north-northeast at 13 knots (14.9 mph/24.0 kph).  

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that Goni will continue to weaken and become extra-tropical as it moves north. The JTWC forecast discussion said that environmental conditions are rapidly deteriorating as the system becomes embedded in the flow of mid-latitude westerly winds and runs into high (40 to 50 knot) vertical wind shear. In addition, sea surface temperatures are near 26 Celsius (78.8 Fahrenheit), not warm enough to maintain a tropical cyclone.

The storm is expected to make final landfall near Vladivostok, Russia on August 26.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 24, 2015 - NASA Sees Typhoon Goni Moving Through East China Sea

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite flew over Typhoon Goni at 2:15 UTC on Aug. 24 as the storm moved through the East China Sea.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Typhoon Goni continued on its northern track and NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of the storm moving through the East China Sea early on August 24.

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite flew over Typhoon Goni at 2:15 UTC on Aug. 24 and captured a visible image of the weakening storm. Despite slight weakening, Goni still had an eye and it appeared to be about 16 nautical miles wide. That eye was surrounded by bands of powerful thunderstorms.

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect Goni to make landfall in Kyushu, Japan on August 25 and move north, northwest through the Sea of Japan, making a final landfall in Vladivostok, Russia on August 26. Vladivostok is located at the head of the Golden Horn Bay, close to Russia's borders with North Korea and China.  

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on August 24, Typhoon Goni had maximum sustained winds near 110 knots (126 mph/203 kph). It was centered near 29.6 North latitude and 128.8 East longitude, about 215 nautical miles (247.2 miles/398.2 km) south-southwest of Sasebo, Japan. Goni was moving to the northeast at 22 knots (25.3 mph/40.7 kph).

Goni is moving quickly to the northeast and is beginning to weaken. Vertical wind shear is increasing as the storm moves north which is weakening the storm. Additionally, it will weaken as it interacts with the land of southern Japan and moves into the cooler waters of the Sea of Japan. 

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects that Goni will pass southwestern Japan and become extra-tropical when it is off the east coast of the Korean Peninsula.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 21, 2015 - Two NASA Satellites See Powerful Typhoon Goni Brush the Philippines

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Typhoon Goni on August 21 at 04:50 UTC (12:50 a.m. EDT) and saw Goni covering Luzon, Philippines.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite flew over Typhoon Goni as it was affecting the Philippines.

On August 20, 2015 at 3:11 a.m. EDT GPM saw heavy rain (red) falling at a rate of over 88.0 (3.5 inches) south of Goni's distinct eye.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Rain bands from Typhoon Goni were hitting the island of Luzon in the northern Philippines when the GPM core observatory satellite flew over on August 20, 2015 at 0711 UTC (3:11 a.m. EDT/3:11 p.m. Philippine Standard Time). GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) clearly showed the intensity of rain falling in Goni's inner and replacement outer eye wall. GMI found that precipitation was falling at a rate of over 88.0 (3.5 inches) in extreme rainfall south of Goni's distinct eye.

Radar reflectivity data from GPM's Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) instrument was used to create a 3-D view (from the east). The 3-D image showed the vertical structure of rainfall bands in the western side of the typhoon.

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Typhoon Goni on August 21 at 04:50 UTC (12:50 a.m. EDT). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image that showed the clouds from Goni's southwestern quadrant covering Luzon, Philippines. 

On August 21, 2015 a number of warnings are still in effect in the Philippines as Goni continues to move away. Public storm warning signal #3 is in effect in the Batanes Group of Islands, Northern Cagayan including Babuyan and Calayan Group of Islands. Public storm warning signal #2 is in effect for the rest of Cagayan, Northern Isabela, Kalinga, Apayao, Abra and Ilocos Norte. Finally, Public storm warning signal #1 is in effect for the rest of Isabela, Ifugao, Mt. Province, Benguet, La Union and Ilocos Sur

On August 21 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Goni's maximum sustained winds were near 95 knots (109.3 mph/176 kph). It was centered near 19.7 North latitude and 122.3 East longitude, about 345 nautical miles (397 miles/638.9 km) south of Taipei, Taiwan. It was crawling north at 1 knot (1.1 mph/1.8 kph).

For updated forecasts from Taiwan's Central Weather Bureau, visit: http://www.cwb.gov.tw/eng/. For updated forecasts and warnings from the Japan Meteorological Agency, visit: http://www.jma.go.jp/jma/indexe.html.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) predicts that the center of typhoon Goni will move north, passing east of Taiwan over the next two days (August 22 and 23). The current JTWC track takes Goni over Ishigaki Island on August 23. Ishigaki Island is the commercial hub of the Yaeyama Islands, in Japan’s southwestern Okinawa Prefecture.

JTWC then forecasts Goni will move north-northeast toward the Big Island of Japan.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 20, 2015 - NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite Sees Typhoon Goni Brush Northeastern Philippines

On August 20 at 1:21 a.m. EDT, the VIIRS instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite saw the southwestern edge of the storm skirting the northwestern Luzon region. Powerful, thick bands of thunderstorms spiraled around Goni's eye.

Credits: NASA/NOAA/NRL

Typhoon Goni appeared to be brushing Luzon, the northeastern Philippines in imagery from NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP Satellite on August 20.

On August 20 at 0521 UTC (1:21 a.m. EDT), NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Typhoon Goni. The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard Suomi satellite captured a visible image of Goni that showed the southwestern edge of the storm skirting the northwestern Luzon region. Powerful, thick bands of thunderstorms spiraled around Goni's eye. 

There are numerous warnings in effect in the Philippines on August 20. They include Public storm warning signal #3 in the Batanes Group of Islands, northern Cagayan including Calayan and Babuyan Group of Islands. Public storm warning signal #2 is effect in the rest of Cagayan are, northern Isabela, Kalinga, Apayao, Abra, Ilocos Norte. In addition, Public storm warning signal #1 is effect in for the rest of Isabela, northern Aurora, Quirino, Nueva Vizcaya, Ifugao, Mt Province, Benguet, La Union and Ilocos Sur.

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on August 20, Typhoon Goni had maximum sustained winds near 115 knots (132.3 mph/213 kph). It was centered near 18.9 North latitude and 124.6 East longitude, about 331 nautical miles (380.9 miles/613 km) northeast of Manila, Philippines. Goni was moving to the west at 7 knots (8 mph/12.9 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Goni to continue strengthening to 120 knots (138.1 mph/222.2 kph) before beginning to weaken on August 21 and curving sharply to the north, passing east of Taiwan. Thereafter, the JTWC expects Goni to curve to the northeast.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 19, 2015 - NASA's Aqua Satellite Analyzes Typhoon Goni

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Typhoon Goni on August 19 and the MODIS instrument captured this visible image of thick bands of thunderstorms surrounding the eye. Credit:

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

Some residents of the Philippines are under warnings as Typhoon Goni approaches from the east. NASA's Aqua satellite passed over the storm and captured visible and infrared data on the monster storm on August 19, 2015.

On August 19 the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite saw Typhoon Goni's cloud top temperatures as cold as 210 kelvin/-63.1F/-81.6C (purple) in powerful thunderstorms circling the center.

Credits: NASA JPL/Ed Olsen

There are several warnings in effect in the Philippines. Public storm warning signal #2 is in effect in the Batanes Group of Islands and Cagayan including the Calayan and Babuyan Group of Islands. In addition, Public Storm Warning Signal #1 is in effect for Isabela, Kalinga, Apayao, Abra and Ilocos Norte.

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS and MODIS instruments gathered data that revealed powerful thunderstorms surrounding a wide-open eye. on August 18 at 04:59 UTC (12:59 a.m. EDT) the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathered infrared data on Goni. In a false-colored image of the data created at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, cloud top temperatures revealed cloud top temperatures as cold as 210 kelvin/-63.1F/-81.6C surrounding the eye. Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate very high, powerful thunderstorms with the capability for generating heavy rainfall.

At the same time, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard Aqua captured a visible picture of the storm. The MODIS image showed a thick band of thunderstorms circling the open eye.

On August 19, 2015 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Typhoon Goni had maximum sustained winds near 125 knots (143.8 mph/231.5 kph), making it a Category 4 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. It was centered near 18.9 North latitude and 128.4 East longitude, about 457 nautical miles (525.9 miles/846.4 km) south of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Goni was moving to the west at 14 knots (16.1 mph/25.9 kph).

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect Goni weaken and pass to the north of Luzon, Philippines before turning sharply north to pass Taiwan to the east.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 18, 2015 - Suomi NPP Satellite Sees Typhoon Goni's Strongest Sides

NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite captured an infrared image of Goni on August 18 at 12:18 a.m. EDT that showed the strongest thunderstorms (red) with the coldest cloud top temperatures were in the eastern and southern quadrants.

Credits: NRL/NASA/NOAA

NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite passed over Typhoon Goni and gathered infrared data that helped identify the strongest part of the storm as the south and eastern quadrants.

The Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) instrument aboard NASA-NOAA's Suomi satellite captured an infrared image of Goni on August 18 at 4:18 UTC (12:18 a.m. EDT) that showed the strongest thunderstorms with the coldest cloud top temperatures (near -63F/-53C) were in the eastern and southern quadrants.  

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center noted that animated enhanced infrared satellite imagery showed a slight warming of convective tops, which means that they weren't reaching as high into the troposphere as a result of weakening uplift or push in the atmosphere. Otherwise, the system has maintained overall convective signature with tightly-curved banding wrapping into a 15-nautical mile diameter eye.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), on August 18, Typhoon Goni had maximum sustained winds near 100 knots (115.1 mph/185.2 kph).That makes Goni a Category Three typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. Goni is not expected to strengthen further. 

It was centered near 18.8 North latitude and 132.1 East longitude, about 546 nautical miles (628 miles/ 1,011 km) east-southeast of Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, Japan. Goni was moving to the west at 16 knots (18.4 mph/29.6 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Goni to approach and pass north of Luzon, Philippines by August 20 and 21 before approaching Taiwan from the southeast.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 17, 2015 - NASA's GPM Looks Inside Typhoon Goni

The GPM passed over Goni on August 17, 2015 at 0641 UTC when the storm was northwest of Guam. and saw strong storms around the eye were dropping heavy (red) rain at a rate of over 65 mm (2.6 inches) per hour.

Credits: NASA/SSAI/JAXA, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Typhoon Goni and gathered data about its rainfall rates and powerful thunderstorms.

Typhoon Goni appears to be somewhat following the path of last week's Typhoon Soudelor. Last week deadly typhoon Soudelor caused at least 22 deaths in Taiwan and China.

On August 14 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Tropical Depression 16W was renamed Tropical Storm Goni. on August 16 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), Goni strengthened into a typhoon.

The GPM core observatory satellite recently had two good views of intensifying Typhoon Goni that formed on August 14, 2015 in the same area of the Pacific Ocean as Typhoon Soudelor.

The GPM passed over Goni on August 17, 2015 at 0641 UTC when the storm was northwest of Guam. GPM revealed a well-defined eye. GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) discovered that strong storms surrounding Goni's eye were dropping rain at a rate of over 65 mm (2.6 inches) per hour.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), on August 17, Typhoon Goni had maximum sustained winds near 115 knots (132.3 mph/213 kph). It was centered near 17.4 North latitude and 139.3 East longitude, about 392 nautical miles (451 miles/726km) east-southeast of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Goni was moving to the west-northwest at 12 knots (13.8 mph/22.2 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center forecast calls for Goni to strengthen to 130 knots by August 20. It is expected to pass close to Luzon, Philippines and then turn to the northwest toward northern Taiwan.

Hal Pierce/Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 14, 2015 - NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Birth of Tropical Depression 16W

On Aug. 14 at 3:00 UTC the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image newborn Tropical Depression 16W in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA/NRL

Tropical Depression 16W came together in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead on August 14. 

On Aug. 14 at 3:00 UTC (11:00 p.m. EDT, Aug. 13) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of newborn Tropical Depression 16W. The showed the bulk of clouds and showers pushed west of the center of circulation.

At 1500 UTC, Tropical Depression 16W had maximum sustained winds near 30 knots (35 mph/55 kph). It was centered near 12.4 North latitude and 149.8 East longitude, about 297 nautical miles east-southeast of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. 16W was moving to the west at 5 knots (5.7 mph/9.2 kph) and is headed toward the Northern Marianas.

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects 16W to intensify and reach typhoon strength while passing through the Marianas. As a result, a typhoon watch is in effect for Tinian and Saipan in the Marianas and a tropical storm watch is in effect for Guam and Rota.

The current forecast track would possibly take 16w through the Central Northern Marianas Islands north of Saipan on Monday, August 17.

For updated forecasts from the National Weather Service Office in Guam, visit: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/pr/guam/

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Aug. 26, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, Suomi NPP (National Polar-orbiting Partnership), Terra Satellite,

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Hurricanes

Aug. 26, 2015

Atsani (was 17W - Northwest Pacific Ocean)

On Aug. 26 at 13:47 UTC, the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite saw cloud tops in the remnants of Atsani as cold as -63F/-53C over central Alaska, indicating strong thunderstorms.

Credits: NASA/JPL, Ed Olsen

NASA Sees Former Typhoon Atsani's Remnants Affecting Alaska

The remnants of former Typhoon Atsani were triggering watches and warnings for heavy rain and snow in portions of Alaska on August 26, 2015. Atsani's remnants resembles a frontal system in infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite.

Infrared data, such as that gathered by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite is used to determine cloud top temperatures. The colder the cloud tops, the higher they are in the atmosphere, and they are usually stronger. When Aqua passed over Alaska, the AIRS instrument gathered data on Atsani's remnant clouds. Cloud tops in the northern and eastern sides of the system were coldest near -63F/-53C, indicating strong storms with the potential for heavy rainfall. The infrared data was made into a false-colored image at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

Fairbanks, located in the central part of the state has a wind advisory in effect from 6 pm this evening to 10 pm AKDT Thursday, August 27.

North of Fairbanks a winter storm watch is in effect as the precipitation is expected to fall in the form of snow. That watch covers areas above 2,000 feet in the Northeastern Brooks Range that includes Anaktuvuk Pass, Atigun Pass, Galbraith Lake, Sagwon and Franklin Bluffs. The Watch goes through Thursday evening, August 27 and calls for 3 to 6 inches of snow heaviest in Atigun Pass.

According to the National Weather Service office in Fairbanks, Alaska, between one and two inches of rain has fallen across much of the Northwest Brooks Range since Monday. The additional precipitation from Atsani's remnants triggered a flood advisory today, August 26, for the Northwestern Brooks Range until 2:30 a.m. local ADKT time, Thursday, August 27.

The National Weather Service expects additional rainfall from one to two inches is expected through Wednesday afternoon. The heaviest rain will be on southwest facing slopes.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center 


Aug. 25, 2015 - NASA Sees Tropical Cyclone Atsani Bow Out

This false-colored image created from infrared temperature data gathered by the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite shows on August 25 at 02:47 UTC shows strongest storms in purple.

Credits: NASA JPL

Tropical Cyclone Atsani appeared to look more like a  frontal system in infrared imagery from NASA's Aqua satellite. Early on August 26, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued their final bulletin on the system as it was transitioning into an extra-tropical cyclone,  

The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder or AIRS instrument that also flies aboard Aqua captured infrared data on the storm on August 25 at 14:47 UTC (10:47 a.m. EDT). Cloud top temperatures in thunderstorms northeast of the center were colder than -63F/-52C, indicating high, strong thunderstorms with the potential for heavy rainfall. Areas around the rest of the system appeared almost cloud-free.

At 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on April 6, 2015, Tropical Cyclone Atsani's maximum sustained winds were near 60 knots (69 mph/111 kph). It was located 1,065 nautical miles (1,226 miles/1,972 km) south of Petropavlovsk, Russia, near 35.2 north latitude and 155.8 east longitude. Astani was moving to the east-northeast at 28 knots (32.2 mph/51.8 kph).

In the final bulletin on Atsani Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Atsani was transitioning into an extra-tropical low and is expected to make landfall south of eastern Russia on August 26. 

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 24, 2015 - NASA's Terra Satellite sees Tropical Storm Atsani Stretching Out

On Aug. 24 at 11:40 (7:40 a.m. EDT) the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured infrared image of Tropical Storm Atsani. Red indicates coldest cloud tops.

Credits: NRL/NASA

Tropical Storm Atsani appeared elongated when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead. Atsani weakened to a tropical storm on August 24, 2015.

On Aug. 24 at 11:40 (7:40 a.m. EDT) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured infrared data on Tropical Storm Atsani. Atsani appeared to be somewhat elongated from southwest to northeast. Infrared data also showed that the eastern quadrant appeared almost devoid of thunderstorm activity. However, the other quadrants of the storm maintained powerful thunderstorms with cold cloud top temperatures near -63F/-53C. The coldest cloud tops appeared south of the center of circulation.

Although the southern part of the tropical storm is under low to moderate vertical wind shear, the northern part of the storm is dealing with stronger wind shear and is interacting with the westerlies (winds).

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on August 24, Tropical Storm Atsani had maximum sustained winds near 65 knots (75 mph/120 kph). It was centered near 32.9 North latitude and 150.8 East longitude, about 570 nautical miles (655.9 miles/1,056 km) south-southwest of Yokosuka, Japan. Atsani was moving to the east-northeast at 14 knots (16.1 mph/25.3 kph).

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC)  noted that sea surface temperatures will drop below 26.6 Celsius (80 Fahrenheit) over the 12 to 24 hours from 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on August 24. When sea surface temperatures fall below that threshold, a tropical cyclone cannot sustain strength. JTWC expects that Atsani will then begin changing to an extra-tropical storm.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


 Aug. 21, 2015 - NASA Sees Wide-Eyed Typhoon Atsani Ready to Curve

NASA's Aqua satellite saw a clear eye in Typhoon Atsani on August 21 at 03:15 UTC.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite saw a clear and large eye in Typhoon Atsani when it passed overhead on August 21, as the storm begins to turn to the northeast and curve away from Japan.

On August 21 at 03:15 UTC (August 20 at 11:15 p.m. EDT), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument aboard Aqua captured a visible image of the storm. The MODIS image clearly showed the wide 46 nautical-mile-eye (53 mile/85 km) of the hurricane.

On August 21 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Atsani's maximum sustained winds were near 100 knots (115.1 mph/185.2 kph). It was centered near 25.9 North latitude and 145.3 East longitude, about 233 nautical miles (397 miles/638.9 km) east-northeast of Iwo To. Atsani is moving to the northwest at 9 knots (10.3 mph/16.6 kph), and is expected to begin turning to the northeast.

The storm is expected to start transitioning to an extra-tropical system as it curves northeast, and stays well south of Japan.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 20, 2015 - NASA's CloudSat Slices into Super Typhoon Atsani

This Aug. 19 image combines cloud imagery from Japan's MTSAT satellite and NASA's CloudSat satellite. Areas of pink and red designate larger amounts of liquid and ice. Light blue indicate smaller cloud droplets.

Credits: JAXA/NASA/Colorado State Univ., Natalie D. Tourville

NASA's CloudSat Satellite passed over Super Typhoon Atsani as it moved through the western North Pacific Ocean. CloudSat looked at the super typhoon from the side, revealing heavy rainfall in a sloping eyewall.

Typhoon Atsani strengthened into a super typhoon on August 19, 2015 at 0000 UTC. CloudSat flew over Atsani at 03:27 UTC, shortly after it became a super typhoon when maximum sustained winds were near 130 knots (150 mph). Atsani was equivalent to a category 4 strength hurricane.

CloudSat's cloud profiling radar (CPR), passed just to the west of Super Typhoon Atsani's large eye, and saw a portion of the eyewall (the powerful thunderstorms surrounding the open eye). CloudSat radar showed the sloping nature of the eyewall and the very heavy rainfall associated with this area (where the CloudSat radar signal dips and becomes very narrow).

On Aug. 19, NASA's CloudSat satellite showed the sloping nature of the eyewall and the very heavy rainfall associated with this area. Areas of pink and red designate larger amounts of liquid and ice. Light blue indicate smaller cloud droplets.

Credits: NASA/Colorado State Univ., Natalie D. Tourville

The CloudSat data also highlights the outward sloping areas outside the eyewall area and the deep convective (rising air that forms thunderstorms that make up the typhoon) cloud tops in the areas northwest and southeast of the eye.

"Areas underneath the cirrus canopy reveal areas of limited and/or light precipitation with most of the convection on the southern side of the storm," said Natalie Tourville, atmospheric scientist at the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University. "Cloud top heights average 16 kilometers (9.92 miles).The cirrus canopy extends much farther outward over the southern section of the storm."

This Aug. 19 image combines cloud imagery from Japan's MTSAT satellite and NASA's CloudSat satellite. Areas of pink and red designate larger amounts of liquid and ice. Light blue indicate smaller cloud droplets.

Credits: JAXA/NASA/Colorado State Univ., Natalie D. Tourville

On August 20 at 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), Super Typhoon Atsani had maximum sustained winds near 135 knots (155.4 mph/250 kph). Typhoon-force winds extended out 60 nautical miles (69 miles/111 km) from the center, while tropical-storm-force winds extended to 225 nautical miles (259 miles/416.7 km) from the center, making Atsani a very large and powerful storm.

Atsani was centered near 22.0 North latitude and 148.6 East longitude, about 436 nautical miles (501.7 miles/807.5 km) east-southeast of Iwo To island, Japan. It was moving to the northwest at 12 knots (13.8 mph/22.2 kph).  

Forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect Atsani to weaken after today, August 20. Atsani is expected to become an extra-tropical system as it curves northeast, remaining well south of Japan.

Natalie Tourville / Rob Gutro
Colorado State University/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 19, 2015 - Two Views of Super Typhoon Atsani from NASA's Aqua Satellite

NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Super Typhoon Atsani on August 19 and the MODIS instrument captured this visible image.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NASA's Aqua satellite passed over Super Typhoon Atsani and captured visible and infrared data on the monster storm. The AIRS and MODIS instruments gathered data that revealed powerful thunderstorms surrounding a wide-open eye.

On August 19 the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite saw Super Typhoon Atsani's cloud top temperatures as cold as 210 kelvin/-63.1F/-81.6C (purple) in powerful thunderstorms circling the center.

Credits: NASA JPL/Ed Olsen

On August 18 at 03:37 UTC (11:37 p.m. EDT, Aug. 17) the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathered infrared data on Atsani. In a false-colored image of the data created at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, cloud top temperatures revealed cloud top temperatures as cold as 210 kelvin/-63.1F/-81.6C surrounding the eye. Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate very high, powerful thunderstorms with the capability for generating heavy rainfall.

AIRS data also showed that the sea surface temperatures around the storm were warmer than 300 kelvin (80.3 Fahrenheit/26.8 Celsius), warm enough to support the typhoon.

At the same time, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument that flies aboard Aqua captured a visible picture of the storm. The MODIS image showed bands of thunderstorms wrapping into the center from the northwestern and southeastern quadrants.

On August 19, 2015 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) Super Typhoon Atsani had maximum sustained winds near 140 knots (161.1 mph/ 259.3 kph), making it a Category 5 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. It was centered near 19.6 North latitude and 151.3 East longitude, about 637 nautical miles (733 miles/1,180 km) east-southeast of Iwo To island, Japan. Atsani was moving to the northwest at 7 knots (8 mph/12.9 kph).

Typhoon-force winds were occurring up to 30 nautical miles (34.5 miles/55.5 km) from the center, and tropical storm-force winds were occurring up to 180 nautical miles (207 miles/333 km) from the center, making the storm about 360 nautical miles (414 miles/666.7 km) wide!

Atsani is moving northwest and forecasters at the Joint Typhoon Warning Center expect it will intensify to 145 knots by August 20. Atsani is then expected to becoming extra-tropical as it turns northeast, remaining well south of Japan.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 18, 2015 - NASA's GPM Sees Typhoon Atsani Intensifying

NASA-JAXA's GPM satellite saw rainfall south of the storm's center of circulation was falling at a rate of over 90 mm (3.5 inches) per hour and cloud tops to heights of 16.8 km (10.4 miles). Credit:

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Typhoon Atsani was an intensifying tropical storm moving over the open waters of the Pacific Ocean on August 16, 2015 when the GPM core observatory satellite flew overhead.

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM mission core satellite passed over Atsani at 06:01 UTC (2:01 a.m. EDT). GPM is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, an analysis of precipitation derived from GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) instruments was overlaid on a visible image from Japan's MTSAT-2 satellite image to provide a look at the entire storm. The analysis revealed that very heavy rain that was located south of the storm's center of circulation. Rain there was found to be falling at a rate of over 90 mm (3.5 inches) per hour. A simulated 3-D view of rainfall of that area constructed at Goddard using data from GPM's Ku Band radar data. That 3-D image showed that the tops of these storms were reaching heights of 16.8 km (10.4 miles).

NASA-JAXA's GPM satellite saw rainfall south of the storm's center of circulation was falling at a rate of over 90 mm (3.5 inches) per hour and cloud tops to heights of 16.8 km (10.4 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), on August 18, Typhoon Atsani had maximum sustained winds near 120 knots (138 mph/222 kph). That makes Atsani a Category Four typhoon on the Saffir-Simpson Scale. When Atsani strengthens to 130 knots (150 mph) it will be classified as a super-typhoon.

"Super-typhoon" is a term utilized by the U.S. Joint Typhoon Warning Center for typhoons that reach maximum sustained 1-minute surface winds of at least 65 meters per second (130 knots/150 mph). This is the equivalent of a strong Saffir-Simpson category 4 or category 5 hurricane in the Atlantic basin.

It was centered near 17.3 North latitude and 154.4 East longitude, about 606 nautical miles (697 miles/1,122 km) east-northeast of Andersen Air Force Base, Guam. Atsani was moving to the northwest at 8 knots (9.2 mph/14.8 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) forecasts that Atsani will continue to intensify to maximum sustained winds of 140 knots by August 20. on that date, Atsani would be located over the waters of the Pacific Ocean far to the southwest of Japan.

Harold F. Pierce
SSAI/NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 17, 2015 - NASA's Terra Satellite Sees Powerful Storms Ring Typhoon Atsani's Eye

On Aug. 17 at 7:20 a.m. EDT the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this infrared image strong storms (red and yellow) around Typhoon Atsani's center.

Credits: NRL/NASA

Typhoon Atsani's eye was "ringed" or surrounded by powerful thunderstorms on August 17 when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead.     

Typhoon Atsani formed on August 14 as Tropical Depression 17W. By 2100 UTC (5 p.m. EDT) that day, 17W strengthened into a tropical depression was named Atsani. on August 16 at 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT), Atsani strengthened into a typhoon.

On Aug. 17 at 7:20 a.m. EDT (11:20 UTC) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured an infrared image of strong thunderstorms around Typhoon Atsani's eye. The infrared imagery revealed very cold thunderstorm cloud tops with temperatures as cold as or colder than -63F/-53C. Cloud top temperatures that high indicate strong storms with the potential to drop heavy rainfall.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), on August 17, Typhoon Atsani had maximum sustained winds near 95 knots (109.3 mph/ 175.9 kph). It was centered near 15.0 North latitude and 158.0 East longitude, about 358 nautical miles (412 miles/663 km) north-northwest of Ujelang. Atsani was moving to the north-northwest at 6 knots (6.9 mph/11.1 kph).

The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expects Atsani to move to the northwest and intensify up to 130 knots by August 20 before weakening again.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 14, 2015 - NASA's Aqua Satellite Sees Birth of Tropical Depression 17W

On Aug. 14 at 3:00 UTC the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured this visible image newborn Tropical Depression 17W in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean.

Credits: NASA/NRL

Tropical Depression 17W came together in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead on August 14. 

On Aug. 14 at 3:00 UTC (11:00 p.m. EDT, Aug. 13) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible image of newborn Tropical Depression 17W. The showed thunderstorms around the center of circulation and in bands both west and east of the center.

At 7 p.m. local time (Guam) 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) the center of tropical depression 17W was located near latitude 15.2 north and longitude 163.0 east. That puts the center of 17W about 265 miles north of Enewetak and about 370 miles southwest of Wake Island.

It was drifting north at 6 mph. This general motion is expected through Saturday, August 15 before turning northwest Sunday, August 16. NOAA's National Weather Service (NWS) in Tiyan, Guam noted that maximum sustained winds are 30 mph and Tropical depression 17W is forecast to gradually intensify over the next few days and might become a tropical storm on August 15.

The NWS in Guam forecast track takes 17W on northwesterly direction through open waters over the next several days. To see the forecast track, go to: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/images/guam/frTrack2.jpg

For updated forecasts from the National Weather Service Office in Guam, visit: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/pr/guam/

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Aug. 27, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, CloudSat, GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, Terra Satellite,

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Hurricanes

Aug. 25, 2015

Danny (was TD4 - Atlantic Ocean)

Update #2 - Danny the "Degenerate" Followed by Two Lows

Satellite data from NOAA's GOES-East satellite at 10:45 a.m. EDT on August 24, showed Danny had become stretched out into a trough of low pressure. Two other low pressure areas are developing behind it.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

Danny has become a degenerate, that is, the tropical depression weakened. Satellite and Hurricane Hunter aircraft data showed that Danny degenerated into an elongated area of low pressure near the Windward Islands during the afternoon (local time) on August 24. Meanwhile two other developing low pressure areas lie to the east of Danny.

Satellite data from NOAA's GOES-East satellite at 14:45 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT) on August 24, showed Danny had become stretched out into a trough of low pressure.  At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the remnants of Danny were located near latitude 16.0 North and longitude 62.0 West. The remnants are moving toward the west near 12 mph (19 kph), and this general motion is expected to continue for the next day or two. Maximum sustained winds have decreased near 30 mph (45 kph).

The National Hurricane Center said that the remnants of Danny are expected to produce 2 to 4inches of rain over the Leeward Islands, the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico, and the Dominican Republic through Tuesday night, August 25.

The trough is expected to dissipate during the next couple of days.

Shower and thunderstorm activity associated with low pressure system closest to Danny's remnants were located about 950 miles east of the Lesser Antilles. That low pressure area appears ripe for development and the National Hurricane Center (NHC)  noted that the system is likely to become a tropical depression or a tropical storm during the next day or so while it moves westward near 20 mph.

The second low pressure area is associated with a tropical wave far in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. That low is located near the Cape Verde Islands is accompanied by disorganized showers and thunderstorms. However, the NHC noted that environmental conditions are not expected to be conducive for significant development of this system while it moves westward at 15 to 20 mph over the next few days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 24, 2015 - Update #1 - NASA Sees Tropical Depression Danny Affecting Leeward Islands

NASA's Terra satellite flew over Danny on August 23 at 14:45 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT) as it neared the Leeward Islands.

Credits: NASA Goddard MODIS Rapid Response Team

NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Depression Danny on August 24, 2015 at 11:45 UTC (7:45 a.m. EDT) when it was just 20 miles south of Guadeloupe, Leeward Islands.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project.

Tropical Depression Danny was already affecting the Leeward Islands when NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead.

The National Hurricane Center noted on August 24, that Danny is expected to produce 2 to 4 inches of rain over the Leeward Islands, the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico through Tuesday, August 25.

NASA's Terra satellite flew over Danny on August 23 at 14:45 UTC (10:45 a.m. EDT) as it neared the Leeward Islands. The MODIS instrument aboard captured a visible image of the storm when it was still a tropical storm and it still appeared circular. However, the circulation became less apparent in satellite imagery on August 24.

On August 24, NHC reported a strong burst of deep convection (rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up a tropical cyclone) with cloud top temperatures of -80 degrees Celsius (-112 Fahrenheit) and intense lightning activity that has developed near the alleged center. Infrared instruments, such as the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite provide temperature measurements. Cloud top temperatures that high indicate very high, strong thunderstorms with the capability to generate heavy rainfall.

NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Depression Danny on August 24, 2015 at 11:45 UTC (7:45 a.m. EDT) when it was just 20 miles south of Guadeloupe. The center of Danny's circulation was difficult to pinpoint in the visible GOES image and the storm appeared less circular than it did on the previous day's MODIS image.

At 8 a.m. EDT (1200 UTC) on August 24, Danny had weakened to a depression. The center of Tropical Storm Danny was located near latitude 15.9 North, longitude 61.5 West.  That's about 20 miles (30 km) south of Guadeloupe. Danny was moving toward the west near 12 mph (19 kph). Maximum sustained winds had decreased to near 35 mph (55 kph) and NHC forecasts further weakening during the next two days. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1009 millibars.

According to NHC, Danny is now encountering west-northwesterly mid-level wind shear. The subtropical ridge (an elongated area of high pressure moving counter clockwise) located to the north of Danny is expected to remain strong for the next few days, which should force Danny on a westward to west-northwestward track until the system dissipates in about 72 hours.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 21, 2015 - NASA Sees Diminutive Hurricane Danny from Space

NASA Astronaut Scott Kelly took this picture of Hurricane Danny on August 20 at 6 a.m. EDT from aboard the International Space Station.

Credits: NASA

Astronauts aboard the International Space Station captured an image of Hurricane Danny moving through the Central Atlantic Ocean. Satellite data indicates that Danny is a small Category 2 hurricane, in which hurricane-force winds only extend 15 miles from the eye.

A NASA GOES Project animation of visible and infrared imagery of Hurricane Danny was created at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland to show the development and movement of the storm. The animation shows the eastern and central Atlantic Ocean from Aug. 18 to 21, 2015.

Forecaster Cangialosi of the National Hurricane Center noted that the eye of the compact hurricane has become more distinct recently and the cloud tops have cooled in the eyewall. Infrared data, such as that gathered by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument that flies aboard NASA's Aqua satellite is used to determine cloud top temperature. The colder the cloud tops, the higher they are in the atmosphere, and they are usually stronger. 

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC) on August 21, the eye of Hurricane Danny was located near latitude 14.0 North, longitude 48.2 West. That puts the center of Danny about 930 miles (1,195 km) east of the Leeward Islands. Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 105 mph (165 kph), making Danny a Category 2 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale. The estimated minimum central pressure is 976 millibars. 

This animation of visible and infrared imagery of Hurricane Danny in the Central Atlantic Ocean was taken from NOAA's GOES-East satellite from Aug. 18 to 21. TRT :36

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

Satellite data shows that hurricane force winds extend outward up to 15 miles (30 km) from the center and tropical storm force winds extend outward up to 70 miles (110 km).

Danny is moving toward the west-northwest near 10 mph (17 kph), and this general motion is expected to continue during the next day or so.

On August 22, Danny is expected to move into an area of increased southwesterly shear and drier air.  These factors should induce a weakening trend. The National Hurricane Center (NHC) expects Danny to weaken below hurricane strength as it approaches the Caribbean islands.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 20, 2015, Second Update - NASA Sees Danny Become the 2015 Atlantic Season's First Hurricane

NASA's Terra satellite passed over the Atlantic Ocean as Tropical Storm Danny intensified into the season's first hurricane.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, or MODIS, instrument that flies aboard NASA's Terra satellite flew over Danny at 10:15 a.m. EDT (14:15 UTC) on Aug. 20, just as it was classified as the 2015 Atlantic Ocean Season's first hurricane. The MODIS image showed that Danny is a small tropical cyclone.

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite flew over Danny at 10:15 a.m. EDT (14:15 UTC) on Aug 20, 2015, just as it was classified as the 2015 Atlantic Ocean Season's first hurricane.

Credits: NASA Goddard's MODIS Rapid Response Team

Hurricane-force winds only extend outward up to 10 miles (20 km) from the center and tropical-storm-force winds extend outward up to 60 miles (95 km).

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), the center of the eye of Hurricane Danny was located by satellite near latitude 12.5 North and longitude 44.8 West. That puts the center of Danny about 1,090 miles (1,755 km) east of the Windward Islands. The National Hurricane Center noted that Danny is moving toward the west-northwest near 12 mph (19 kph) and this general motion is expected to continue for the next couple of days. Danny's maximum sustained winds had increased to near 75 mph (120 kph) with higher gusts.

The NHC forecast noted that some additional strengthening is forecast during the next two days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.


Aug. 20, 2015, First Update - NASA's GPM Satellite Analyzes Tropical Storm Danny's Rain Structure

On Aug. 19, GPM saw Danny's rain structure was still asymmetric as noted by the large rain band (identified by the green arc indicating moderate rain) being located mainly on the eastern side of the storm. Within this rain band, GPM detected rain rates of up to 73.9 mm/hour (shown in darker red).

Credits: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce

Tropical Storm Danny became the fourth named storm of the season on August 18 when it formed in the central Atlantic about 1,660 miles east of the Windward Islands. The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission core satellite passed over Danny the next day and analyzed the structure of its rainfall.

Danny originated from an African easterly wave that moved off of the coast of Africa 4 days earlier on the 14th of August.  Storms that form in this region are known as Cape Verde storms and typically form towards the height of hurricane season.

In a typical season, there are about 10 named storms and 6 hurricanes.  With this year being a potentially strong El Nino year, Atlantic hurricanes are usually suppressed.  However, it only takes one.  Hurricane Andrew, which devastated south Florida back in 1992, formed during an El Nino.  Also, not all El Nino's are alike.

The GPM core satellite is a joint effort. It is managed by both NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

On Aug. 19, GPM saw Danny's rain structure was still asymmetric as noted by the large rain band (identified by the green arc indicating moderate rain) being located mainly on the eastern side of the storm. Within this rain band, GPM detected rain rates of up to 73.9 mm/hour (shown in darker red).

Credits: SSAI/NASA, Hal Pierce

GPM captured an image of Danny at 07:26 UTC (3:26 am EST) on August 19 and showed rain rates from the GMI overlaid on GOES-East satellite infrared data that showed the extend of Danny's clouds.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland, a 3-D rendering of Danny was made using data from the GPM DPR (Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar). GPM showed that Danny was still in the process of becoming organized.  The rain structure was still very asymmetric as noted by a large rain band being located mainly on the eastern side of the storm.  Within this rain band, GPM detected rain rates of up to 73.9 mm/hour.  At the time of this image, Danny was still a minimal tropical storm with sustained winds estimated at 50 mph by the National Hurricane Center (NHC). 

At 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC) on August 20, the center of Tropical Storm Danny was located near latitude 12.2 North, longitude 43.7 West. That's about 1,200 miles (1,930 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Danny was moving toward the west near 10 mph (17 kph).  A turn to the west-northwest with no change in forward speed is expected during the next 48 hours.

Maximum sustained winds remain near 50 mph (85 km/h) with higher gusts. Some strengthening is still possible, and the NHC said that Danny could become a hurricane on Friday. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1000 millibars.

Danny is over warm water, and the wind shear is light.  Danny is still forecast to become the first hurricane of the Atlantic season within the next day or so and remain a hurricane as it approaches the Windward Islands.

Stephen Lang
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 19, 2015 - NASA's Aqua Satellite Takes Tropical Storm Danny's Temperature

NOAA's GOES-East satellite captured this visible image of Tropical Storm Danny on August 19, 2015 at 11:45 UTC (7:45 a.m. EDT)

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

Tropical Depression 4 strengthened into Tropical Storm Danny late on August 19, as NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead and took its "temperature." That is, infrared data from the AIRS instrument aboard measured cloud top temperatures and sea surface temperatures around the new tropical storm.

On August 18 at 15:47 UTC (1:47 p.m. EDT) the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite gathered infrared data on Danny as it was strengthening into a tropical storm. In a false-colored image of the data created at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California,  cloud top temperatures were near -63F/-52C from northeast to east and south of the center. Cloud top temperatures that cold indicate very high, powerful thunderstorms with the capability for generating heavy rainfall.

On August 18 at 1:47 p.m. EDT the AIRS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite showed strongest storms within Danny in purple (coldest cloud top temperatures).

Credits: NASA JPL, Ed Olsen

AIRS data also showed that the sea surface temperatures around the storm were warmer than 300 kelvin (80.3 Fahrenheit/26.8 Celsius), warm enough to maintain and strengthen the tropical cyclone.

On Wednesday, August 19, Forecaster Avila of the National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted that the convection (rising air that forms the thunderstorms that make up the tropical storm) near the center has been intermittent, while a band of thunderstorm has been developing on the eastern semicircle. He said that "the center is difficult to locate on infrared images, and there are some indications that Danny could be moving a little faster."

At 500 AM AST (0900 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Danny was located near latitude 11.3 North, longitude 40.2 West. About 1,445 miles (2,325 km) east of the Lesser Antilles. Danny was moving toward the west near 14 mph (22 kph), and a track to the west-northwest is expected during the next two days. Maximum sustained winds remain near 50 mph (85 km/h) with higher gusts. Some strengthening is forecast during the next two days. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1000 milllibars.

Danny could become a hurricane on Thursday, August 20. The current forecast by the NHC indicates that Danny will likely reach maximum sustained winds near 105 mph on August 23 before weakening.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 18, 2015 - NASA's Terra Satellite sees Birth of Atlantic Tropical Depression Four

On Aug. 18 at 8:45 a.m. EDT the MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this visible image of newborn Tropical Depression 4 in the central Atlantic Ocean.

Credits: NRL/NASA

The fourth tropical depression of the Atlantic Ocean hurricane season formed today, August 18, 2015 as NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead.

On Aug. 18 at 8:45 a.m. EDT the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured a visible image of newborn Tropical Depression 4 in the central Atlantic Ocean. The image showed thunderstorms banding around the center of circulation in all quadrants except the northwest.

The National Hurricane Center (NHC) also uses measurements from the Advanced Scatterometer or ASCAT instrument that flies aboard the EUMETSAT METOP satellite. NHC Forecaster Stewart noted that an "ASCAT-B overpass indicated the system has a well-defined circulation, and there was also a large field of 30-knots and greater wind vectors in the eastern semicircle."

At 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), Tropical Depression Four (TD4) had maximum sustained winds are near 35 mph (55 kph).  The center of TD4 was located near latitude 10.6 North, longitude 36.5 West. That puts the center of the depression about 1,665 miles (2,675 km) east of the Windward Islands. The depression was moving toward the west near 13 mph (20 kph) and it is expected to turn toward the west-northwest by Wednesday, August 19. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1009 millibars.

The NHC noted that gradual strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours, and the depression is expected to become a tropical storm later today, August 18. The storm is expected to reach hurricane strength on August 21.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Aug. 25, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  Aqua Satellite, Earth, Goddard Space Flight Center, GOES (Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellites), GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, International Space Station, Terra Satellite,

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Hurricanes

Aug. 14, 2015

Hilda (Eastern Pacific)

Satellite Movie Shows Hawaii Hurricane Hilda's Last Hoorah

This animation of imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from August 9 through 14, 2015 shows Hilda transition from a hurricane to a remnant low pressure area.

Credits: NASA/NOAA's GOES Project

The once hurricane Hilda weakened to a remnant low pressure area early on Friday, August 14, 2015. Images generated from NOAA's GOES-West satellite were made into an animation that showed the "last Hoorah" of Hilda as it weakened into a low pressure area on August 14, south of the Big Island of Hawaii.

NOAA's GOES-West satellite sits in a fixed position over the eastern Pacific Ocean and monitors weather in the western U.S. and the central and eastern Pacific Ocean. Visible and infrared imagery from August 9 through August 14 were compiled and made into an animation at NASA/NOAA's GOES Project at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. The animation showed Hilda in her prime as a hurricane, then moving to the northwest toward Hawaii where the storm encountered wind shear that weakened the storm to a tropical storm, then a depression and finally a remnant low pressure area.

The effects of wind shear on the storm can be seen in the animation, as clouds were pushed east of the center.

At 8 a.m. EDT (2 a.m. HST) on Friday, August 14, 2015, the remnant low associated with former tropical cyclone Hilda, centered about 330 miles south-southwest of Hilo, Hawaii, continues to generate disorganized showers and thunderstorms.

NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center noted that re-development of this system is not anticipated due to strong upper-level winds as it tracks west-southwest around 13 mph over the next couple of days.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 13, 2015 - NASA's RapidScat Sees Diminishing Winds in Tropical Storm Hilda

On August 12 at 7 a.m. EDT RapidScat observed tropical-storm-force winds (yellow/orange) on Hilda's northwestern side.

Credits: NASA JPL, Doug Tyler

As Tropical Storm Hilda creeps closer to the Big Island of Hawaii, NASA's RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station observed its diminishing winds.

RapidScat gathers data on surface winds occurring over the ocean. on Wednesday, August 12 at 1100 UTC (7 a.m. EDT), RapidScat observed tropical-storm-force winds on Hilda's northwestern side. Those winds were as strong as 20 meters per second (45 mph/72 kph) while weaker sustained winds were occurring around the rest of the storm.

By 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT) on August 13, maximum sustained winds were holding near 45 mph (75 kph), but NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) forecast calls for Hilda to gradually weaken through late Friday, August 14.

Hilda's center was located near latitude 17.2 north...longitude 152.5 west. That puts the center of Hilda about 240 miles (390 km) southeast of Hilo, Hawaii and about 450 miles (725 km) southeast of Honolulu, Hawaii. Hilda was moving toward the west near 5 mph (7 kph) and is expected to move to the west-southwest later in the day through August 14. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1003 millibars.

The center of Hilda is now expected to stay south of the Big Island and move to the west-southwest. However, RapidScat showed that the strongest winds were occurring north of the center.

NOAA's CPHC said that east and southeast facing shores of portions of the Hawaiian Islands will experience swells and large surf. Hilda may produce heavy rainfall along and north of its path. These rains could result in life threatening flash floods and mud slides across portions of the Hawaiian Islands tonight (August 13) into Saturday, August 15.

For updated forecasts, watches and warnings, visit CPHC's website:  http://www.prh.noaa.gov/

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 12, 2015 - NASA Sees Heavy Rain in Hurricane Hilda, South Of Hawaii

GPM revealed that storms north of hurricane Hilda's eye were dropping rain at a rate of over 149.4 mm (5.9 inches) per hour and reached over 16.5 km (10.2 miles).

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Hurricane Hilda has been on a weakening trend and by August 12 it weakened to a Tropical Storm. When it was still a hurricane though, NASA satellite data showed that the northern side of the storm contained towering thunderstorms that were dropping heavy rainfall.

Hilda  had winds of about 80 knots (92 mph) when the GPM core observatory satellite passed above on August 11, 2015 at 0411 UTC (August 10, 2015 at 6:11 p.m. HST). Rainfall data from GPM's Microwave Imager (GMI) and Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) instruments were combined with an infrared image of clouds from NOAA's GOES West satellite taken at 0400 UTC on August 11. The combined image showed the cloud extent and rainfall within the storm. GPM's DPR revealed that storms north of hurricane Hilda's eye were dropping rain at a rate of over 149.4 mm (5.9 inches) per hour.

At NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland that data from GPM’s radar data (DPR Ku band) were used to make a 3-D image that showed the heights of the thunderstorm tops within Hilda. The highest cloud tops were found near altitudes of over 16.5 km (10.2 miles) in powerful storms in the northwestern side of Hilda’s eye wall.

As Hilda neared the big Island of Hawaii, NOAA's Central Pacific Hurricane Center posted a tropical storm watch for Hawaii County.

At 11 a.m. EDT/5 a.m. HST/1500 UTC on Wednesday, August 12, Hilda's maximum sustained winds had dropped to 45 mph (75 kph) and further weakening was forecast. The center of Tropical Storm Hilda was located near latitude 17.5 north and longitude 152.0 west. Hilda was moving toward the northwest near 5 mph (7 kph) and is expected to turn west through August 13.  

Hilda is forecast to be a tropical depression tonight (August 12) or Thursday (August 13) and a remnant low by Thursday night.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Aug. 11, 2015 - NASA's RapidScat Sees Hurricane Hilda's Strongest Winds on Northern Side

RapidScat gathered wind speed and direction data on Hurricane Hilda on Aug. 10 at 1100 UTC (7 a.m. EDT). RapidScat measured strongest sustained winds north of the center at around 33 meters per second/73 mph/118.9 kph).

Credits: NASA JPL, Doug Tyler

The RapidScat instrument that flies aboard the International Space Station identified Hurricane Hilda's strongest winds on the northern side of the storm.

RapidScat measures surface winds over ocean areas, and identifying the location of the strongest winds is helpful to forecasters, mariners and populated areas near the storm. 

RapidScat gathered wind speed and direction data on Hurricane Hilda on Aug. 10 at 1100 UTC (7 a.m. EDT). RapidScat measured strongest sustained winds north of the center at around 33 meters per second/73 mph/118.9 kph).

On August 11 at 0900 UTC (5 a.m. EDT/11 p.m. HST on Aug. 10), Hurricane Hilda's maximum sustained winds were near 90 mph (150 kph), but the Central Pacific Hurricane Center forecast calls for steady weakening over the next two days. Hilda forecast to weaken to a tropical storm by tonight, August 11. .

The center of Hurricane Hilda was located near latitude 17.1 north and .longitude 150.9 west. That's about 330 miles (530 km) east-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii and about 540 miles (870 km) east-southeast of Honolulu Hawaii. Hilda was moving toward the northwest near 5 mph (7 kph) and is expected to turn to the west-northwest late on August 12. The estimated minimum central pressure is 981 millibars.

Hilda's effects are expected to include large ocean swells, and large and potentially life threatening surf along east and southeast facing shores of portions of the Hawaiian Islands over the next couple of days.

Hilda is expected to produce very heavy rain over portions of the Hawaiian Islands from Wednesday, August 12 into the weekend (August 15 and 16). These rains could cause life threatening flash floods and mudslides. For updated forecasts, visit CPHC: http://www.prh.noaa.gov/hnl/cphc/

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 10, 2015 - NASA Stares Hurricane Hilda in the Eye

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of Hurricane Hilda on Aug. 8, 2015, when it was east of Hawaii.

Credits: NASA Goddard Space Flight Center

NASA's Terra satellite passed over Hurricane Hilda and captured an image that clearly showed the storm's eye. Although there are currently no watches or warnings in effect, Hilda is expected to cause rough surf as it moves toward the Hawaiian Islands over the next several days.

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Terra satellite captured an image of Hurricane Hilda on August 8 at 20:25 UTC (4:26 p.m. EDT). The MODIS image showed that Hilda had a cloud-free eye with a strong thunderstorms circling the center. The image was created by the MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland.

Hurricane force winds extended outward up to 25 miles (35 km) from the center and tropical storm force winds extended outward up to 70 miles (110 km).

On Monday, August 10, 2015 at 5 a.m. EDT (0900 UTC/11 p.m. EDT HST, August 9), Hilda's maximum sustained winds were near 100 mph (155 kph). The center of Hurricane Hilda was located near latitude 15.7 north and longitude 149.1 west. That puts the center of Hilda about 480 miles (775 km) southeast of Hilo, Hawaii. Hilda was moving toward the west-northwest near 9 mph (15 kph) and is expected to turn to the northwest over the next couple of day. The estimated minimum central pressure is 974 millibars.

Hurricane Hilda is creating large surf along east and southeast facing shores of the main Hawaiian Islands over the next couple of days.

Forecasters at the Central Pacific Hurricane Center (CPHC) expect steady weakening over the next 48 hours. Hilda is forecast to weaken to a tropical storm on Tuesday, August 11 and by Thursday, August 13 Hilda is expected to move over the Big Island as a depression on its trek to the west-northwest.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center


Aug. 07, 2015 - Satellite View of a Stronger Tropical Storm Hilda

NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an infrared image of a rounded Tropical Storm Hilda on Aug. 7, 2015, at 8 a.m. EDT. Hawaii is seen in the top left corner.

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

Tropical Storm Hilda is moving from the Eastern Pacific into the Central Pacific Ocean and strengthening as she moves west. A satellite image showed the rounded storm over 1,300 miles east-southeast of Hawaii.

NOAA's GOES-West satellite captured an infrared image of a rounded Tropical Storm Hilda on August 7 at 8 a.m. EDT. The GOES satellite image shows a rounded storm with the highest thunderstorms in the eastern side of the storm.

National Hurricane Center forecaster Beven noted "The system continues to have a sheared appearance, which is somewhat surprising since the available data show less than 10 knots of vertical wind shear."

At 800 AM PDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Hilda was located near latitude 12.8 North, longitude 136.7 West. That puts the center of Hilda about 1,310 miles (2,105 km) east-southeast of Hilo, Hawaii, and about 1,890 miles (3,040 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico.

Hilda is moving toward the west near 13 mph (20 kph). Maximum sustained winds are near 60 mph (95 km/h) with higher gusts. Strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours, and Hilda could become a hurricane later tonight, August 7 or on Saturday, August 8.The estimated minimum central pressure is 999 millibars.

Hilda is forecast to turn to the west-northwest and follow a similar track to Guillermo. The storm is expected to reach hurricane force on August 8 before weakening back to a tropical storm on August 11.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.


Aug. 6, 2015 - Satellite Sees Formation of Eastern Pacific's Tropical Storm Hilda

This is a GOES-West infrared image of newborn Tropical Storm Hilda on August 6 at 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT).

Credits: NASA/NOAA GOES Project

The GOES-West satellite captured images of Tropical Storm Hilda as it developed early on August 6.

A low pressure area organized into a depression early on August 6 and by 11 a.m. EDT (1500 UTC), it strengthened into a tropical storm and was named Hilda. In the GOES-West infrared image from1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT), thunderstorms tightly surround the center of circulation.

The National Hurricane Center's Forecaster Kimberlain noted "The cyclone's cloud pattern has significantly increased in organization since late yesterday. There is now a small central mass of deep convection, with a band on the northern side of the circulation."

At 800 AM PDT (1500 UTC), the center of Tropical Storm Hilda was located near latitude 12.7 North, longitude 132.3 West. That puts the center of Hilda about 1,630 miles or 2,620 km west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, Mexico, far from land. Hilda is moving toward the west near 13 mph (20 kph). This motion is expected to continue through tonight followed by a turn toward the west-northwest on Friday. The estimated minimum central pressure is 1004 millibars.

Maximum sustained winds have increased to near 40 mph (65 kph) and strengthening is forecast during the next 48 hours, Hilda is expected to be near hurricane strength by Saturday, August 8.

Rob Gutro
NASA's
Goddard Space Flight Center

Last Updated: Aug. 14, 2015

Editor: Lynn Jenner

Tags:  GOES (Geostationary Environmental Operational Satellites), GPM (Global Precipitation Measurement), Hazards, Hurricanes, RapidScat, Terra Satellite,

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Hurricanes

Aug. 11, 2015

Soudelor (Northwestern Pacific Ocean)

NASA Analyzes Typhoon Soudelor's Rainfall

This image shows GPM estimated rainfall generated by Typhoon Soudelor between August 3-9, 2015. The rugged terrain amplified rainfall totals with over 1,320 mm (52 inches) being reported in Taiwan.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Typhoon Soudelor dropped over two feet of rainfall when it made landfall in China in early August, and soaked Taiwan. NASA estimated that rainfall using data from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

Soudelor formed in the middle of the Pacific Ocean well east of Guam on July 20, 2015. Soudelor became more powerful with peak intensity of about 155 knots (178 mph) reached on August 3, 2015 when the super typhoon was well east of Taiwan over the open waters of the Pacific Ocean.

This close-up animation to Taiwan and China shows GPM estimated rainfall generated by Typhoon Soudelor between August 3-9, 2015 The rugged terrain amplified rainfall totals with over 1,320 mm (52 inches) being reported in Taiwan.

Credits: SSAI/NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

Soudelor's winds died down a little but rebounded to with over 100 knots (115 mph) before hitting Taiwan . Although Soudelor was still a powerful typhoon when it hit land most deaths and destruction were caused by flooding and mudslides from heavy rainfall not from strong winds. The rugged terrain over typhoon amplified rainfall totals with over 1320 mm (52 inches) being reported in Taiwan.

This rainfall analysis was generated using NASA's Integrated Multi-satellite Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) data. It shows estimated total rainfall for the Taiwan and China area.

This analysis covers the period from August 2-9, 2015 with rainfall from typhoon Soudelor starting to show up within the area of this analysis after August 3, 2015.
 

Harold F. Pierce
SSAI/NASA
Goddard Space Flight Center


August 10, 2015 - Flickr Gallery of Soudelor

Typhoon Soudelor's Last Days By NASA Satellite NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites and NASA-NOAA's Suomi NPP satellite provided different views of Typhoon Soudelor from August 6 through August 10 as it made landfall in Taiwan and again in Eastern China. Credit: NASA/Goddard 


Aug. 07, 2015 - NASA Sees a Wider-Eyed Typhoon Soudelor Near Taiwan

The MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite flew over Typhoon Soudelor on Aug. 7, 2015, at 4:40 UTC (12:40 a.m. EDT) as it was approaching Taiwan.

Credits: NASA Goddard's MODIS Rapid Response Team

Additional image sizes

Clouds in Typhoon Soudelor's western quadrant were already spreading over Taiwan early on August 7 when NASA's Aqua satellite passed overhead. Soudelor is expected to make landfall and cross central Taiwan today and make a second landfall in eastern China. NASA satellite imagery revealed that Soudelor's eye "opened" five more miles since August 4.

On Aug. 7 at 4:40 UTC (12:40 a.m. EDT) the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer or MODIS instrument aboard NASA's Aqua satellite captured a visible-light image of Typhoon Soudelor as its western quadrant began brushing eastern Taiwan. The MODIS image showed Soudelor's 17-nautical-mile-wide eye and thick bands of powerful thunderstorms surrounded the storm and spiraled into the center. 

Just three days before, the eye was 5 nautical miles smaller when the storm was more intense. on Aug. 4 at 4:10 UTC (12:10 a.m. EDT) Aqua's MODIS image showed the eye was 12-nautical-mile-wide eye.

At 1500 UTC (11 a.m. EDT) on August 7, 2015, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) noted that Typhoon Soudelor's maximum sustained winds increased from 90 knots (103.6 mph/166.7 kph) to 105 knots (120.8 mph / 194.5 kph). It was centered near 23.1 North latitude and 123.2 East longitude, about 183 nautical miles (210.6 miles/338.9 km) southeast of Taipei, Taiwan. It was moving to the west-northwest at 10 knots (11.5 mph/18.5 kph). 

For warnings and watches for Taiwan, visit the Central Weather Bureau website: www.cwb.gov.tw/eng/. For warnings in China, visit the China Meteorological Administration website: www.cma.gov.cn/en.

Soudelor's final landfall is expected in eastern China on Saturday, August 8.

Rob Gutro
NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.


Aug. 6, 2015 - A GPM Satellite 'Bullseye' in Typhoon Soudelor

On August 6 at 0006 UTC, GPM saw Typhoon Soudelor's heaviest rain a rate of close to 70 mm (2.4 inches) per hour in a strong thunderstorm band southwest of the center.

Credits: NASA/JAXA, Hal Pierce

The Global Precipitation Measurement or GPM core satellite passed directly over Typhoon Sou